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Kudummul

(167 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a small volcanic island in the Red Sea in 17° 52’ N lat., called Kotumble on the English Admiralty charts and Qotanbul in Admiralty handbook, Western Arabia and the Red Sea, London 1946, 133. The island has a rich flora, which has been studied by the botanist Ehrenberg, and is noteworthy for its iron deposits, which are mentioned as early as the geographer Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (d. 630/1233). Kudummul, which lies near Ḥamiḍa on the Arabian coast off ʿAsīr [ q.v.], once marked the boundary between the land of the Kināna and Yemen. (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Hamdānī, Ṣifat d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿArab,…

Maʿāfir

(811 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Smith, G.R.
(or al-Maʿāfir ), the name of a South Arabian tribe, the genealogy of which is given as Yaʿfur b. Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Humaysaʿ b. ʿAmr b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ib b. ʿArīb b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ; they are included among the Ḥimyar. The name was also given to the territory which the tribe inhabited a…

al-Sarāt

(454 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Donzel, E. van
(a. “the back”), the collective name, not particularly widespread, of the chains of mountains which run from the Gulf of ʿAḳaba down to the Gulf of Aden [see al-ʿarab , D̲j̲azīrat, ii]. The word sarāt occurs quite often in the construct state, as in sarāt al-azd, sarāt al-hān , etc. In both Saudi Arabia and in Yemen, al-Sarāt separates the lowlands along the Red Sea [see al-g̲h̲awr ; tihāma ] from the high plateau. The commonest view in the Arab sources is that al-Sarāt is identical with al-Ḥid̲j̲āz [ q.v.] “the barrier”. As a whole, the chains of mountains are cut up into large and…

Ibb

(310 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, formerly the capital of the ḳaḍāʾ of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizz in the Yemen; now, since 1946, a separate liwāʾ , comprising the ḳadāʾ

al-Sarī

(313 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
b. al-Ḥakam b. Yūsuf al-Balk̲h̲ī , governor and financial controller of Egypt from 1 Ramaḍān 200/3 April 816. On 1 Rabīʿ I 201/27 Sept. 816, the troops openly mutinied against him, and al-Maʾmūn was forced to remove al-Sarī from his post and replace him by Sulaymān b. G̲h̲ālib; al-Sarī was put in prison and Sulaymān entered upon his office on Tuesday, 4 Rabīʿ I 201/30 Sept. 816. He was removed from office as early as 1 S̲h̲aʿbān 201/22 Feb. 817, as the result of a repeated revol…

al-Ḳunfud̲h̲a

(953 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a port on the Red Sea coast of the Tihāma or lowland of the southern Ḥid̲j̲āz, situated in lat. 19°9′ N. and long. 41°04′ E. and at the mouth of the Wādī Ḳanawnā. It lies 210 miles south of D̲j̲idda or D̲j̲udda [ q.v.] and 45 miles north of Ḥaly. The town is in the form of a large rectangle enclosed by a wall, strengthened at several points by towers and pierced by three gates. Practically the only stone buildings are at the harbour, where is the bazaar with its one-storied warehouses in an irregular line, and the chief mosque and smaller mosques with low minarets. On a little island about a quarter of a mile away is a small castle which used to be the residence of the representative of the S̲h̲arīf of Mecca. …

Nad̲j̲d

(2,933 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | McLachlan, K.S.
(a. “uplands”), conventionally defined as the plateau region of the Arabian peninsula lying to the east of the Red Sea lowlands (al-Tihāma [ q.v.]) and the mountain barrier running down through the western side of the peninsula (al-Ḥid̲j̲āz [ q.v.]). 1. Geography and habitat. ¶ The exact application of this originally topographical conception is very differently understood, and sometimes it means more generally the elevated country above the coastal plain or the extensive country, the upper part of which is formed by the Tihāma and the Yam…

Ibb

(179 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the capital of the ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʾizz in the Yemen. Besides the pronunciation with i peculiar to the Yemen we also find Abb (in Niebuhr: Aebb). At an earlier period the walled town with a population estimated at 4,000 belonged to the territory of Ḏh̲ū Ḏj̲ibla. It stands on a hill on the pilgrims’ road which runs from Ḥaḍramawt to the Yemen Tihāma or from ʿAden to Ṣanʿāʾ, in a fertile region where cereals and fruit are grown, also coffee,

al-Muḳawḳas

(3,049 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, al-Muḳawḳis, the individual who in Arab tradition plays the leading part on the side of the Copts and Greeks at the conquest of Egypt. The Prophet is said to have sent a letter to him in the year 6 a. h. In the address on this letter, the text of which is given in Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (ed. Torrey, p. 46), al-Maḳrīzī ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, i. 29), al-Suyūṭī ( Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara, i. 58) and al-Manūfī (p. 29), as well as in an entirely different version in Pseudo-Wāḳidī (p. 10), and also in the accounts of the incident in the Arab historians, the position of Muḳawḳis is described in the following phrases: 1. Ṣāḥib al-Iskan…

