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Solomon

(1,005 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla
The son of the biblical king David (q.v.) and heir to his throne. Solomon (Ar. Sulaymān) is presented in the Qurʾān as playing three important roles, although they are often interwoven in its narrative (see narratives ). He was a ruler who inherited his father's knowledge as well as his kingdom (see kings and rulers; knowledge and learning; power and impotence); a prophet (see prophets and prophethood ) who, despite occasional lapses in devotional practice (see piety; worship; ritual and the qurʾān), enjoyed divine protection (q.v.) and was assured an honored place in paradi…

Material Culture and the Qurʾān

(21,133 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P.
In view of the all-encompassing significance of the Qurʾān in the faith (q.v.) of the Muslim community it is to be expected that its influence would be manifested in many spheres of life (see everyday life, qurʾān in ). The holy book has had an impact not only through its cultic role but also as a venerated object and through its importance to other cultural practices. The Qurʾān's effect on material culture is an extension of the various functions it plays in devotional life and although some of these must have been prominent since…

Taṣwīr

(5,289 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P. | Landau, L. M. | Naef, Silvia
(a.), verbal noun from the form II verb ṣawwara “to form, fashion”, then “depict, represent, illustrate”. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography (on which see 2. below) and the process of their creation. It is often contrasted to timt̲h̲āl (sculpture) and synonymous with ṣūra and the rarer taṣwīra or their respective plural forms ṣuwar and taṣāwīr . Other synonyms of taṣwīr widely used in Persian texts are naḳs̲h̲ (A.) and nigār (P.). Although in the usage…

Taṣwīr

(5,613 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P. | Landau, J. M. | Naef, S.
(a.), nom verbal de la forme II du verbe ṣawwara «former, fabriquer, puis dépeindre, représenter, illustrer». C’est le principal terme utilisé en arabe pour désigner d’une part les arts figuratifs comprenant la peinture, le dessin, les croquis, la gravure et la photographie (à ce propos, voir en 2. ci-dessous) et d’autre part le procédé de leur élaboration. Il est souvent opposé à timt̲h̲āl (sculpture) et synonyme de ṣūra et du plus rare taṣwīra ou de leurs formes respectives au pluriel, ṣuwar et taṣāwīr. Naḳs̲h̲ (A.) et nigār ¶ (P.) sont d’autres synonymes de taṣwīr, largement utilisés…

Iran

(41,852 words)

Author(s): MacKenzie, D. N. | Sims-Williams, N. | Jeremiás, Éva M. | Soucek, Priscilla | Blair, Sheila S. | Et al.
III. Langues (a) Le pas̲h̲to. [Voir Afg̲h̲ān. (II). Langue pas̲h̲to]. (b) Kurde. [Voir Kurdes, Kurdistan. V. Langue]. (c) Zaza [ q.v.]. (d) Le k̲h̲wārazmien. (e) Sogdien et bactrien au début de l’ère islamique. (f) Le néo-perse ou persan. (g) Le persan écrit en caractères hébraϊques. [Voir Judeo-Persan. II. Langue]. (d) Le k̲h̲wārazmien, Le k̲h̲wārazmien. attesté en dernier lieu à la fin du VIIIe/XIVe s. (avant de céder la place au turc), appartenait à la branche orientale de la famille des langues iraniennes, étant apparenté le plus étroitement au sogdien…

Iran

(39,501 words)

Author(s): MacKenzie, D.N. | Sims-Williams, N. | Jeremiás, Éva M. | Soucek, Priscilla | Blair, Sheila S. | Et al.
iii. Languages (a) Pas̲h̲to [see afg̲h̲ān . (ii). The Pas̲h̲to language] (b) Kurdish [see kurds , kurdistān . v. Language] (c) Zaza [ q.v.] (d) Ḵh̲wārazmian (e) Sogdian and Bactrian in the early Islamic period (f) New Persian (g) New Persian written in Hebrew characters [see judaeo-persian . ii. Language] (d) Ḵh̲wārazmian. Ḵh̲warazmian, last attested late in the 8th/14th century (before yielding to Turkish), belonged to the Eastern branch of the Iranian language family, being most closely related to Sogdian, its southeastern neighbour. Pre-Islami…