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Ad̲h̲arbaydj̲ān

(2,238 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
: (Āzarbayd̲j̲ān) (I) Province de Perse; (II) République Socialiste Soviétique. I. Grande province de Perse, appelée en moyen persan Āturpātākān, en néo-persan ancien Ād̲h̲arbād̲h̲agān, Ād̲h̲arbāyagān, actuellement Āzarbāyd̲j̲ān; en grec ε Aτροπατήνη, en grec byzantin ’Aδραβιγάνων, en arménien Atrapatakan, en syriaque Ad̲h̲orbāig̲h̲ān. La province fut appelée du nom du général Atropates («protégé par le feu») qui, à l’époque de l’invasion d’Alexandre, proclama son indépendance (328 av. J.-C.) et se conserva ainsi un royaume (Media Min…

Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ

(3,845 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, «Hommes de Dieu»,religion secrète répandue surtout en Perse occidentale. Si l’on voulait choisir un nom pour la secte, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ paraîtrait un terme vague car il était en usage, p. ex., chez les Ḥurūfī, et parce qu’il ressemble aux termes ṣūfīs, tels que Ahl-i Ḥaḳīḳat [ce dernier également employé chez les ¶ Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ]. Toutefois, dans le sens étroit, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ est le véritable nom que se donnent les adeptes de la religion décrite dans le présent article. L’appellation de ʿAlī-Ilāhī [ q.v.] que les voisins leur appliquent est un sobriquet incommode, car ʿAlī n’est pas la …

Abū Dulaf

(557 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
Misʿar b. Muhalhil al-K̲h̲azrad̲j̲ī al-Yanbuʿī, poète arabe, voyageur et minéralogiste. La date la plus ancienne de sa biographie concerne son apparition à Buk̲h̲ārā vers la fin du ¶ règne de Naṣr b. Aḥmad (m. 331/943). Ses voyages en Perse réfèrent aux années 331-341/943-952. Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, qu’Abū Dulaf mentionne comme son protecteur au Sīstān (lire: Aḥmad b. Muḥammad), régna de 331/942 à 352/963. L’auteur du Fihrist (achevé en 377/987) le cite comme d̲j̲awwāla, «grand voyageur» et comme connu de lui personnellement. T̲h̲aʿālibī, dans sa Yatīmat al-dahr, Damas, I…

Sulduz

(712 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Süldüz, tribu mongole ayant joué un rôle important dans l’histoire des époques mongole et il k̲h̲ānide au moyen âge. Selon Berezin, la forme mongole exacte serait Süldes (pl. de sülde, «bonne fortune»; Vladimirtsov interprète sülde au sens de «génie protecteur habitant le drapeau»). D’après L. Ligeti, Die Herkunft des Volksnamens Kirgis, dans Korösi Csoma Archivum, I (1925), la désinence de Suld-uz représente, comme dans Ḳi̊rḳ-i̊z, le vestige d’un ancien suffixe du pluriel turc (cf. biz «nous», siz «vous» etc.). Comme singulier hypothétique, il évoque le nom d’un clan …

al-Kurd̲j̲, Gurd̲j̲, Gurd̲j̲istān

(12,571 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, nom, dans les sources islamiques, de la province de Géorgie, dans la Caucasie orientale. La Géorgie comprend quatre régions distinctes: la Mingrélie et l’Iméréthie au Nord-ouest; le Samtzk̲h̲é au Sud-ouest (contigu au Lazistān [voir Laz], région côtière de la mer Noire habitée par un peuple étroitement apparenté aux Géorgiens); la Kartalie au Nord, avec pour capitale Tiflis [ q.v.], Tbilissi en géorgien; et la Kakhétie à l’Est. Du point du vue topographique, une grande partie de la Géorgie est constituée par des montagnes, des collines et des plateaux…

Nihāwand

(785 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, ville des montagnes du Zagros, dans la Perse orientale, qui, au Moyen Age appartenait à la province du Ḏj̲ibāl [ q.v.]. Lat. 34° 13 N., long. 48" 21’ E.; altitude: 1 786 m. Elle est située sur la branche du Gāmāsāb qui vient du Sud-est, des environs de Burūd̲j̲ird; le Gāmāsāb coule ensuite à l’Ouest vers le Bisūtūn. Nihāwand se trouve sur la route méridionale, laquelle venant de Kirmāns̲h̲āh (Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, 198), mène vers la Perse centrale (Ispahan) en évitant le massif d’Alwand (’Ορόντηζ) qui s’élève à l’…

Ṣāʾīn-ḳalʿa

(400 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, petite ville et district dans l’Ad̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān méridional sur la rive droite du Ḏj̲ag̲h̲ātū; c’est la ville actuelle de S̲h̲āhīn Diz̲h̲. Au Sud le district dépasse légèrement la rivière de Sāruḳ, affluent droit du Ḏj̲ag̲h̲ātū. Au Nord il confine avec le district Ād̲j̲arī, à l’Est avec la province de Ḵh̲amse. Le nom est dérivé du mongole sain («bon»). Population: la tribu turque Afs̲h̲ar dont une section dut émigrer à Urmiya pour céder la place à la tribu Čārdawrī (Čārdowlī) d’origine loure (le district Čardawr, sur le Saymara), que Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh au commencement du XIXe siècle fit …

Nak̲h̲čiwān

(1,037 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Nak̲h̲čuwān, ville de Transcaucasie (39° 12’ N. et 45° 24’ E.), chef-lieu d’une région du même nom qui formait, jusqu’au début du XIXe siècle, un k̲h̲ānat largement indépendant enclavé dans la République Arménienne. La ville et la région sont situées au Nord-ouest de la grande boucle septentrionale de l’Araxe qui marque, depuis 1834, la frontière entre les territoires persans et russes. La région, les plaines longeant l’Araxe mises à part, est principalement montagneuse, avec des sommets atteignant 3 904 m, dans une…

Nirīz

(345 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, localité de l’Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān sur la route de Marāg̲h̲a [ q.v.] à Urmiya [ q.v.], passant au Sud du lac d’Urmiya. Les étapes de cette route sont encore obscures. A environ 15 farsak̲h̲s au Sud de Marāg̲h̲a, se trouvait la station de Barza, d’où la route bifurquait: la branche principale continuait au Sud vers Dīnawar, tandis que la branche Nord-ouest allait de Barza à Taflīs (2 farsak̲h̲s), puis à Ḏj̲ābarwān (6 f.), à Nirīz (4 f.), à Urmiya (14 f.), cf. Ibn Ḵh̲urradādhbih, 121 (repris par Ḳudâma avec quelques variantes); al-Muḳaddasī, 383. La distance d’Urmiya indique que Nirīz étai…

Ḳutlug̲h̲-k̲h̲ānides

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, dynastie du Kirmān [ q.v.] au VIIe/XIIIe siècle. Issue des Ḳarā-Ḵh̲itay [ q.v.] de Transoxiane, elle fut successivement vassale des Ḵh̲ wārazm-s̲h̲āhs, des Grands Ḵh̲āns mongols et de la dynastie de Hūlāgū Ḵh̲ān (Īl-k̲h̲āns), dura de 619 (620?) à 706/1223-1306 et n’eut jamais qu’une importance locale. Elle entretenait des relations étroites avec les dynasties voisines des atābaks de Yazd, des Salg̲h̲urides du Fārs et des Muẓaffarides [ q.v.] et eut quelques contacts avec les califes et l’Inde. Le fondateur de la dynastie (depuis 619/20) fut Naṣr al-dunyā wa-l-…

Ṣamṣām al-Salṭanā

(760 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Cronin, Stephanie
, Nad̲j̲af Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, chef bak̲h̲tiyārī né vers 1846. Son père était Ḥusayn Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, plus connu sous le nom d’Ilk̲h̲ānī, premier chef bak̲h̲tiyārī à avoir été nommé officiellement Īlk̲h̲ān de tous les Bak̲h̲tiyārīs par le gouvernement impérial de Téhéran, et qui fut empoisonné sur les ordres du Prince Ẓill al-Sulṭān, célèbre gouverneur général d’Iṣfahān, qui traignait son pouvoir grandissant. Ṣamṣām al-Salṭana était Īlbeg des Bak̲h̲tiyārīs en 1903-5, et parla suite Īlk̲h̲ān. On s’en souvient principalement pour le rôle qu’il joua en tant que l’un des leaders de…

