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Kudummul

(167 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a small volcanic island in the Red Sea in 17° 52’ N lat., called Kotumble on the English Admiralty charts and Qotanbul in Admiralty handbook, Western Arabia and the Red Sea, London 1946, 133. The island has a rich flora, which has been studied by the botanist Ehrenberg, and is noteworthy for its iron deposits, which are mentioned as early as the geographer Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (d. 630/1233). Kudummul, which lies near Ḥamiḍa on the Arabian coast off ʿAsīr [ q.v.], once marked the boundary between the land of the Kināna and Yemen. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿArab,…

Ibb

(310 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, formerly the capital of the ḳaḍāʾ of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizz in the Yemen; now, since 1946, a separate liwāʾ , comprising the ḳadāʾ s Ibb, ʿUdeyn, D̲h̲ī Sufāl, Ḳuʿtaba and Yerīm. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen, we find also Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town, with a population estimated at 4,000, belonged to the territory of D̲h̲ū D̲j̲ibla. It is situated on the ‘upper road’ leading from ʿAdan to Ṣanʿāʾ. According to the proposals of the A. Beneyton mission of 1911 fo…

Muḳrā

(170 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, name of a district and a village south of Ṣanʿāʾ in the Yemen, known to the Arab geographers for its mine of carnelian. It is also the name of a mountain chain in al-Sarāt [see d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab , ʿasīr , al-ḥid̲j̲āz ]. According to Sprenger, there is no reason to identify the Himyaritic tribe of this name with the Μοκρι̃ται of Ptolemy, since the latter must be localised in the neighbourhood of Nad̲j̲rān. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography Ḥamdānī, Ṣifa, ed. D.H. Müller, 68, 104 ff. Muḳaddasī, 91 Ibn al-Faḳīh, 36 Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 141 Yaʿḳūbī, Buldān, 319, tr. Wiet, 158 Yāḳūt, iii, 130, iv, …

Kawkabān

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the name of several places in south Arabia. 1. The name of a sanctuary mentioned in the inscription Halévy No. 686, 3—4, copied from a building in ʿAden by J. Halévy ( miḥrābān Kaw-kabān ). ¶ Cf. also F. Hommel, Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orients , ii, Leipzig 1925, 707. 2. The name of a castle near Ẓafār north of Nāʿaṭ. It was called Kawkabān, “the two stars,” i.e. star-castle, because it was adorned with silver stripes outside, the roof was covered with white slabs of stone, the interior panelled with cypress wood and pav…

al-K̲h̲aṭṭ

(359 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a strip of coast on the Persian Gulf. The Arab geographers are not agreed as to its exact extent. While Yāḳūt limits the name to the coast of al-Baḥrayn and ʿUmān, which is also apparent from the mention of al-Ḳaṭīf, al-ʿUḳayr and Ḳaṭar, al-Bakrī says definitely that al-K̲h̲aṭṭ is the whole coast between ʿUmān and al-Baṣra on the one side and Kāẓima and al-S̲h̲iḥr on the other. This difference of opinion is probably the result of the variation in extent of ʿUmān and al-Baḥrayn in the wider sense of these terms in course of time. There are in any case authors who allot al-K̲h̲aṭṭ to eithe…

al-Sarī

(313 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
b. al-Ḥakam b. Yūsuf al-Balk̲h̲ī , governor and financial controller of Egypt from 1 Ramaḍān 200/3 April 816. On 1 Rabīʿ I 201/27 Sept. 816, the troops openly mutinied against him, and al-Maʾmūn was forced to remove al-Sarī from his post and replace him by Sulaymān b. G̲h̲ālib; al-Sarī was put in prison and Sulaymān entered upon his office on Tuesday, 4 Rabīʿ I 201/30 Sept. 816. He was removed from office as early as 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 201/22 Feb. 817, as the result of a repeated revol…

Raḍwa

(147 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a range of hills in South West Arabia, a day’s journey from Yanbuʿ and seven stages from Medīna, between Yanbuʿ and al-Ḥawrāʾ. It lies on the right side of the road to Medīna, and on the left of the road in the direction of Mecca, two nights distant from the sea. The hills, which are mentioned in a tradition of the Prophet, have passes and valleys, are very well watered and covered with all kinds of trees so that they look green from Yanbuʿ. The rocks produce whetstones which were exported to all countries. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, in B. G. A.,i. 21 Ibn Ḥawḳal, in B. G. A., ii. 28 al-Ba…

Zailaʿ

(648 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a port on the African coast o the Gulf of ʿAden. It lies on a narrow tongue of land, which is cut off from the mainland at high water and is the only harbour of importance in British Somaliland. Formerly an important trading centre and one of the largest ports of export for the slave trade with Arabia, the town now only possesses modest remnants of buildings of the middle of the xivth century like the tomb of S̲h̲ēk̲h̲ Ibrāhīm, and also the fort erected to the west of it by the Indian government, the palace of S̲h̲armakai ʿAlī of which only the groundfloor and the …

Ṭirāz

(2,194 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, Addendum. The above article had already been completely set up when, while I was in Cairo, Prof. G. Wiet most kindly gave me access to his rich collection of ṭirāz inscriptions, which contains a wealth of new material, some of which is in the possession of dealers or private collectors and some in various museums. Pride of place must be given to the Arab Museum in Cairo which has in the course of the past few years added to its valuable collection of textiles a whole series of fine pieces with ṭirāz inscriptions; next in i…

al-Riyāḍ

(1,404 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, capital of the kingdom of Nad̲j̲d, in the oasis of the same name which lies on the left bank of the Wādī Ḥanīfa stretching towards the north, forming a shallow valley which forms part of the S̲h̲amsīya basin. The lozengeshaped oasis is three miles long and barely one broad. The town is surrounded on all sides except the northeast by dense palm-groves. In the north-east, a few scattered groves interrupt the view to the highlands of Abū Mak̲h̲rūḳ, from which the main source of water for the oasi…

