Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Sourdel, D." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Sourdel, D." )' returned 82 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

al-Ḳāhir Bi’llāh

(382 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, 19th ʿAbbāsid Caliph, who reigned from 320/932 to 322/934 in succession to his brother al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.]. He had previously been temporarily chosen as caliph after the abortive palace revolution in Muḥarram 317/March 929. Al-Muḳtadir’s death followed after the sortie he made at the head of his troops against the amīr Muʾnis [ q.v.] in 320/932. When the dignitaries came to nominate a new caliph, Muʾnis’s judgement in favour of Aḥmad, the son of al-Muḳtadir, was ignored and Muḥammad, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, was proclaimed on 27 Shawwāl 320/31 October…

al-D̲j̲awlān

(453 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a district in southern Syria bounded on the west by the Jordan, on the north by the spurs of Hermon, on the east by the Nahr al-ʿAllān and on the south by the Yarmūk. The northern part lies at a certain altitude and presents the appearance of a wild, hilly region, covered with blocks of lava and oak forests which were once magnificent but are now extremely impoverished. The southern part is fairly low-lying and differs but little from the plain of Ḥawrān, with a soil of volcanic detritus, more even and of greater fertility. The territory of Ḏj̲awlān corresponds with the ancient Gaulaniti…

Ibn S̲h̲addād

(308 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, ʿIzz al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Ḥalabī , Syrian author of topographical and historical works, born in 613/1217 in Aleppo, died in Cairo in 684/1285. A famous secretary of the chancellery and a skilful administrator, he was employed by the ruler of Aleppo, al-Malik al-Nāṣir, who sent him in 640/1242-3 on a mission to inspect the finances in Ḥarrān. Later, when the Mongols were approaching, in 657/1259, he was instructed to accompany the ruler’s family from Damascus to…

al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʿ

(444 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, vizier to the ʿAbbāsid caliphs al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Amīn, was the son of al-Manṣūr’s chamberlain al-Rabīʿ b. Yūnus [ q.v.]. Born in 138/757-8, he very soon won the esteem of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, who in 173/789-90 placed him in charge of the Expenditure Office and then in 179/795-6 made him chamberlain. After the disgrace of the Barāmika [ q.v.] in 187/803, he succeeded Yaḥyā as vizier, though without being granted such wide powers; his part was confined to keeping check on public expenditure and in presenting letters and petitions ( ʿarḍ ), while another secretary…

Dayr

(1,460 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a word of Syriac origin denoting the Christian monasteries which continued to function after the Arab conquest of the Middle East. If we are to believe the lists drawn up by Arab writers, they were very numerous, particularly in ʿIrāḳ (along the Tigris and Euphrates valleys), Upper Mesopotamia, Syria (Stylite sanctuaries in the vicinity of the “dead cities”), Palestine and Egypt (along the whole length of the Nile valley). They were often named after a patron saint (Dayr Mār Yuḥannā near Takrī…

Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī

(393 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, ʿAbbāsid prince, born end of 162/July 779, d. in Ramaḍān 224/July 839. The son of the caliph al-Mahdī [ q.v.] and of a concubine of Daylamī origin named S̲h̲ikla, he was in Bag̲h̲dād at the time when the caliph al-Maʾmūn [ q.v.], who was then living at Marw, nominated as his successor ʿAlī al-Riḍā. The inhabitants of Bag̲h̲dād and the ʿAbbāsid aristocracy, in revolt against this decision which seemed to them to be contrary to the legitimist principle established by the first caliphs of the dynasty, then rejected the authority of al-Ma…