Us̲h̲nū

(766 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Us̲h̲nuh, Us̲h̲nūya), un district et un bourg en Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. La ville actuelle, nommée Us̲h̲nuwiyya (Oshnoviyeh), située en 37° 03′ N. et 45° 05′ E., est à 56 km au Sud d’Urmiya [ q.v.] dont elle a généralement dépendu administrativement. Us̲h̲nuwiyya est actuellement le chef-lieu d’un bak̲h̲s̲h̲ dans le s̲h̲ahrastān d’Urmiya. En 1991, le recensement dénombrait 23 875 habitants. Us̲h̲nū est placée sur la rive gauche de la rivière Gādir (Gader) dont le cours supérieur arrose le district de cette cité, puis qui, après avoir traversé le district de Sulduz [ q.v.], se jette dans l…

Nasā

(582 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Nisā, nom de plusieurs localités de Perse que Yāḳūt situe au Ḵh̲urāsān, au Fārs, au Kirmān et dans le district de Hamad̲h̲ān au Ḏj̲ibāl, mais W. Eilers a rassemblé un plus grand nombre de toponymes contenant l’élément nasā(r) ou des éléments linguistiques apparemment en relation avec lui. Des érudits tels que Bartholomae et Marquart ont recherché une étymologie dans l’iranien ancien śai «se trouver» (grec κεῑσθαι) comportant les idées de «localité» ou de «lieu encaissé»; Eilers l’explique cependant, en partant du néo-persan nasā, nasa(r), nisā comme signifiant «lieu situé à l’…

Sulṭāniyya

(2,457 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Blair, Sheila S.
, ville de la province islamique médiévale du Ḏj̲ibāl septentrional, à environ 50 km au Sud-est de Zand̲j̲ān [ q.v.] (lat. 36° 24′ N., long. 48° 50′ E.). 1. Histoire. Sulṭāniyya fut fondée vers la fin du VIIe/XIIe siècle par les II Ḵh̲ānides mongols, et leur servit un temps de capitale au siècle suivant. Le nom persan antérieur du district environnant était apparemment S̲h̲āhrūyāz ou S̲h̲arūyāz/S̲h̲arūbāz (qui, selon Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū, serait plus tard le site voisin de Sulṭāniyya où l’Il Ḵh̲ānide Abū Saʿīd [ q.v.] édifia son tombeau). La ville dépendait d’abord de Ḳazwīn. Les Mongols a…

ʿAbbāsābād

(108 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, nom de nombreuses agglomérations de Perse. La plus connue est un bourg fortifié situé près du Čas̲h̲me-yi-gaz, sur la route du Ḵh̲urāsān, entre Sabzawār (à environ 75 milles) et S̲h̲āhrūd (à environ 68 milles), où S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās Ier [ q.v.] installa une colonie d’une centaine de familles géorgiennes. En 1934, il ne restait plus qu’une vieille femme connaissant le géorgien. Un autre ʿAbbāsābād fut construit par le prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā [ q.v.] sur la rive gauche de l’Araxes (près de Nak̲h̲čuwān). En même temps que la tête de pont correspondante sur la rive droite, il …

Tihrān

(15,364 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Minorsky, V. | Calmard J. | Hourcade, B. | C. E. Bosworth
, le nom de deux villes en Perse. I. Tihrān, une cité de la Perse septentrionale 1. Situation géographique 2. Histoire jusqu’en 1926 3. La croissance de Tihrān (a) Le développement jusqu’aux environs de 1870. (b) Urbanisation, monuments, vie culturelle et socio-économique jusqu’aux Pahlavī. (c) La ville depuis l’avènement des Pahlavī. II.Ṭihrān ancien nom d’un village ou d’une petite ville de la province actuelle d’Iṣfahān. ¶ I. Tihrān, forme ancienne utilisée jusqu’au début du XXe siècle Ṭihrān (Yāḳūt, Buldān, éd. Beyrouth, IV, 51, donne les deux formes, Ṭihrān étant la …

Mānd

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, (Mūnd, Mund), le plus long fleuve du Fārs ( Nuzhat al-ḳulūb: 50 farsak̲h̲s; E. C. Ross: plus de 300 milles anglais). Comme d’habitude en Perse, la plupart des tronçons du fleuve portent le nom des cantons qu’ils arrosent. Mānd, qui est le nom du dernier tronçon près de l’embouchure, apparaît pour la première fois dans le Fārs-nāma (avant 510/1116), mais seulement dans le composé Māndistān (voir infra). Le vieux nom du fleuve est habituellement transcrit en caractères arabes Sakkān (al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, 120; Ibn Ḥawḳal, 191; al-Idrīsī, tr. Jaubert, I, 401) mais l’ort…

ʿAmādiya

(383 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Minorsky, V.
, ville du Kurdistān, à une centaine de km. au Nord de Mossoul, dans le bassin du Gāra (affluent de droite du Grand Zāb). La ville est située sur une colline et dominée par la citadelle bâtie sur un rocher escarpé. L’eau qui alimente la citadelle provient de citernes taillées dans le roc. La forteresse est située en un point qui, à l’Est, contrôle les communications avec les vallées des ¶ affluents de gauche du Zāb (S̲h̲amdīnān, Rū-Kučūk, Rawānduz), et, à l’Ouest, celles qui parcourent le bassin du Ḵh̲ābūr. Le climat de ʿAmādiya est chaud et malsain. D’après Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, la forteresse ti…

Arūr

(198 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Aror), également orthographié al-Rūr, ville du Sind; on peut supposer qu’elle a été la capitale du roi Musicanus, battu par Alexandre le Grand, et qu’elle est mentionnée au VIIe siècle de J.-C. par Hiung-Tsang. La ville fut conquise par Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim avant 95/714 (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 439, 440, 445) et elle est citée par al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, 172, 175 et al-Bīrūnī, Hind (Sachau) 100, 130, d’après qui elle est située à trente farsak̲h̲s au Sudouest de Multān et à 20 farsak̲h̲s en amont d’al-Manṣūra. L’Indus coulait près de la ville, mais plus tard son cours se modifia, …

Sāwd̲j̲-bulāḳ

(804 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
altération persane de sog̲h̲uḳ bulaḳ «printemps froid», en kurde Sā-blāg̲h̲, nom d’un district en Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān du Sud-ouest, au Sud du lac Urmiya, et ancien nom de son chef-lieu, actuellement Mahābād [ q.v.]... Le district comprend essentiellement le Kurdistān mukrī, habité par les tribus mukrī et debok̲h̲ī sédentaires, parlant la forme kurmānd̲j̲ī de la langue kurde (décrite classiquement par O. Mann, Die Mundart der Mukri-Kurden. Kurdischpersische Forschungen, 4e série, vol. III/1-2, Berlin 1906-9. Voir la Bibl. de Minorsky sur le kurde dans EI 1, art. Kurdes). Confession…

Marand

(1,679 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C. E.
, ville de la province persane de l’Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. ¶ Situation. Elle est située à 60 km environ au Nord de Tabrīz, à mi-chemin entre cette dernière et l’Araxe (la distance Marand—Ḏj̲ulfā est d’un peu moins de 70 km.) à 38° 25´ 30´´ N. et 45° 46´ E., et à une altitude de 1360 m environ. La route allant de Tabrīz à Ḵh̲oy bifurque également à Marand. Une route plus courte de Tabrīz à Ḵh̲oy suit la rive septentrionale du lac d’Urmiya et franchit la chaîne du Mis̲h̲ow-dag̲h̲ par le col situé entre Tasūd̲j̲ [ q.v.] et Ḍiyā al-dīn. Marand, entouré de nombreux jardins, occupe le coin oriental…

Bahārlū

(356 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, nom d’une tribu turque de Perse; en particulier, le nom s’applique à la famille régnante de la fédération des tribus turkmènes Ḳarā-ḳoyūnlū (aussi appelée Bārānī). Il est très probable que le nom («ceux de Bahār») est en rapport étroit avec le village de Bahār (Ibn al-Athīr, X, 290: W. hān, lire Vahār) situé à 13 km. au Nord de Hamadān. Selon Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzha, 107 (trad. angl. 106), le château de Bahār servit de résidence à Sulaymān-s̲h̲āh b. Parčam Īvāʾī, qui devint plus tard l’un des trois premiers ministres du calife Mustaʿṣim, et qui fut exécu…

Bābā-ṭāhir

(3,348 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, mystique et poète (dans. un dialecte persan). D’après Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān (XIXe s.), qui n’indique pas sa source, Bābā-Ṭāhir vécut à l’époque de la domination daylamite et ¶ mourut en 401/1010. Parmi ses quatrains, il y en a un qui est énigmatique: «Je suis cette mer ( baḥr) qui est entrée dans un vase; ce point qui est entré dans la lettre. Dans chaque alf («millier», c’est-à-dire d’années?) s’élève un alif-ḳadd (un homme à la taille droite comme la lettre alif). Je suis cet alif-ḳadd qui est venu dans cet alf». Dans le JASB, Mahdī Ḵh̲ān a donné de ce quatrain une interprétation extrêmeme…

