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(2,011 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
, “clime, climate”, or, more generally, “region”. The Lisān al-ʿArab (root ḳlm ) discusses whether the word is Arabic or foreign. Ibn Durayd, whom it quotes, rightly inclines to the second hypothesis; iḳlīm comes in fact from the Greek klima , literally: “inclination” and more precisely that of the earth from the Equator towards the pole, whence: region of the terrestrial sphere, and finally region in general. The Lisān seems to adhere to the strict definition: it states that “ iḳlīm is one of the seven climates ( aḳālīm ) which are the different divisions of the earth”. Inherited from Greek…


(455 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
(a.), the East, linked with and opposed to the West (Mag̲h̲rib [ q.v.]), either in general or from the strictly geographical point of view; for the Arab world, the Mag̲h̲rib embraces all the lands to the west of Egypt, and the Mas̲h̲riḳ all those to the east. Nevertheless, the parallelism is not absolute; whilst the term Mag̲h̲rib is particularly applied either to the grouping North-Africa-Tripolitania or to North Africa properly so-called or to its most western part, Morocco (Mag̲h̲rib, al-Mag̲h̲rib al-Aḳṣā [ q.v.]), the word Mas̲h̲riḳ seems to cover the Orient in general, w…


(1,324 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
abū isḥāḳ : ibrāhīm b. muḥammad al-fārisī al-kark̲h̲ī . one of the first and most important representatives of the new trends adopted by Arabo-Muslim geography in the 4th/10th century. His biography is unknown, or almost so. If the various forms of his nisba are to be believed, he was a native of Fārs and, more precisely, of Iṣṭak̲h̲r. Following Yāḳūt, orientalism has infact accepted the nisba al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī. but others, in particular Ibn Ḥawḳal, his direct continuator, designate him by the nisba al-Fārisī. Al-Muḳaddasī, who does the same, also adds the nisba al-…


(1,510 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-S̲h̲āmī. also known by the name al-Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ārī (Yāḳūt designates him as such, Udabāʾ , passim ) is the best representative of Arabic geography in the second half of the 4th/10th century. His life, which is not well known, is only available to us through his own work. Very much attached to the Palestine of his birth and to the town whose name he bears (Muḳaddasī or Maḳdisī, from Jerusalem, al-Bayt al-Muḳaddas or Bayt al-Maḳdis), he probably belonged to a middle-cl…

Ibn D̲j̲uzayy

(305 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Kalbī , Arab writer, born in 721/1321 at Granada of a literary family. His father, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was known particularly as a poet and as a faḳīh ; born in 693/1294, he was one of the teachers of Lisān al-Dīn Ibn al-K̲h̲aṭīb and died at the battle of Rio Salado in 741/1340 (cf. al-Maḳḳarī, Nafḥ al-ṭīb , ed. M. M. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Cairo 1367-9, 10 vols., viii, 28-31; Brockelmann, II, 342, S II, 377; ʿU. R. Kaḥḥāla, Muʿd̲j̲am al-muʾallifīn , Damascus 1376-81/1957-61, 15 vols., ix, 11). His three sons,…

Ibrāhīm b. Yaʿḳūb

(751 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
al-Isrāʾīlī al-Ṭurṭūs̲h̲ī , Spanish Jewish traveller, born in Tortosa, to judge by his nisba , is known for having made, circa 354/965, a long journey in western, central and eastern Europe. It is not clear why he made this tour: it has been suggested that he was trading in horses or in slaves, and it is not impossible that he was on an official intelligence mission for the Umayyad caliphate of Spain, he being chosen for this in view of the help which he could expect to receive from the Jewish colonies in Europe. Similarly, all that is known of the route of the jour…

Ibn Ḥawḳal

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī al-Naṣībī , ¶ Arab geographer of the second half of the 4th/10th century, one of the best exponents, with his contemporary al-Muḳaddasī [ q.v.], of geography based on travel and direct observation ( ʿiyān ). Ibn Ḥawḳal was born in Naṣībīn (Nisibis) in Upper Mesopotamia (al-Ḏj̲azīra). He probably spent his early years in this region before beginning, on 7 Ramaḍān 331/15 May 943, an impressive series of journeys, the course of which it is possible to trace, at least in outline, by means of th…


(741 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
( k̲h̲aṭṭ al -), the line of equality, of equilibrium, that is to say the equator, which divides the earth into two hemispheres, the northern and the southern, and joins together all those points of the globe where day and night are equal. The particulars relating to the equator and to the division of the earth are furnished by the ṣūrat al-arḍ , which is of Greek, Indian or Persian …


(911 words)

Author(s): Schwarz, P. | Miquel, A.
( kerk̲h̲a ), a river in Luristān and K̲h̲ūzistān, whose source lies in the region of Nihāwand. Its upper and middle course is strictly a tributary of the mountain system of the Zagros, where the valleys run in the same direction as the chains, the watercourses passing at times from one to the other by short transverse gorges. From which results the uncertainty over nomenclature, the rivers changing name with the divided regions that they traverse. The Kark̲h̲a is made up of the union in the region of Nihāwand of a certain number of watercourses: Čas̲h̲m-i Kāẓim, Sura K…


(1,853 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A. | Deverdun, G.
1. General. Originally the essential part of a country or a town, its heart, and later (a) fortified castle, residence of an authority in the centre of a country or a town; and (b) principal town, chief town.…


(508 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
(a.), which may be considered ( LA, s.v.) either as maṣdar or ism al-makān of the root m-l-k “to hold, possess”, denotes in its first sense absolute power over things and especially over beings: to begin with, that of God over creation as a whole, and then, that of any individual, in certain circumstances. In a second sense, the word is applied to the place either in origin or by application, of the power under consideration: in the first case, it can refer e.g. to an all-powerful minister (Dozy, Supplément, s.v.); in another case, it can denote the spatial entity un…

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Miquel, A.
(sometimes Baṭūṭa ), S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Yūsuf al-Lawātī al-Ṭand̲j̲ī , Moorish traveller born at Tangier on 17 Rad̲j̲ab 703/25 February 1304, died in Morocco in 770/1368-9 or 779/1377, after many lengthy journeys which make him one of the world’s most famous travellers ( d̲j̲awwāla ) and authors of travel-books ( riḥla ). The chronology of his journeys may, in spite of some uncertainties of detail, be set out as follows: (1) Departure from Tangiers 2 Rad̲j̲ab 725/13 June 1325; Nor…


(2,269 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Miquel, A.
, in Muslim cosmology, the name of the mountain range surrounding the terrestrial world. There is little doubt that this conception is borrowed from Iranian traditions. These make the Alburz [ q.v.] the mythical mountain at the edge of the world, and the home of the gods. All the other mountains in the world have come from the Alburz by underground ramifications. This mountain (the high mountain: Hara-berezayti) surrounds all the world, but also a lake with the name of Wurukas̲h̲a; however, according to the Bundahis̲h̲n , this lake itself, although confined …