Muḳrā

(111 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a district and village in the Yaman, a day’s journey south of Ṣanʿāʾ The Arab geographers mention a cornelian mine here. The name is also given to a mountain in the Yaman Sarāt. According to Sprenger, we cannot connect the Ḥimyar tribe of this name with the Μoχρῖται of Ptolemy. (A. Grohmann) Bibliograp…

Ṣaʿda

(530 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, the capital of the district of the same name in Yemen. It lies on the pilgrim road from Mekka to Ṣanʿāʾ, 60 parasangs (180 miles) or five days’ journey from the latter town. In the days of paganism the town is said to have been called Ḏj̲umāʿ and to have been built on the site later occupied by Ḥiṣn Talammuṣ built by the Imām al-Mutawakkil ʿala ’llāh Aḥmad b. Sulaimān b. al-Muṭahhir. According to al-Hamdānī, the name Ṣaʿda owes its origin to the following circumstance: …

Maṭraḥ

(199 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town on the Gulf of ʿOmān, two miles west of Masḳaṭ on the east coast of Arabia. The town, which has about 14,000 inhabitants, is the starting-point for caravan traffic into the interior of Arabia and, next to Masḳaṭ, the most important…

Taʿizz

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, an important town in South Arabia, formerly the capital of the Turkish sand̲j̲aḳ of Taʿizzīya, which according to the provincial law regarding the general administration of wilāyets Taḳwīm-i Weḳāʾiʿ (March 15, 1913) included the ḳaḍās of ʿUdain, Ibb, Muk̲h̲ā. Ḳamāʿira, Ḳaʿṭaba, Ḥud̲j̲arīya, and, according to R. Manzoni, also Mak̲h̲ādir, Ḏh̲ī Sufāl, Māwiya, i. e. the whole country between al-Ḥudaida and the independent lands northeast of ʿAden. The town, which lies in 44…

Wāḥidī

(630 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the nameof a dynasty in South Arabia, which rules over three sultanates, those of Bīr ʿAlī ʿAmaḳīn, Bāl Ḥāf ʿIzzān and Ḥabbān. H. v. Maltzan (p. 222) after investigation divided the whole territory belonging to this ruling house into two groups: Lower Wāḥidī on the coast from 48° to 48° 30′ East Long. (Greenwich) in the 14° N. Lat. reaching barely two hours journey into the interior, and Upper Wāḥidī from 47° to 47° 40′ East Long. (Greenwich) and from 14° 20′ to 14° 58′ N. Lat. C. v. Landberg …

Salama b. Rad̲j̲āʾ

(50 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, governor of Egypt from Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 161 (August 30 to September 27, 778) until Muḥarram 162 (October 778). ¶ (A. Grohmann) Bibliography al-Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, i…

Mok̲h̲ā

(822 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
a small seaport on the Arabian coast of the Red Sea in 13° 19′50″ N. Lat. and 43° 12′ 10″ East Long. (Greenwich). The once imposing town lies on a small bay between two promontories with forts on each about one and a half miles apart. The wall which surrounds the town in a semicircle is pierced by four gates. In the north the Bāb al-Ḥamūdīya leads to the citadel of the town and to a tongue of land which runs out into the sea; in the east roughly in the centre of the wall is the Bāb al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī through which the fo…

Zanzibar

(2,712 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Werner, Alice
(al-Zand̲j̲abār), capital of the island of the same name, which lies off the east coast of Africa in 6° South Lat. The town is on the west side of the island 26 miles N. E. of the harbour of Bagamoyo in 6° 9′ S. Lat. and 39° 15′ East Long, and forms a triangular peninsula 1½ miles in leng…

Tihāma

(2,100 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, the narrow strip of low land along the coast which runs from the Sinai Peninsula along the west and south side of Arabia. Al-Idrīsī gives us the fullest account of Tihāma. According to him, it is traversed by a chain of hills which begin at the Gulf of Ḳulzum ¶ and send out a ridge to the east. The frontier of Tihāma is in the west the Gulf of Ḳulzum and in the east a range of hills running north …

Ṭawīla

(210 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
, a town in South Arabia, formerly the headquarters of the Ḳāʾimmaḳām of the Ḳaḍā of Kawkabān, to which the town already belonged in Niebuhr’s time. It lies on a tongueshaped spur of the Ḏj̲ebel Ḍulāʿ on the left bank of the Wādī Lāʿa which forms a continuous chain of four rocky hills, the second (from the east) of which is called al-Ḥuṣn. In the SSW. of the town a little lower but not 500 yards away stands the Masd̲j̲id al-Ẓāhir, a mosque now in ruins with a fine cistern, from which a well-made paved road (

Ṭirāz

(9,208 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A.
The word is borrowed from the Persian and originally means “embroidery”; it then comes to mean a robe adorned with elaborate embroidery, especially one ornamented with embroidered bands with writing upon them, worn by a ruler or person of high rank; finally it means the workshop in which such materials or robes are made. A secondary development from the meaning “embroidered strip of writing” is that of “strip of writing”, border or braid in general, applied not only to inscriptions woven, embro…
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