Marāg̲h̲a

(5,464 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, ancienne capitale de l’Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. Situation. La ville (37° 23´ N. et 46° 15´ E.) est située à une altitude de 1400 m sur le versant méridional du mont Sahand (3547 m) qui la sépare de Tabrīz [ q.v.]. Cela explique une très considérable différence de climat entre les deux villes distantes en ligne droite de 78 km seulement (par la grand-route 130 km). Le climat de Marāg̲h̲a est doux et assez humide (Ḥamd Allāh et Mecquenem 1904). L’abondance de l’eau contribue à la richesse de la végétation. Les fruits de Marāg̲h̲a sont célè…

Aḥmadīlīs

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, dynastie de princes de Marāg̲h̲a. Il faut distinguer entre l’éponyme Aḥmadīl et ses successeurs. Aḥmadīl b. Ibrāhīm b. Wahsūdān al-Rawwādī al-Kurdī descendait de la branche locale d’une famille d’origine arabe établie à Tabrīz, les Rawwād (de la tribu d’Azd) (v. Rawwādides) Avec le temps, cette famille fut assimilée par les Kurdes et le nom d’Aḥmadīl lui-même est visiblement formé à l’aide d’un suffixe diminutif iranien (kurde) - īl. Aḥmadīl prit part à la contre-Croisade de 505/1111. Pendant le siège de Tall Bās̲h̲ir, Jocelyn conclut un arrangement avec luiet…

Ānī

(1,786 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Minorsky, V.
, ancienne capitale arménienne, dont les ruines se trouvent sur la rive droite de l’Arpa-Čay (que les Arméniens nomment Ak̲h̲uryan) à environ 32 km. du confluent de cette rivière avec l’Araxe. On a suggéré que la ville devait peut-être son nom à un temple de la déesse iranienne Anāhita (l’Anaïtis grecque). Le site était occupé avant l’ère chrétienne, car on a trouvé des tombes païennes au voisinage immédiat de la ville. Ānῑ est mentionnée comme une forteresse dès le Ve s. ap. J.-C.; sa fondation fut conditionnée par sa position entre le ravin de Tsalkotz-dzor, dans lequel …

Ak̲h̲isk̲h̲a

(166 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, nom persan et turc d’une ville, en géorgien Ak̲h̲al Tsik̲h̲e, «Nouvelle Forteresse», située sur la rivière Posk̲h̲ov (affluent de gauche du haut Kur), capitale de la province géorgienne Samtsk̲h̲e (plus tard Sa-atabago) qui est mentionnée dans les conquêtes de Ḥabīb b. Maslama (sous Muʿāwiya), al-Balād̲h̲urī, 203. Sous les Mongols, les souverains locaux (de la famille Ḏj̲aḳʿeli) devinrent autonomes et reçurent le titre d’ atabegs. Le nom Ḳūrḳūra que l’on rencontre dans les sources persanes et turques se rapporte à ces princes dont plusieurs portèrent le nom d…

Lām

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Burrell, R.M.
, Banū, tribu arabe nombreuse et autrefois puissante qui demeure sur la frontière irako-iranienne, principalement entre les contreforts du Pus̲h̲t-i Kūh et le Tigre. La limite orientale du territoire de la tribu suit le cours du Kark̲h̲a [ q.v.] vers le Sud, de Pâ-yi Pul à la zone située au Nord de Ḥawīza où la rivière s’épuise dans des marécages salés. Le cours du Tigre entre S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿd et ʿAmāra forme la limite occidentale de ce territoire. De petits groupes isolés de Banū Lām ont été observés à l’extérieur de leur territoire…

Lūlī

(2,826 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Elwell-Sutton, L.P.
, un des noms donnés, en Perse, aux gitans (formes parallèles: en persan, lūrī, lōrī, dans Farhang-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī; en balūčī, lōrī; Denys Bray, Census ofBaluchistan, 1911, IV, 143, fournit l’étymologie populaire qui fait venir ce terme de lor «lot, part»). Le nom de Lūlī se rencontre pour la première fois dans une légende relative au règne de Bahrām Gūr (420-38 de J.-C.); à la demande de ce roi sāsānide qui voulait amuser ses sujets, le roi indien S̲h̲angal (?) envoya en Perse 4000 (12 000) musiciens de son pays; Ḥamza al-Iṣfahānī (350/961), éd. Berlin-Kaviani, 38, les appelle al-Zuṭṭ [ q.v.]…

Rūyān

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a district of the Caspian coastlands region of Persia comprising the western half of Māzandarān [ q.v.]. Iranian tradition. According to Darmesteter, Avesta , ii, 416, Rūyān corresponds to the mountain called Raodita (“reddish”) in Yas̲h̲t , 19, 2, and Rōyis̲h̲nōmand in Bundahis̲h̲n , xii, 2, 27 (tr. West, 34). Al-Bīrūnī, Chronologie , ed. Sachau, 220, makes Rūyān the scene of the exploits of the archer Āris̲h̲ (cf. Ẓahīr al-Dīn Marʿas̲h̲ī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Ṭabaristān u Rūyān u Māzandarān , ed. Dorn, 18 [ Yas̲h̲t 8, 6, in this connection mentions the hill Aryō-xs̲h̲nθa]). In the …

Sulṭāniyya

(2,425 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Blair, Sheila S.
, a town in the mediaeval Islamic province of northern D̲j̲ibāl some 50 km/32 miles to the southeast of Zand̲j̲ān [ q.v.] (lat. 36° 24′ N., long. 48° 50′ E.). 1. History. Sulṭāniyya was founded towards the end of the 7th/13th century by the Mongol Il K̲h̲ānids and served for a while in the following century as their capital. The older Persian name of the surrounding district was apparently S̲h̲āhrūyāz or S̲h̲ārūyāz/S̲h̲arūbāz (which was to be the site, adjacent to Sulṭāniyya, of the tomb which the Il K̲h̲ānid Abū Saʿīd [ q.v.] built for himself, according to Ḥāfiẓ-i Abrū). It was orig…

ʿAnnāzids

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
( banū ʿannāz ), a dynasty (c. 381-511/991-1117) in the frontier region between ʿIrāḳ and Iran, which was one of the manifestations of the period "between the Arabs and the Turks" when, in the wake of the westward expansion of the Būyids, numerous principalities of Iranian origin sprang up in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and Kurdistān. As the rise of the Banū ʿAnnāz was based on the S̲h̲ād̲h̲and̲j̲ān Kurds, the dynasty should be considered as Kurdish, although the Arabic names and titles of the majority of the rulers indicate the Arab links of the ruling fami…

Marand

(1,740 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
1. Town in the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies about 40 miles north of Tabrīz, halfway between it and the Araxes or Aras in lat. 38° 25′ 30″ N. and 45° 46″ E. at an altitude of ca. 4,400 feet/1,360m. (it is 42 miles from Marand to D̲j̲ulfā). The road from Tabrīz to K̲h̲oy also branches off at Marand. A shorter road from Tabrīz to K̲h̲oy follows the north bank of Lake Urmiya and crosses the Mis̲h̲owdag̲h̲ range by the pass between Tasūd̲j̲ [ q.v.] and Ḍiyā al-Dīn. Marand, which is surrounded by many gardens, occupies the eastern corner of a rather beau…

S̲h̲akkī

(2,255 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a district in Eastern Transcaucasia. In Armenian it is called S̲h̲akʿē, in Georgian S̲h̲akʿa (and S̲h̲akik̲h̲?); the Arabs write S̲h̲akkay = S̲h̲akʿē (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 123, al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, 183, al-Balād̲h̲urī, 206), S̲h̲akkī (Yāḳūt, iii, 311), S̲h̲akkan (Ibn al-Faḳīh, 293, al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 194), S̲h̲akīn (al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ ii, 68-9 = § 500). The usual boundaries of S̲h̲akkī were: on the east, the Gök-čay which separates it from S̲h̲īrwān [ q.v.] proper; on the west, the Alazan (Turk. Ḳani̊ḳ?) and its left tributary the Ḳas̲h̲ḳa-čay, which separ…

