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(839 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, in the histories also Gāwīl , Gāwīlgaŕh , a fortress “of almost matchless strength” (Abu ’l-Faḍl, Āʾīn -i Akbarī , Eng. tr. Jarrett, ii, 237) in Berār, Central India, lat. 21° 20′ N., long. 77° 18′ E., seven kos (about 25 km.) north-west of Eličpur (Iličpur [ q.v.]). According to Firis̲h̲ta the fortress was built by Aḥmad S̲h̲āh Walī [see bahmanīs ] in 829/1425-6; but from its name it appears to have been a former stronghold of the Gāwalī chiefs, and it is more likely that Aḥmad S̲h̲āh merely strengthened the fortifications during t…


(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…


(3,396 words)

Author(s): Imamuddin, S.M. | Burton-Page, J.
, a North Indian Afghān tribe and dynasty, 855-932/1451-1526. 1. History. Afg̲h̲ān tribes from the mountainous Sulaymān regions regularly migrated to the plain of the Indus; they joined the invading armies as auxiliaries in war, and came as traders or herdsmen during peace. They moved to the hills in summer and to the plains at the onset of winter. Among these emigrants were the ancestors of the Lōdī sultans of India. For the Afg̲h̲āns in India generally, see pathān and rohila. The Lōdīs are related to a clan of the G̲h̲ilzay tribe of Afg̲h̲ānistān [see g̲h̲alzay ] an…


(3,688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Burton-Page, J. | Andrews, P.A. | Ed.
(a.), the measurement of plane surfaces, also in modern usage, survey, the technique ofsurv eying. In this article, measures of length and area will be considered, those of capacity, volume and weight having been dealt with under makāyīl wamawāzīn . For the technique of surveying, see misāḥa, ʿilm al- . 1. In the central Islamic lands. In pre-modern times, there were a bewildering array of measures for length and superficial area, often with the same name but differing locally in size and extent. As Lane despairingly noted, “of the measures and…


(502 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
, 9th letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed d̲h̲ ; numerical value 700, in the Eastern system [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiced interdental fricative; according to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mad̲j̲hūra . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : lit̲h̲awiyya in al-K̲h̲alīl (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲ari, Muf ., 191, line 2, 2nd ed. J. P. Broch) indicates a position of the tongue on the lit̲h̲a “gum”, therefore gingival . Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ (1460, line 21, ed. G. Jahn) records a position quite close to this, “the base of the central incisors”, and therefore alveolar . S…


(645 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan, some 75 miles south of D̲j̲odhpur on the left bank of the Sukrī river. Although the troops of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī had passed through D̲j̲ālor on their return from the conquest of Gud̲j̲arāt in 696/1297, it was not then occupied by them. In Ḏj̲umādā I 705/December ¶ 1305, however, that king sent ʿAyn al-Mulk, governor of Multān, on an expedition to D̲j̲ālor, Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn and Čandērī; he was opposed by an army of 150,000 Hindūs on his entry into Mālwā, and his victory over them, which brought Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn, D̲h̲ār, Mānd́ū, and Čandērī [ qq.v.] into M…


(2,688 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, term used in India for those African communities whose ancestors originally came to the country as slaves, in most cases from the Horn of Africa, although some doubtless sprang from the slave troops of the neighbouring Muslim countries. The majority, at least in the earlier periods, may well have been Abyssinian, but certainly the name was applied indiscriminately to all Africans, and in the days of the Portuguese slave-trade with India many such ‘Ḥabs̲h̲īs’ were in fact of the Nilotic and Bantu races. There is little detailed information concerning the numbers, the status an…


(27,665 words)

Author(s): Khadduri, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Et al.
, war. i.— Legal Aspect Ḥarb may mean either fighting ( ḳitāl ) in the material sense or a “state of war” between two or more groups; both meanings were implied in the legal order of pre-Islamic Arabia. Owing to lack of organized authority, war became the basis of inter-tribal relationship. Peace reigned only when agreed upon between two or more tribes. Moreover, war fulfilled such purposes as vendetta and retaliation. The desert, adapted to distant raids and without natural frontiers, rendered the Arabs habituated to warfare and fighting became a function of society. Islam, prohibiting …


(1,889 words)

Author(s): Marçais, W. | Fleisch, H. | Burton-Page, J.
5th letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed d̲j̲ ; numerical value 3, so agreeing, like dāl , with the order of the letters of the Syriac (and Canaanite) alphabet [see abd̲j̲ad ]. It represents a g (occlusive, postpalatal1, voiced) in the ancient Semitic (and in common Semitic). In Arabic, This articulation has evolved: the point of articulation has been carried forward, in an unconditioned way 2, to the middle and prepalatal region, as a consequence of which it readily developed elements of palatalization ( g y and d y) and affrication ( d̲j̲). A simplification of the articulation …

Dār al-Ḍarb

(4,784 words)

Author(s): Ehrenkreutz, A.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Burton-Page, J.
, the mint, was an indispensable institution in the life of mediaeval Middle Eastern society because of the highly developed monetary character of its economy, particularly during the early centuries of Muslim domination. The primary function of the mint was to supply coins for the needs of government and of the general public. At times of monetary reforms the mints served also as a place where obliterated coins could be exchanged for the new issues. The large quantities of precious metals which were stored in the mints helped to make them serve as ancillary treasuries. Soon after their c…


(367 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
(earlier English spelling, now discarded, “Muttra”), an Indian city lying between Dihlī and Āgrā, of considerable antiquity and of high reputation in India as a place of high religious sanctity for Hindūs and, formerly, for D̲j̲ayns and Buddhists also; it was already a place of some renown when it became the eastern of the two Kus̲h̲āna capitals. It is, surprisingly, not mentioned in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , and only incidentally by al-Bīrūnī, although for Ptolemy it had been Μόδουρα τῶν Θηῶν. Its great reputation led to its being plundered b…