Dunaysir

(273 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, mediaeval ruined town of Upper Mesopotamia (within the borders of modern Turkey), situated 20 km. south-west of Mārdīn on a tributary of the K̲h̲ābūr, the site of which is today marked by the Kurdish village of Koč Ḥiṣār, the Kosar of the western chroniclers. A fortress of former times, generally identified with the Adenystrai of Dio Cassius, Dunaysir is not noted as an important place in the early years of Islam, and was subsequently never a fortress. Not until the 4th/10th century does its name appear, in a ms. of Ibn Ḥawḳ…

al-Bat̲h̲aniyya

(476 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, district in Syria with Ad̲h̲riʿat [ q.v.] as capital. It is bounded by the Ḏj̲abal al-Drūz to the east, the Lad̲j̲āʾ plain and the Ḏj̲aydūr to the north, the Ḏj̲awlan to the west, and the hills of al-Ḏj̲umal to the south, where the boundary is a little imprecise. Also called al-Nuḳra, “the hollow”, it corresponds to the ancient Batanaea mentioned together with Trachonites, Auranites and Gaulanites as part of the old kingdom of Bashan and referred to in the Old Testament. The region is fertile, as its name derived from bat̲h̲na (stoneless and even plain) indicat…

al-Ḥumayma

(326 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, ruined site in Jordan, situated in 30° N′. and about 35° 20′ E., some 50 km. south-east of the town of Maʿān, halfway between there and the gulf of ʿAḳaba. This place, mentioned by the Arab geographers as belonging to the d̲j̲und of Dimas̲h̲ḳ and to the region of al-S̲h̲arāt, is famous in history chiefly as having been used as a residence by the ʿAbbāsid claimants between 68/687-8 and 132/749. It was after the death of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās at Ṭāʾif in 68/687-8 that his son ʿAlī, who had given his support to th…

Dābiḳ

(339 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a locality in the ʿAzāz region of northern Syria. It lies on the road from Manbid̲j̲ to Anṭākiya (Ṭabarī, iii, 1103) upstream from Aleppo on the river Nahr Ḳuwayḳ. In Assyrian times its name was Dabigu , to become Dabekôn in Greek. It lies on the edge of the vast plain of Mard̲j̲ Dābiḳ where, under the Umayyads and ʿAbbāsids, troops were stationed prior to being sent on operations against Byzantine territory. The Umayyad caliph Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik lived in Dābiḳ for some time, and after his death and buri…

Ismāʿīl b. Bulbul

(287 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, Abuʾl-Ṣaḳr , vizier of the ʿAbbāsid Caliph al-Muʿtamid [ q.v.]. Of Persian or Mesopotamian origin, he was born in 230/844-5 and claimed to belong to the Arab tribe of the S̲h̲aybān. Abu ’l-Ṣaḳr, who had been a secretary and had been in charge of the dīwān of the Royal Domains, appeared on the political scene in 265/878, when the regent al-Muwaffaḳ had him appointed vizier, a post which he had to abandon shortly afterwards only to regain it at the end of the year. But Ismāʿīl played a minor role while the regent had Ṣāʿid b. Mak̲h̲lad [ q.v.] as his personal secretary, and it was only from t…

Dayr Ḳunnā

(329 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a locality in ʿIrāḳ some 90 km. south of Bag̲h̲dād and a mile from the left bank of the Tigris. The name comes from a large monastery still flourishing in ʿAbbāsid times; it consisted of a church, a hundred cells, and extensive olive and palm plantations, all enclosed by thick walls. On the occasion of the feast of the Holy Cross many people flocked to the monastery. It seems that it was abandoned at the time of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid occupation, and geographers of the 7th/13th century record that only the ruins then remained. Dayr Ḳunnā is famous primarily on account of…

Dayr Samʿān

(300 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, the name of various places in Syria, often confused by writers past and present, which corresponded to the sites of Christian monasteries still flourishing during the first centuries of Islam. Among the monasteries to which the name Simeon, common in Syria, was given, were Dayr Murrān [ q.v.] near Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān, whose name Dayr Samʿān was also incorrectly applied to the Dayr Murrān at Damascus, and the Byzantine constructions built on hill-tops (called in every case D̲j̲abal Samʿān) in the region of Antioch. The most important of the m…