Abīward

(738 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, or Bāward , a town and district on the northern slopes of the mountains of Ḵh̲urāsān in an area now belonging to the autonomous Turkoman republic which forms part of the U.S.S.R. The whole oasis region including Nasā [ q.v.], Abīward etc. (known by the Turkish name of Ātāk "foothills") played a great part in ancient times as the first line of defence of Ḵh̲urāsān against the nomads. In the Arsacid period this region was in the ancestral country of the dynasty. Isidore of Charax, par. 13 (at the beginning of the Christian era) mentions between Παρθυηνή (with the…

Wān

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C. E.
, conventionally Van , the name of a lake and of a town (lat. 38° 28’ N., long. 43° 21’ E.) in what is now the Kurdish region of southeastern Turkey. 1. The lake (modern Tkish., Van Gölü). This is a large stretch of water now spanning the ils of Van and Bitlis. It lies at an altitude of 1,720 m/5,640 feet, with a rise in level during the summer when the snows on the surrounding mountain ranges melt. Its area is 3,737 km2/1,443 sq. miles. Being landlocked, with no outlet, it has a high content of mineral salts, especially sodium carbonate, which makes its water undrinkable, but…

Ābādah

(149 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small town in Persia, on the eastern (winter) road from S̲h̲īrāz to Iṣfahān. By the present-day highway Ābādah lies at 280 km. from S̲h̲īrāz, at 204 km. from Iṣfahān, and by a road branching off eastwards (via Abarḳūh) at 100 km. from Yazd. In the present-day administration (1952) Ābādah is the northernmost district ( s̲h̲ahristān ) of the province ( astān ) of Fārs. The population is chiefly engaged in agriculture and trade (opium, castor-oil; sesame-oil). Iḳlīd (possibly * kilid "key [to Fārs]") is another small town belonging to Ābādah. The whole…

Tihrān

(15,785 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Minorsky, V. | V. Minorsky | Calmard, J. | Hourcade, B. | Et al.
, the name of two places in Persia. I. Tihrān, a city of northern Persia. 1. Geographical position. 2. History to 1926. 3. The growth of Tihrān. (a). To ca 1870. (b). Urbanisation, monuments, cultural and socioeconomic life until the time of the Pahlavīs. (c). Since the advent of the Pahlavīs. II. Tihrān, the former name of a village or small town in the modern province of Iṣfahān. I. Tihrān, older form (in use until the earlier 20th century) Ṭihrān (Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iv, 51, gives both forms, with Ṭihrān as the head word; al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, i…

Ṣamṣām al-Salṭana

(747 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Cronin, Stephanie
, Nad̲j̲af Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, a Bak̲h̲tiyārī chief born about 1846. His father was Ḥusayn Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān, more commonly known as Īlk̲h̲ānī, the first Bak̲h̲tiyārī leader to be formally designated Īlk̲h̲ān of all the Bak̲h̲tiyārī by the imperial government in Tehran, and who was poisoned on the orders of prince Ẓill al-Sulṭān, the famous governor-general of Iṣfāhān, who feared his growing power. Ṣamṣām al-Salṭana was Īlbeg of the Bak̲h̲tiyārī in 1903-5 and later Īlk̲h̲ān. He is remembered principally for the part he played as one of the leaders of the Bak̲h̲tiyārī intervention …

Rām-Hurmuz

(856 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
(the contracted form Rāmiz , Rāmuz is found as early as the 4th/10th century), a town and district in K̲h̲ūzistān [ q.v.] in southwestern Persia. Rām-Hurmuz lies about 55 miles southeast of Ahwāz, 65 miles south-south-east of S̲h̲ūs̲h̲tar, and 60 miles north-east of Bihbihān. Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 43, reckons it 17 farsak̲h̲ s from Ahwāz to Rām-Hurmuz and 22 farsak̲h̲s from Rām-Hurmuz to Arrad̲j̲ān. Ḳudāma, 194, who gives a more detailed list of stages, counts it 50 farsak̲h̲s from Wāsiṭ to Baṣra, thence 35 farsak̲h̲s to Ahwāz, thence 20 farsak̲h̲s to Rām-Hurmuz, and then 24 farsak̲h̲s …

Abū Dulaf

(576 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Misʿar b. Muhalhil al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ī al-Yanbuʿī , an Arab poet, traveller and mineralogist. The earliest date in his biography is his appearance in Buk̲h̲ārā towards the end of the reign of. Naṣr b. Aḥmad (d. in 331/943). His travels in Persia hint at the years 331-341/943-952. Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, whom Abū Dulaf mentions as his patron in Sīstān (read: *Aḥmad b. Muḥammad), ruled 331-52/942-63. The author of the Fihrist (completed in 377/987) refers to him as d̲j̲awwāla “globe-trotter” and as his personal acquaintance. Al-T̲h̲aʿālibī in his Yatīmat al-Dahr

Ānī

(1,773 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Minorsky, V.
, ancient Armenian capital, whose ruins lie on the right bank of the Arpa-Čay (called by the Armenians Ak̲h̲uryan) at about 20 miles from the point where that river joins the Araxes. A suggestion has been made that the town may owe its name to a temple of the Iranian goddess Anāhita (the Greek Anaďtis). The site was inhabited in the pre-Christian period, for pagan tombs have been found in the immediate vicinity of the town. As a fortress Ānī is mentioned as early as the 5th century A.D. Its foun…

Ḳubba

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(now Ḳuba), a district in the eastern Caucasus between Bākū and Derbend [ q.vv.]. The district of Ḳubba, with an area of 2,800 sq. miles, is bounded on the north by a large river, the Samūr, which flows into the Caspian, on the west by the “district” of Samūr which belongs to Dāg̲h̲istān [ q.v.], on the south by the southern slopes of the Caucasian range (peaks: S̲h̲āh-Dag̲h̲, 13,951 feet high, Bābā Dag̲h̲, 11,900) which separate Ḳubba from S̲h̲amāk̲h̲a (cf. the article s̲h̲īrwān ), on the southeast by the district of Bākū and on the east by the Caspian. …

Maṣmug̲h̲an

(1,910 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, (“great one of the Magians”) a Zoroastrian dynasty which the Arabs found in the region of Dunbāwand (Damāwand [ q.v.]) to the north of Ray. The origins of the Maṣmug̲h̲āns. The dynasty seems to have been an old, though not particularly celebrated, one, as is shown by the legends recorded by Ibn al-Faḳīh, 275-7, and in al-Bīrūnī, Āt̲h̲ār , 227. The title of maṣmug̲h̲ān is said to have been conferred by Farīdūn upon Armāʾīl, Bēwarāsp’s former cook (Zohāk), who had been able to save half the young men destined to perish as food for the t…

Ṣaḥna

(299 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small town in the Zagros Mountains of western Persia on the highroad between Kangāwar and Bīsutūn at 61 km/38 miles from Kirmāns̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. The district of Ṣaḥna contains about 28 villages inhabited by settled Turks belonging to the tribe of K̲h̲odābandalū (of Hamadān). At Ṣaḥna there are a few Ahl-i-Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.], who are in touch with their spiritual superiors in Dīnawar [ q.v.], a frontier district in the north. Ṣaḥna must not be confused with Sinna [ q.v.] or Sanandad̲j̲ [ q.v.], the capital of the Persian province of Kurdistān, the former residence of the Wālīs of Ardalān [ q.v.]. Quit…

Nirīz

(357 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a place in Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān on the road from Marāg̲h̲a [ q.v.] to Urmiya [ q.v.] south of the Lake of Urmiya. The stages on this route are still obscure. At about 15 farsak̲h̲ s south of Marāg̲h̲a was the station of Barza where the road bifurcated; the main road continued southward to Dīnawar, while the northwestern one went from Barza to Tiflīs (2 farsak̲h̲s), thence to D̲j̲ābarwān (6 farsak̲h̲s), thence to Nirīz (4 farsak̲h̲s), thence to Urmiya (14 farsak̲h̲s); cf. Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih. 121 (repeated by Ḳudāma with some variations); al-Muḳaddasī, 383. The distance from Urmiya indi…

Mūḳān

(2,961 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Mūg̲h̲ān . a steppe lying to the south of the lower course of the Araxes, the northern part of which (about 5,000 square km.) belongs to the Azerbaijan SSR and the other part (50-70 × ca. 50 km.) to Persia. The steppe which covers what was once the bottom of the sea has been formed by the alluvial deposits from the Kur (in Russian, Koura) and its tributary the Araxes. (The latter has several times changed its course and one of its arms flows directly into the gulf of Ki̊zi̊l-Aghač.) In the interior, the only water in Mūg̲h̲ān is…