Ibb

(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee, ḳāt, indigo and wars. In the vicinity there was at one time a silver mine (photographs in the Islām-Stiftung in Leiden). (A. Grohmann) Bi…

al-Muḳawḳas

(3,049 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, al-Muḳawḳis, the individual who in Arab tradition plays the leading part on the side of the Copts and Greeks at the conquest of Egypt. The Prophet is said to have sent a letter to him in the year 6 a. h. In the address on this letter, the text of which is given in Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (ed. Torrey, p. 46), al-Maḳrīzī ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 29), al-Suyūṭī ( Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, i. 58) and al-Manūfī (p. 29), as well as in an entirely different version in Pseudo-Wāḳidī (p. 10), and also in the accounts of the incident in the Arab historians, the position of Muḳawḳis is described in the following phrases: 1. Ṣāḥib al-Iskan…

Muḳrā

(111 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a district and village in the Yaman, a day’s journey south of Ṣanʿāʾ The Arab geographers mention a cornelian mine here. The name is also given to a mountain in the Yaman Sarāt. According to Sprenger, we cannot connect the Ḥimyar tribe of this name with the Μoχρῖται of Ptolemy. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifal Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab, ed. D. H. Müller (Leyden 1884-1891), p. 68, 104 sq. al-Muḳaddasī, B. G. A., iii. 91 al-Hamad̲h̲ānī, B. G. A., v. 36 Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih, vi. 141 al-Yaʿḳūbī, B. G. A., vii. 319 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. F. Wüstenfeld, iii. 130 iv. 437, 603 A. Sprenger, Die alte …

Ṣaʿda

(530 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, the capital of the district of the same name in Yemen. It lies on the pilgrim road from Mekka to Ṣanʿāʾ, 60 parasangs (180 miles) or five days’ journey from the latter town. In the days of paganism the town is said to have been called Ḏj̲umāʿ and to have been built on the site later occupied by Ḥiṣn Talammuṣ built by the Imām al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad b. Sulaimān b. al-Muṭahhir. According to al-Hamdānī, the name Ṣaʿda owes its origin to the following circumstance: …

Maṭraḥ

(199 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town on the Gulf of ʿOmān, two miles west of Masḳaṭ on the east coast of Arabia. The town, which has about 14,000 inhabitants, is the starting-point for caravan traffic into the interior of Arabia and, next to Masḳaṭ, the most important commercial centre in ʿOmān. The town is beautifully situated in fertile surroundings, has a good harbour, easily entered but little sheltered, from which Masḳaṭ can be reached in an hour by boat. The sulṭāns of ʿOmān used to have wharves for shipbuilding here…

Taʿizz

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an important town in South Arabia, formerly the capital of the Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizzīya, which according to the provincial law regarding the general administration of wilāyets Taḳwīm-i Weḳāʾiʿ (March 15, 1913) included the ḳaḍās of ʿUdain, Ibb, Muk̲h̲ā. Ḳamāʿira, Ḳaʿṭaba, Ḥud̲j̲arīya, and, according to R. Manzoni, also Mak̲h̲ādir, Ḏh̲ī Sufāl, Māwiya, i. e. the whole country between al-Ḥudaida and the independent lands northeast of ʿAden. The town, which lies in 44° 6’ 45” East. Long (Greenw.) and 13° 36’ 55” North L…

Wāḥidī

(630 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the nameof a dynasty in South Arabia, which rules over three sultanates, those of Bīr ʿAlī ʿAmaḳīn, Bāl Ḥāf ʿIzzān and Ḥabbān. H. v. Maltzan (p. 222) after investigation divided the whole territory belonging to this ruling house into two groups: Lower Wāḥidī on the coast from 48° to 48° 30′ East Long. (Greenwich) in the 14° N. Lat. reaching barely two hours journey into the interior, and Upper Wāḥidī from 47° to 47° 40′ East Long. (Greenwich) and from 14° 20′ to 14° 58′ N. Lat. C. v. Landberg …

Salama b. Rad̲j̲āʾ

(50 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, governor of Egypt from Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 161 (August 30 to September 27, 778) until Muḥarram 162 (October 778). ¶ (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, iii. 492, 493 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, vi. 38, 39 Corpus Papyrorum Raineri, iii. Series Arabica, ed. A. Grohmann, 1/ii. 119, 120.

Mok̲h̲ā

(822 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
a small seaport on the Arabian coast of the Red Sea in 13° 19′50″ N. Lat. and 43° 12′ 10″ East Long. (Greenwich). The once imposing town lies on a small bay between two promontories with forts on each about one and a half miles apart. The wall which surrounds the town in a semicircle is pierced by four gates. In the north the Bāb al-Ḥamūdīya leads to the citadel of the town and to a tongue of land which runs out into the sea; in the east roughly in the centre of the wall is the Bāb al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī through which the fo…

Tihāma

(2,100 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the narrow strip of low land along the coast which runs from the Sinai Peninsula along the west and south side of Arabia. Al-Idrīsī gives us the fullest account of Tihāma. According to him, it is traversed by a chain of hills which begin at the Gulf of Ḳulzum ¶ and send out a ridge to the east. The frontier of Tihāma is in the west the Gulf of Ḳulzum and in the east a range of hills running north and south (the Sarāt). The province called Tihāma stretches, according to Idrīsī, from Sard̲j̲a to ʿAden, 12 days’ journey along the sea-coast and 4…
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