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(5,289 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P. | Landau, L. M. | Naef, Silvia
(a.), verbal noun from the form II verb ṣawwara “to form, fashion”, then “depict, represent, illustrate”. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography (on which see 2. below) and the process of their creation. It is often contrasted to timt̲h̲āl (sculpture) and synonymous with ṣūra and the rarer taṣwīra or their respective plural forms ṣuwar and taṣāwīr . Other synonyms of taṣwīr widely used in Persian texts are naḳs̲h̲ (A.) and nigār (P.). Although in the usage…


(39,501 words)

Author(s): MacKenzie, D.N. | Sims-Williams, N. | Jeremiás, Éva M. | Soucek, Priscilla | Blair, Sheila S. | Et al.
iii. Languages (a) Pas̲h̲to [see afg̲h̲ān . (ii). The Pas̲h̲to language] (b) Kurdish [see kurds , kurdistān . v. Language] (c) Zaza [ q.v.] (d) Ḵh̲wārazmian (e) Sogdian and Bactrian in the early Islamic period (f) New Persian (g) New Persian written in Hebrew characters [see judaeo-persian . ii. Language] (d) Ḵh̲wārazmian. Ḵh̲warazmian, last attested late in the 8th/14th century (before yielding to Turkish), belonged to the Eastern branch of the Iranian language family, being most closely related to Sogdian, its southeastern neighbour. Pre-Islami…