Mag̲h̲nisa

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Faroqhi, Suraiya
, modern Turkish form Manisa, classical Magnesia, a town of western Anatolia, in the ancient province of Lydia, lying to the south of the Gediz river on the northeastern slopes of the Manisa Daği, which separates it from Izmir or Smyrna (lat. 38° 36′ N., long 27° 27′ E.). In Greek and then Roman times, Magnesia ad Sipylum was a flourishing town, noted amongst other things for the victory won in its vicinity by the two Scipios over Antiochus the Great of Syria in 190 B.C., and continued to flourish under the Byzantines (see Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie , xxvii, 472-…

Nihāwand

(803 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in the Zagros Mountains of western Persia, in the mediaeval Islamic province of D̲j̲ibāl [ q.v.], situated in lat. 34° 13’ N. and long. 48° 21’ E. and lying at an altitude of 1,786 m/5,860 feet. It is on the branch of the Gāmāsāb which comes from the south-east from the vicinity of Burūd̲j̲ird; the Gāmāsāb then runs westwards to Bisūtūn. Nihāwand lies on the southern road which, coming from Kirmāns̲h̲āh (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 198), leads into central Persia (Iṣfahān) avoiding the massif of Alwand (’Οροω…

Sarpul-i D̲h̲uhāb

(575 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(“bridgehead of Zohāb”), a place on the way to the Zagros Mountains on the great Bag̲h̲dād-Kirmāns̲h̲āh road, taking its name from the stone bridge of two arches over the river Alwand, a tributary on the left bank of the Diyāla. Sarpul in the early 20th century consisted simply of a little fort ( ḳūr-k̲h̲āna = “arsenal”) in which the governor of Zohāb lived (the post was regularly filled by the chief of the tribe of Gūrān), a caravanserai, a garden of cypress and about 40 houses. The old town of Zohāb, about 4 hours to the no…

Arūr

(204 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(aror) also written al-rūr , town in Sind; it is surmised to have been the capital of king Musicanus, defeated by Alexander the Great, and to be mentioned in the 7th century A.D. by Hiungtsang. The town was conquered by Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim before 95/714 (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūh , 439, 440, 445) and it is mentioned by al-Istak̲h̲rī, 172, 175, and al-Bīrunī, Hind (Sachau), 100, 130, according to whom it lay thirty farsak̲h̲s S-W of Multān and twenty farsak̲h̲s upstream from al-Manṣūra. The Indus used to flow near the town, but later it changed its course, destroying the pro…

Lūlī

(2,957 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Elwell-Sutton, L.P.
, one of the names for gipsies in Persia; parallel forms are: in Persian, lūrī , lōrī ( Farhang-i D̲j̲ahāngīrī ); in Balūčī, lōṛī (Denys Bray, Census of Baluchistan , 1911, iv, 143, gives the popular etymology from lōṛ = “lot, share”). The name lūlī is first found in a legend relating to the reign of Bahrām Gūr (420-38 A.D.). At the request of this Sāsānid King, who wished to amuse his subjects, the Indian king S̲h̲angal (?) sent to Persia 4,000 (12,000) Indian musicians. Ḥamza (350/961), ed. Berlin-Kaviani, 38, calls them al-Zuṭṭ [ q.v.], Firdawsī (Mohl, vi, 76-7), Lūriyān; T̲h̲aʿālibī, G̲h̲ur…

Sulaymāniyya

(1,807 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Ed.
, a town and district in southern Kurdistān, since the Ottoman reconquest of ʿIrāḳ from the Ṣafawids in the 11th/17th ¶ century under nominal Ottoman suzerainty, and since the aftermath of the First World War in the kingdom and then republic of ʿIrāḳ. The town lies in lat. 35° 32′ E. and long. 45° 27′ N. at an altitude of 838 m/2,750 feet, and is 90 km/54 miles east of Kirkūk [ q.v.], to which it is connected by road. The historical region of Sulaymāniyya lies between what is now the ʿIrāḳ-Persia frontier, the Diyāla [ q.v.] and its upper affluents the Tand̲j̲aru and Sīrwān, the region of …

Sunḳur

(533 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
or Sonḳor , the name of a district and of a present-day small town in western Persia (town: lat. 34° 45′ N., long 47° 39′ E.). It lies in the Zagros Mountains between modern Kangāwar [see kinkiwar ] and Sanandad̲j̲ [ q.v.] or Sinna, within the modern province of Kirmāns̲h̲āh. In mediaeval Islamic times, it lay on the road between Dīnawar [ q.v.] and Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, and must correspond approximately to the first marḥala on the stretch from Dīnawar to Sīsar, the name of which is read al-D̲j̲ārbā (al-Muḳaddasī, 382), K̲h̲arbārd̲j̲ān (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 119; Ḳudāma, 212), etc. which was 7 f…

Lām

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Burrell, R.M.
, Banū , a numerous and formerly powerful Arab tribe living on the borders of Iran and ʿIrāḳ, principally on the plain between the foothills of the Pus̲h̲t-i Kūh mountains and the river Tigris. The easterly limit of the main tribal territory follows the course of the Rūd-i Kark̲h̲a southwards from Pā-yi Pul to the area north of Ḥawīza where the river peters out into salt flats. The course of the Tigris between S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿd and ʿAmāra forms the westerly limit of that territ…

Abaskūn

(203 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(or Ābaskūn ), a harbour in the south-eastern corner of the Caspian. It is described as a dependency of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān/Gurgān (Yāḳūt, i, 55: 3 days’ distance from Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān; i, 91: 24 farsak̲h̲s). It might be located near the estuary of the Gurgān river (at Ḵh̲od̲j̲a-Nefes?). Al-Istak̲h̲rī, 214 (Ibn Ḥawḳal, 273) calls Abaskūn the greatest of the (Caspian) harbours. The Caspian itself was sometimes called Baḥr Abaskūn . Abaskūn possibly corresponds to Ptolemy’s Σωκανάα in Hyrcania (Gurgān). Several times Abaskūn ¶ was raided by Rūs pirates (some time between 250-70/864-84, a…

Nasā

(583 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Nisā , the name of several places in Persia. Yāḳūt enumerates Nasās in K̲h̲urāsān. Fārs, Kirmān and the district of Hamad̲h̲ān in D̲j̲ibāl, but W. Eilers has assembled a much larger number of Persian place names containing the element nasā ( r) or containing linguistic elements apparently connected with it. Scholars like Bartholomae and Marquart sought an etymology in Old Iranian śai- “to lie” (Grk. Κεῖσθαι), with the ideas of “settlement” or “low-lying place”; Eilers however explains it as from NP nasā, nasa ( r), nisā , “place lying in the shade (e.g. of a mountain)” ( Iranische Ortsname…

Bābā-Ṭāhir

(3,476 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a mystic and poet who wrote in a Persian dialect. According to Riḍā Ḳulī Ḵh̲ān (19th century), who does not give his source, Bābā-Ṭāhir lived in the period of Daylamī rule and died in 401/1010. Among his quatrains there is an enigmatical one: “I am that sea ( baḥr ) which entered into a vase; that point which entered into the letter. In each alf (“thousand”, i.e. of years?) arises an alif-ḳadd (a man upright in stature like the letter alif ). I am the alif-ḳadd who has corne in this alf” . Mahdī Ḵh̲ān in the JASB has given an extremely curious interpretation of this quatrain: the letters alf-ḳd

Māzandarān

(7,117 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Vasmer, R.
, a province to the south of the Caspian Sea bounded on the west by Gīlān [ q. v.] and on the east by what was in Ḳad̲j̲ār times the province of Astarābād [ q.v., formerly Gurgān); Māzandarān and Gurgān now form the modern ustān or province of Māzandarān. 1. The name. If Gurgān to the Iranians was the "land of the wolves" ( vәhrkāna , the region to its west was peopled by "Māzaynian dēws" (Bartholomae, Altir . Wörterbuch , col. 1169, under māzainya daēva ). Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta , ii, 373, n. 32, thought that Māzandarān was a "comparative of direction" (* Mazana-tara ; c…

Sāwa

(1,839 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E. | Schaeder, H.H.
(older form Sāwad̲j̲, cf. the nisba Sāwad̲j̲ī, found at the side of Sāwī), a town of northern Persia some 125 km/80 miles to the southwest of Tehran (lat. 35° 00′ N., long. 50° 22′ E., altitude 960 m/3,149 feet). It was formerly on the Ḳazwīn-Ḳumm road used in mediaeval times but now replaced by the modern paved roads-system centred on Tehran, and on the main caravan and pilgrimage route from southwestern Persia a…