(765 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a small town in the former ʿUt̲h̲mānābād district of Ḥaydarābād State, situated in 17°49′N., 76°29′E., now in Mahāras̲h̲t́ra; its fort, standing above the ravine of the Bōrī river, is one of the best fortified strongholds in the Deccan. The name also appears as Naldurg, perhaps the better form ( durg = Skr. durga “ fort “). It does not figure in the Deccan campaign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luk, and so probably came into Bahmanī possession after the imperial forces had withdrawn, in the late 8th/14th century; its stone fortifications, which appear to be …


(478 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, once a powerful town in Uttar Prades̲h̲, northern India, 26 8′ N., 79 45′ E. The old town and fort stand on clay cliffs overlooking the river Ḏj̲amnā [ q.v.]; there is a modern town to the south-east of the old one, which has some commercial importance and where a fine quality paper is still made by hand. The town was traditionally founded by a rād̲j̲ā of Kannawd̲j̲ in the 4th century A.D., and fell into Muslim hands in the first conquest in 593/1196. The high fort, walled on three sides and defended on the fourth by the cliffs and rive…


(1,528 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
(a.), transport. 1. In the central Islamic lands and North Africa. See for this ʿaraba ; barīd ; d̲j̲āmūs in Suppl.; faras ; fīl ; ibil ; kārwān ; k̲h̲ān ; mawākib ; milāḥa ; safīna ; tid̲j̲āra . 2. In India. Travel on foot is obviously such an everyday occurrence between village and village that it receives scant mention in the texts; pilgrimages might be made on foot entirely, for pietistic reasons, such as Akbar’s to the tomb of Muʿīn al-Dīn Čis̲h̲tī from Āgrā to Ad̲j̲mēr, but generally foot-journeys are the accompaniment to a baggag…

Ḥusayn Niẓām S̲h̲āh

(545 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, the third ruler of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhī sultanate of Aḥmadnagar, reg . 961-72/1554-65. He was the eldest son of Burhān I Niẓām S̲h̲āh, whose example he followed in adopting the S̲h̲īʿa forms of worship (for the political implications of this in the Deccan see niẓām s̲h̲āhīs ); he succeeded him as al-Muʾayyad min ʿind Allāh Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh (regnal title from Burhān-i maʾāt̲h̲ir ; no coins of this reign are known) without difficulty, having been able to remove other possible claimants from Aḥmadnagar city during his father’s lifetine, but w…

K̲h̲wādja-i Ḏj̲ahān

(805 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, title of high dignitaries in various sultanates of India, notably the sultanate of Dihlī, the Bahmanids, and the sultanate of Madura. It seems to have first been used during the time of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ (724-52/1324-51), gradually replacing ṣadr-i ʿālī as the honorific title of the wazīr (I. H. Qureshi, The administration of the sultanate of Dehlī4 , Karachi 1958, 85, with further references); the title was later accorded to other very high officials. Many such officials are known to history by this title (sometimes qualified by a nisba or laḳab ) rather th…

Mīrzā ʿAskarī

(472 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, Mug̲h̲al prince, the third son (neglecting infant deaths), of the emperor Bābur [ q.v.], full brother of Kāmrān Mīrzā [ q.v.] and halfbrother of the emperor Humāyūn [ q.v.] and Hindāl Mīrzā [ q.v.], born 922/1516 in camp, as his sobriquet indicates, died 965/1558. He received his first military command at the age of 12, during Bābur’s eastern campaigns beyond the Ganges. After Humāyūn’s succession in 937/1530, Kāmrān was assigned Kandahar, but left ʿAskarī in command there when he moved to attack Humāyūn’s possessions in Lāhawr; but a co…


(752 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
, a province of India lying between 23° 48ʹ and 27° 31ʹ N. and 83° 20ʹ and 88° 32ʹ E., bounded by Uttar Prades̲h̲ on the west, Nepāl on the north, Bengal and East Pakistan on the east and Orissa on the south; area, with Čhotā Nāgpur, 67,164 sq.m., population 38,784,000. The dialects of the predominantly Hindū population, Bihjpurī, Maithilī and Māgahī, are referred to as Bihārī, and are more akin to Bengali than to Hindī; the latter is, however, the official language of administration and educati…


(20,279 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Groot, A.H. de | Burton-Page, J.
(a), official court ceremonies, both processional and non-processional. The whole range of ceremonial, including protocol and etiquette, is called also rusūm other terms found frequently are mawsim [ q.v.] and mawkib . Mawākib [ q.v.] refer specifically to solemn processions, but seem also to have had the more general meaning of audiences (for the ʿAbbāsids, see references in D. Sourdel, Le vizirat ʿabbāside de 749 à 946, Damascus 1960, ii, 684, n. 3; for the Fāṭimids, see e.g. al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 494: d̲j̲ulūs [ al-k̲h̲alīfa ] fi ’l-mawākib; ayyām al-mawākib ). 1. Under the …


(1,529 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
( Jaunpur ), city on the Gumtī in Uttar Pradesh, north India, lat. 25° 48′ N., long. 82° 42′ E., and the surrounding district. The city was founded in 760/1359 by Fīrūz S̲h̲āh Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.], near the ancient Manāyč reduced by Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azni in 409/1018 and renamed Ẓafarābād by Ẓafar K̲h̲ān, its governor under G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tug̲h̲luḳ after 721/1321. Muslim historians derive the name Ḏj̲awnpur from Ḏj̲awna S̲h̲āh, Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ’s title before his accession; but D̲j̲amanpur is known as a by-form of the name (? connexion with Ḏj̲awn=D̲j̲amnā, [ q.v.]; Skt. Yamunendrapura…
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