Būrān

(215 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, wife of the caliph al-Maʾmūn and daughter of the Persian secretary al-Ḥasan b. Sahl [ q.v.]. According to some her real name was Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a and Būrān simply an appellation. Born in Ṣafar 192/December 807, she was married from the age of ten to the caliph whom her father had faithfully served during the first part of his reign. The wedding celebrations, the splendours of which are described with relish by many authors, did not take place until Ramaḍān 210/December 825-January 826, on al-Ḥasan’s estate at Fam …

Ḳalʿat Nad̲j̲m

(603 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a fortress in northern Syria, situated on the right bank of the Euphrates, which in the medieval period commanded the route from Ḥalab to Ḥarrān, in Upper Mesopotamia, via Manbid̲j̲. This fortress stood at a point where the Euphrates was relatively easy to cross, owing to the existence of two small islands which facilitated the construction of pontoon bridges. It is thought that the fortress stands on a Classical site, but the identification of this presents some problems: the most tenable hypothesis appears to be the identification of the site with the Caeciliana of Roman itineraries. In…

Ḥuwwārīn

(214 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
or Ḥawwārīn , place in Syria between. Damascus and Palmyra, half way between Ṣadad and al-Ḳaryatayn. On the site of an antique town, Ḥuwwārīn is known mainly for the fact that the Umayyad caliph Yazīd I had his residence, died and was buried there, as is attested by the poets of the period. A building still existing there, and still known today as Ḳaṣr Yazīd, may be considered as the partial remains of the residence of the caliph, who is known to have planned to irrigate the …

Ibn al-Furāt

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, name of a number of persons who held the offices of secretary or vizier under the ʿAbbāsid caliphs or the Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īdid amīr s and who belonged to a S̲h̲īʿī family. The earliest member of the family of whom anything is known is ʿUmar b. al-Furāt, who represented the ʿAlīd ʿAlī al-Riḍā and ¶ was executed in Bag̲h̲dād in 203/818-9, on the orders of Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī at the time when the ʿIrāḳīs were in revolt against the S̲h̲īʿī policy of al-Maʾmūn. A certain Muḥammad b. Mūsā seems to have been the first to hold important administrative office, …

al-Barīdī

(756 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, nisba made especially famous by three brothers, sons of a postmaster of al-Baṣra, and called Banu ’l-Barīdī for that reason. They played an important rôle at Bag̲h̲dād and in ʿIrāḳ during the Caliphate of al-Manṣūr and his successors. S̲h̲īʿī tax-farmers and military leaders, they distinguished themselves by their ambition and acts of prevarication and had eventful careers, very characteristic of the period preceding the advent of the Buwayhids. The eldest of the three brothers, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Aḥmad, appeared on the political scene during the second vizierate o…

al-Karak

(773 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, a fortress situated to the east of the Dead Sea, in the ancient Moab and at an altitude of ca. 3,000 feet. The name comes from Aramaic kark̲h̲ā “town” and is found in the form χαραχμωβα in Ptolemy (v, 16, 4), on the mosaic map of Mādaba and in Stephen of Byzantium. Its situation on a steep-sided spur, separated from the mountain by a narrow and artificially-deepened moat, makes it an extraordinarily strong site. It is remarkable that we do not hear of it at the time of the Musl…

ʿAd̲j̲lūn

(319 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D.
, district of Transjordania, bounded on the north by. the Yarmūḳ, to the east by the Ḥamād, to the south by the Wādī al-Zarḳāʾ and to the west by the G̲h̲awr, partly corresponding to the old territory of Gilead, and occupied in Roman times by the towns of the Decapolis. The name seems to be of Aramaic origin. A mountanous and wooded district, it was first called Ḏj̲abal Ḏj̲aras̲h̲, later Ḏj̲abal ʿAwf from the name of the turbulent tribe which occupied it in the Fāṭimid period. It was pacified by the amīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Usāma, who, having been g…
▲   Back to top   ▲