Ṣāʾīn Ḳalʿa

(442 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a little town and district in ¶ southern Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, on the right bank of the D̲j̲ag̲h̲ātū. the modern town of S̲h̲āhīn Diz̲h̲. In the south the boundary runs a little over the river Sāruḳ, a tributary on the right bank of the D̲j̲ag̲h̲ātū. In the north it is bounded by the district of ʿAd̲j̲arī, in the east by the province of K̲h̲amse. The name is derived from the Mongol sayin “good”. The local Turkish Afs̲h̲ar tribe, of which a part had to emigrate to Urmiya to make room for the Čārdawrī (Čārdowlī) tribe of Lur origin (the district of Čardawr on the Saymar…

Ak̲h̲lāṭ

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Taeschner, F.
or ḵh̲ilāṭ , town and fortress at the N.W. corner of Lake Wān. (i) In Armenian the town is called Ḵh̲latʿ, the name being possibly connected with the ancient inhabitants of the country, the Urartian Ḵh̲alds. It lies half-way between Sipan Dag̲h̲ and Nimrūd Dag̲h̲ on the route taken by invasions from Mesopotamia into eastern Armenia. Al-Balād̲h̲urī, 200, reckons it to Armenia III, which in the Arab view included Ḳālīḳalā (Erzerum), Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲ and Baḥunays (i.e. either Apahunikʿ, where Manāzgird lies, or Bznunikʿ, the district of Ak̲h̲lāṭ). Under ʿUmar, ʿIyāḍ b. G̲h̲anm made a tre…

Suldūz

(736 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a small district of western Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in Persia, to the south-west of Lake Urmiya, on the lower course of the Gādir-čay, which here receives on its right bank the Bāyzāwa and Mamad-s̲h̲āh and flows into the Lake. To the west it is bordered by Us̲h̲nū, which lies on the upper course of the Gādir, from which it is separated by the Darband gorge through which the river runs; to the north it is bounded by the little district of Dōl (cf. Dōl-i Bārīk, in S̲h̲araf al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Bidlīsī, S̲h̲araf-nāma , St. Petersburg 1860-2, i, 288) belonging to Urmiya; to the…

Sanandad̲j̲

(820 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
or sinandad̲j̲ , older form sinna, the administrative capital of the modern Persian province of Kurdistān and the general name for the district round it. l. The town. The name Sinna came into historical prominence only from the 9th/15th century onwards, the main urban centre of the district having preciously been Sīsar [ q.v.], as the seat of the Kurdish wālīs or local rulers of Ardalān [ q.v.]. Under the year 988/1580, the 10th/16th century historian of the Kurds, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn K̲h̲ān Bidlīsī [ q.v.], speaks in his S̲h̲araf-nāma (ed. V. Véliaminof-Zernof, S…

Ṣōmāy

(868 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a Kurdish district of Persia lying between the Turkish frontier (modern il or province of Hakkâri) and the western shore of Lake Urmiya, hence falling within the modern Persian ustān or province of West Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. In Kurdish, sōmāy means “view” (cf. in Persian sūma “terminus, finis, scopus”, Vullers, ii, 352). To the north, Ṣōmāy is separated from the basin of the Zola Čay (S̲h̲epirān, Salmās [ q.v.]) by the mountains of Bere-dī, Und̲j̲ali̊ḳ and Ag̲h̲wān; on the east the canton of Anzal separates it from Lake Urmiya; to the south-east lies the S̲h̲ayk̲…

Alind̲j̲aḳ

(86 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
or ālind̲j̲a (in Armenian Ernd̲j̲ak, a district of the province Siunikʿ), now ruins within the Nak̲h̲ičewān territory of the Azerbayd̲j̲an Soviet Socialist Republic. The river Alind̲j̲a flows into the Araxes near Old Ḏj̲ulfa. The ancient fortress Alind̲j̲aḳ stood some 20 km. above its estuary on the right bank of the river, on the top of an extremely steep mountain (near the village Ḵh̲ānaḳā). The fortress played a considerable role at the Tīmūrid and Turkman period. (V. Minorsky) Bibliography V. Minorsky, Caucasica, JA, 1930, 93-4, 112.

Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ

(4,113 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, "Men of God", a secret religion prevalent mainly in western Persia. Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ would seem to be a rather imprecise name for this sect, because it is used, for example, by the Ḥurūfīs (see Cl. Huart, Textes persans relatives à la secte des Ḥurūfī , 1909, 40), and because it has an affinity with such ṣūfī terms as Ahl-i Ḥaḳīḳa , a term which is also used by the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ. In the strict sense, however, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ is the name properly given to initiates of the religion described in the present article. The name ʿAlī Ilāhī [ q.v.] applied to them by their neighbours is an unsuitable title, beca…

Alān

(624 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Minorsky, V.
(in Arabic usually taken as al-lān ), an Iranian people (Alān < Aryan) of Northern Caucasus, formerly attested also east of the Caspian sea (see al-Bīrūnī, Taḥdīd al-Amākin , ed. A. Z. Validi, in Bīrūnī’s Picture of the world, 57), as supported by local toponymy. The Alān are mentioned in history from the 1st century A.D. In 371 they were defeated by the Huns. Together with the Vandals, a part of the Alāns migrated to the West across France and Spain, and finally took part in the creation of the Vandal kingdom in North Africa (418-5…

Ak̲h̲isk̲h̲a

(172 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the Persian and Turkish name of a town, in Georgian ak̲h̲al tsik̲h̲e , "New Fortress", situated on the Posk̲h̲ov river (left tributary of the upper Kur), centre of the Georgian province Samtsk̲h̲e (later Sa-atabago) which is mentioned among the conquests of Ḥabīb b. Maslama (under Muʿāwiya), al-Balād̲h̲urī, 203. ¶ Under the Mongols the local rulers (of the Ḏj̲akilʿe family) became autonomous and received the title of atabegs . The name Ḳurḳūra found in Persian and Turkish sources refers to these rulers of whom several bore the name of Ḳuarḳuare (see Brosset, Histoire de la Géorgie

Luristān

(3,402 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “land of the Lurs”, a region in the south-west of Persia. In the Mongol period the terms “Great Lur” and “Little Lur” roughly covered all the lands inhabited by Lur tribes. Since the Ṣafawid period, the lands of the Great Lur have been distinguished by the names of Kūh-Gīlū and Bak̲h̲tiyārī. At the beginning of the 18th century, the Mamāsanī confederation occupied the old S̲h̲ūlistān [ q.v.] and thus created a third Lur territory between Kūh-Gīlū and S̲h̲īrāz. It is however only since the 16th century that Lur-i Kūčik [ q.v.] has been known as Luristān (for greater precision it was …

Yag̲h̲mā D̲j̲andaḳī

(693 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ or pen-name of the Persian poet Mīrzā Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm ( ca. 1196-1276/ ca. 1782-1859), often called by his fellow-poets Ḳaḥba-zan “whore” from the expression repeated monotonously in his obscene verse. He was born at K̲h̲ūr in the D̲j̲andaḳ oasis in the central desert of the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr, roughly half-way between Yazd and Simnān. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of seven his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl K̲h̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī, whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī ) he ultimately became. Hi…

Sīsar

(742 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town of mediaeval Islamic Persian Kurdistān, in the region bounded by Hamadān, Dīnawar and Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. The Arab geographers ¶ place Sīsar on the Dīnawar-Marāg̲h̲a road 20-22 farsak̲h̲s (3 stages) north of Dīnawar (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 119-21; Ḳudāma, 212; al-Muḳaddasī, 382). According to al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 310, Sīsar occupied a depression ( ink̲h̲ifāḍ ) surrounded by 30 mounds, whence its Persian name “30 summits”. For greater accuracy it was called Sīsar of Ṣadk̲h̲āniya ( wakāna Sīsar tudʿā Sīsar Ṣadk̲h̲āniya ), which al-Balād̲h̲urī …

Marāg̲h̲a

(5,725 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the old capital of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies in lat. 37° 23′ N. and long 46° 15′ E. at a height of 5,500 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of Mount Sahand (11,800 feet high) which separates it from Tabrīz [ q.v.]. This explains the very considerable difference in climate ¶ between the two towns, which are only 50 miles apart as the crow flies (by the high road 80 miles). The climate of Marāg̲h̲a is mild and rather moist (H̲amd Allāh and Mecquenem, 1904). The plentiful water supply makes the vegetation rich. The fruit of …

Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab

(489 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a town in the district of Buk̲h̲ārā, also called Nasaf by the Arab geographers (cf. the similar evolution of Nas̲h̲awā from Nak̲h̲čiwān). The town lay in the valley of the Kas̲h̲ka-Daryā, cf. Ibn Ḥawḳal, 2460, tr. Kramers and Wiet, 444: Kas̲h̲k-rūd̲h̲, which runs southwards parallel to the Zarafs̲h̲ān (river of Samarḳand) and runs towards the Amū-Daryā [ q.v.] but before joining it disappears in the sands. Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab lay on the road joining Buk̲h̲ārā to Balk̲h̲ four days’ journey from the former and eight from the latter (cf. al-Muḳaddasī, 344). In…

al-Rayy

(3,224 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, the ancient Rag̲h̲ā, a city in the old Persian region of Media, during Islamic times in the province of D̲j̲ibāl [ q.v.]. Its ruins may be seen about 5 miles south-southeast of Tehran [ q.v.] to the south of a spur projecting from Elburz into the plain. The village and sanctuary of S̲h̲āh ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm lie immediately south of the ruins. The geographical importance of the town lies in the fact that it was situated in the fertile zone which lies between the mountains and the desert, by which from time immemorial communication ha…

Sipihr

(400 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “celestial sphere”, nom-de-plume ( tak̲h̲alluṣ ) of the Persian historian and man of letters, Mīrzā Muḥammad Taḳī of Kās̲h̲ān (d. Rabīʿ II 1297/March 1880). After a studious youth spent in his native town, he settied definitely in Tehran, where he found a patron in the poet-laureate ( malik al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ ) of Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh. On his accession (1250/1834), Muḥammad S̲h̲āh appointed him his private panegyrist ( maddāḥ-i k̲h̲āṣṣa ) and secretary and accountant in the treasury ( muns̲h̲ī wa-mustawfī-i dīwān ). The same S̲h̲āh entrusted him with the compo…

Mayyāfāriḳīn

(5,233 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Hillenbrand, Carole
, a town in the northeast of Diyār Bakr [ q.v.]. The other Islamic forms of the name are Māfārḳīn, Mafārḳīn, Fārḳīn (whence the name of origin al-Fāriḳī), etc. The town is called in Greek Martyropolis, in Syriac Mīpherḳēt, in Armenian Nphkert (later Muharkin, Muphargin). According to Yāḳūt, iv, 702, the old name of the town was Madūr-ṣālā (read ḳāla < * matur-khalakh in Armenian, "town of the martyrs"). On the identification of Tigranocerta with Mayyāfariḳīn, see below. 1. Topography and early history. Geography. The town lies to the south of the little r…

Ṭūs

(5,013 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a district in K̲h̲urāsān, original Persian form Tōs (also thus in the later 8th century Armenian geography, see Markwart-Messina, A catalogue of the provincial capitals of Ērānshahr , Rome 1931, 11, 47), which played a notable part in the medieval Islamic period of Persia’s Islamic history. ¶ 1. History. In early Islamic times, Ṭūs was the name of a district containing several towns. The town of Nawḳān flourished down to the end of the 3rd/9th century. The form Nawḳān < Nōḳan is confirmed by the present name of the Mas̲h̲had quarter Nawg̲h̲ān (where the diphthong aw corresponds to the old wāw…

Uzun Ḥasan

(4,960 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
b. ʿAlī b. Ḳara yoluk ʿUt̲h̲mān , Abū Naṣr, born in 828/1425, died in 882/1478, and together with his grandfather, one of the most celebrated rulers of the line of Aḳ Ḳoyunlu Turkmens [ q.v.] and a statesman and military commander of genius. Expanding from his family’s base in Diyār Bakr [ q.v.], Uzun (“the Tall”) overcame his Ḳara Ḳoyunlu [ q.v] Turkmen rivals, and in the east defeated his rivals for control of Persia, the Tīmūrids [ q.v.], reigning 861-82/1457-78 over a powerful and extensive state which comprised western Persia and Kirmān as far as the borders of K̲h̲u…

Abhar

(109 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam : Awhar), a small town owing its importance to the fact that it lies half-way between Ḳazwīn (86 km) and Zand̲j̲ān (88 km.) and that from it a road branched off southwards to Dīnawar. It was conquered in 24/645 by Barāʾ b. ʿĀzib, governor of Rayy. Between 386/996 and 409/1029 it formed the fief of a Musāfirid [ q.v.] prince. The stronghold of Sar-d̲j̲ahān (in Rāḥat al-ṣudūr : Sar-čāhān), lying some 25 km. N.W. of Abhar near a pass leading into Tārom [ q.v.] played an important rôle under the Sald̲j̲ūkids. (V. Minorsky) Bibliography Le Strange, 221 Schwarz, Iran, 726-8 Minorsky,…

Us̲h̲nū

(803 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Us̲h̲nuh, Us̲h̲nūya), a district and small town of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. The modern town, known as Ushnuwiyya (Oshnoviyeh), situated in lat. 37° 03ʹ N., long. 45° 05ʹ E., is some 56 km/35 miles south of Urmiya [ q.v.], on which it has usually been administratively dependent. It is at present the cheflieu of a bak̲h̲s̲h̲ in the s̲h̲ahrastān of Urmiya. The present population (1991 census results) is 23,875. The district of Us̲h̲nū is watered by the upper course of the river Gādir (Gader) which, after traversing the district of Sulduz [ q.v.], flows into Lake Urmiya on the south-west. To …

Laz

(2,868 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Lang, D.M.
, a people of South Caucasian stock (Iberic, “Georgian”) now dwelling in the southeastern corner of the shores of the Black Sea, in the region called in Ottoman times Lazistān. 1. History and geography. The ancient history of the Laz is complicated by the uncertainty which reigns in the ethnical nomenclature of the Caucasus generally; the same names in the course of centuries are applied to different units (or groups). The fact that the name Phasis was applied to the Rion, to the Čorok̲h̲ (the ancient Akampsis), and even to the sources of the Araxes, also creates difficulties. The earliest G…

S̲h̲ahrazūr

(1,652 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲ahrizūr (in S̲h̲araf K̲h̲ān Bidlīsī’s S̲h̲araf-nāma , S̲h̲ahra-zūl), a district in western Kurdistān lying to the west of the Awrāmān mountain chain, essentially a fertile plain some 58 × 40 km/36 × 25 miles in area, watered by the tributaries of the Tānd̲j̲arō river, which flows into the Sīrwān and eventually to the Diyālā and Tigris. In the wide sense, S̲h̲ahrazūr denoted in Ottoman times the eyālet or province of Kirkūk, a source of considerable confusion in geographical terminology. The district is closely associated with the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.], and the initiates of the sec…

Kurds, Kurdistān

(55,434 words)

Author(s): Bois, Th. | Minorsky, V. | MacKenzie, D.N.
¶ i.—General Introduction The Kurds, an Iranian people of the Near East, live at the junction of more or less laicised Turkey, S̲h̲īʿi Iran, Arab and Sunnī ʿIrāḳ and North Syria, and Soviet Transcaucasia. The economic and strategic importance of this land, Kurdistān, is undeniable. Since the end of the First World War, the Kurdish people, like all the rest of their neighbours, have undergone considerable transformations as much in the political order as in the economic, social and cultural domain. …

Sulduz

(760 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, Süldüz , a Mongol tribe which played a considerable role in mediaeval Islamic history of the Mongol and II K̲h̲ānid periods. According to Berezin, the correct Mongol form would be Süldes (pl. of sülde “good fortune”; Vladimirtsov interpreted sülde as “le génie-protecteur habitant le drapeau”). L. Ligeti, Die Herkunft des Volksnamens Kirgis , in Körösi Csoma Archivum , i (1925), saw in the ending of Suld-uz, as in Ḳi̊rḳ-i̊z, the remains of an ancient Turkish plural suffix (cf. biz “we”, siz “you”, etc.) and as a hypothetical singular quoted the name of a Ḳi̊rg̲h̲i̊z clan Su…

Ḳuban

(1,674 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(called in Nog̲h̲ay Turkish, Ḳuman , in Čerkes, Phs̲h̲iz ), one of the four great rivers of the Caucasus (Rion, Kura, Terek and Ḳuban). It is about 450 miles long. It rises near Mount Elburz at a height of 13,930 feet. Its three constituents (K̲h̲urzuḳ, Ulu-Ḳam, Uč-Ḳulan) join together before reaching the defile through which the Ḳuban enters the plains (at a height of 1,075 feet). The Ḳuban at first runs through the wooded outer spurs of the mountains and then, taking a westerly di…

Sāwd̲j̲-Bulāḳ

(809 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a Persian corruption of sog̲h̲uḳ bulaḳ “cold spring”, Kurdish Sā-blāg̲h̲, the name of a district in southwestern Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, to the south of Lake Urmiya, and also the former name of its chef-lieu, the modern Mahābād [ q.v.]. The district comprises essentially Mukrī Kurdistān, inhabited by the sedentary Mukrī and Debok̲h̲rī tribes of Kurds, speaking the Kurmānd̲j̲ī form of the Kurdish language (classically described by O. Mann in his Die Mundart der Mukri-Kurden . Kurdisch-persische Forschungen , 4th ser. vol. iii/1-2, Berlin 1906-9. Cf. Min…

Bahārlū

(350 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, name of a Turkish tribe in Persia. In particular, the name refers to the ruling faroily of the Ḳarā-Ḳoyūnlū federation of Türkmen tribes (also called Bārānī). It is most probable that the name (“those of Bahār”) is connected with the village of Bahār (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 290: W. hān , read Vahār ) situated at 13 kms. north of Hamadān. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzha , 107 (Eng. transl. 106) the castle of Bahār served as residence to Sulaymān-s̲h̲āh b. Parčam Īwāʾī, who later became one of the three chief ministers of the caliph al…

Māzandarān

(5,600 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Vasmer, R.
, a province to the south of the Caspian Sea bounded on the west by Gīlān, on the east by the province of Āstarābād (q. v., formerly Gurgān). The name. If Gurgān to the Īrānians was the “Land of the Wolves” ( vəhrkāna), the region to its west was peopled by “Māzainian dēws” (Bartholomae, Altir. Wörterbuch, col. 1169 under māzainya daēva). Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta, ii. 373, note 32, thought that Māzandarān was a “comparative of direction” ( *Mazana-tara; cf. s̲h̲ūs̲h̲ and S̲h̲ûs̲h̲tar) but Nöldeke’s hypothesis is the more probable ( Grundr. d. iron. Phil., ii. 178) who thinks that Māz…

Suldūz

(1,819 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(Suldūs). 1. A tribe in Mongolia. According to Bérézine the Mongol form of the name would be Suldes (plural of sulda, “good fortune”). L. Ligeti ( Die Herkunft des Volksnamens Kirgis, Körösi-Csoma Archiv, Budapest 1925, i.) sees in the ending of Suld-uz, as in that of Ḳi̊rḳ-i̊z the remains of an ancient Turkish plural suffix (cf. biz, “we”, siz, “you”, etc.) and as a hypothetical singular quotes the name of a Ḳi̊rg̲h̲i̊z clan: Sult, Sultu. Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn classes the Suldūz among the dürlükin Mongols, i. e. of “common” origin, in contrast to the “pure” ( nīrūn), who however were descended…

Lur-i Buzurg

(1,852 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, a dynasty of Atābegs which flourished in Eastern and Southern Luristān between 550 (1155) and 827 (1423) the capital of which was Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲ (= Mālamīr; q. v.). The eponymous founder of the dynasty, also known as Faḍlawī, was a Kurd chief of Syria named Faḍlōya. His descendants (the Ḏj̲ihān-ārā mentions 9 predecessors of Abū Ṭāhir) migrated from Syria and passing through Maiyafāriḳīn and Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān (where they made an alliance with the Amīra Dībād̲j̲ [?] of Gīlān) they arrived about 500 (1006) in the plains north of Us̲h̲turān-Kūh (Luristān). Their (1) chief Abū Ṭāhir (b. ʿA…

Marāg̲h̲a

(5,524 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the old capital of Ad̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Position. The town lies at a height of 5,500 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of Mount Sahand (11,800 feet high) which separates it from Tabrīz [q. v.]. This explains the very considerable difference in climate between the two towns which are only 50 miles apart as the crow flies (by the high road 80 miles). The climate of Marāg̲h̲a is mild and rather moist (Ḥamd Allāh and Mecquenem, 1904). The plentiful water supply makes the vegetation rich. The fruit…

Ṭūsān

(62 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, according to Yāḳūt, a village 2 farsak̲h̲s from Marw al-S̲h̲āhid̲j̲ān [q.v.] In 130 the Umaiyad wālī Naṣr b. Saiyār, retiring under pressure from Abū Muslim, encamped on the river Nahr ʿIyāḍ and appointed Abu ’l-Dhaiyāl to Ṭūsān, the inhabitants of which were partisans of Abū Muslim. Abū ’l-Ḏh̲aiyāl was defeated at Ṭūsān (cf. Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, v. 282). (V. Minorsky)

Lur

(5,689 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(in Persian Lor with o short), an Īrānian people living in the mountains in S.W. Persia. As in the case of the Kurds, the principal link among the four branches of the Lurs (Mamāsani, Kūhgīlūʾī, Bak̲h̲tiyārī and Lurs proper) is that of language. The special character of the Lur dialects suggests that the country was iranicised from Persia and not from Media. On the ancient peoples, who have disappeared, become iranicised or absorbed in different parts of Luristan, cf. the latter article. The name. Local tradition ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Guzīda) connects the name of the Lurs with the place Lu…

Mārdīn

(3,446 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(written Māridīn in Arabic, in Syriac Marde), a town in upper Mesopotamia (Diyār Rabīʿa). Position. In Upper Mesopotamia, the watershed between the Tigris and Euphrates is formed by the heights which culminate in Ḳarad̲j̲a-dag̲h̲, (5,000 feet) S.W. of Diyār-bakr. This basalt massif is continued eastwards in the direction of Ḏj̲azīrat Ibn ʿOmar by the limestone chain known in ancient times as Masius and later as Izala (’ΙζαλαΣ). The eastern part of this ridge forms the district of Ḏj̲abal-Ṭūr or Tūr ʿAbdīn [q.…

Yag̲h̲mā Ḏj̲andaḳī

(814 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V
, pseudonym of the Persian poet Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm b. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ibrāhīm Ḳulī. He was born about 1196 (1782) in the village of Ḵh̲ūr in the oasis of Ḏj̲andaḳ or Biyābānak in the middle of the central desert of Persia. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of 7 his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī) he ultimately became. His first nom de plume was Mad̲j̲nūn. In 1216 (1802) Ismāʿīl Ḵh̲ān after a rising against the government had to flee to Ḵh̲urāsān, while Ḏj̲andaḳ was …

Tūrān

(5,903 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, an Iranian term applied to the country to the north-east of Iran. The form of the name is not earlier than the Middle Persian period. The suffix - ān is used to form both patronymics (Pāpakān) and the names of countries (Gēlān, Dailamān) (cf. Grundr. d. iran. Phil., I/ii., p. 176; Salemann, ibid., I/i., p. 280 expresses doubts as to whether - ān is from the genitive plural - ānām). Three questions are raised by the name Tūrān: 1. its origin, 2. its later acceptation, which identifies Tūrān with “the land of the Turks”, 3. its modern geographical, linguistic and political applications. The Tūra.…

Türkmän-čai

(596 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
(better T-čayi̊), a village in the district of Gärmärūd in the province of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. Türkmän-čai, “the river of the Turkomans”, is really the name of the stream on which the village stands; it comes down from the Čičäkli pass (between Türkmän-čai and Sarāb). It is one of the northern tributaries of the river of Miyāna (S̲h̲ähär-čayi̊) which flows into the Ḳi̊zi̊lüzän (cf. the article safīd-rūd). The village of Türkmän-čai marks a stage on the great Tabrīz-Zand̲j̲ān-Ḳazwīn-Tihrān-Ḵh̲urāsān road. The distances are Tabrīz-Türkmän-čai c. 60 miles; Türkmä…

Sulṭānābād

(993 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, 1. capital of the Persian province of ʿIrāḳ (popularly: ʿArāḳ). The town was founded in 1808 by Yūsuf Ḵh̲ān Gurd̲j̲ī in the S. W. corner of the plain of Farāhān. The town is built very regularly in the shape of a rectangle; its walls (2,000 × 2,666 feet) are each protected by 12 or 18 towers. The inhabitants number 25,000 (Stahl). The province now bearing the name of ʿIrāḳ (ʿArāḳ) must not be confused with the extensive area to which the geographers of the Mongol period gave the name of ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī (cf. Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 185—186) which included Kirmāns̲h̲ā…

Ahl-I Ḥaḳḳ

(5,008 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, “men of God”, a secret religion found especially in Western Persia. If one wished to choose a name for the sect, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ would seem to lack precision for it was in use, for example, among the Ḥurūfīs (cf. Huart, Textes persons relatifs à la secte des Ḥurūfī, in G.M.S., 1909, p. 40), and it resembles Ṣūfī terms like Ahl-i Ḥaḳīḳat (this is also used by the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ). In the narrow sense however, Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ is the name actually given themselves by the followers of the religion described in the present article. The name ʿAlī-Ilāhī [q. v.] given them by…
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