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Nicodamus

(35 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Νικόδαμος/ Nikódamos). Aetolian, whose brave attack on the Romans besieging Ambracia in 189 BC failed because Nicander [2], contrary to expectations, failed to arrive with reinforcements (Liv. 38,5,6-10; 38,6,5-7). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Aristaenus

(106 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Megalopolis, exponent of the extremely pro-Roman party in the Achaean Confederation and opponent of  Philopoemen (Pol. 24,11-13; Plut. Phlp. 17,4-5 [1. 109-115]; strategos of the federation in 198/7, 195 and 186/5 BC; initiated in 198 in Sicyon the decisive changeover to the Romans (Pol. 18,13,8-10; Liv. 32,19,5-23,3) [1. 40-45] and persuaded in 197 the Boeotians to form an alliance with the Romans (Liv. 33,2,4). A. agitated in 195 against the Aetolians and Nabis (Liv. 34,34,24), in 186 against th…

Indibilis

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀνδοβάλης; Andobálēs). Tribal prince of the  Ilergetes; he and his brother  Mandonius were omnis Hispaniae principes (Liv. 27,17,3); As an ally of the Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic War, I. was captured by the Romans in 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,6f.), and in 211 was involved in the victory of  Hasdrubal [3] and  Mago over P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio (Liv. 25,34,6-9) [1. 319]. After reprisals on the part of  Hasdrubal [5] and courted by P.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio, he went over to the Romans (Pol. 9,11;…

Balari

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαλαροί; Balaroí). Rapacious mountain people in Sardinia (Str. 5,225; Plin. HN 3,85). The B. were supposedly descendants of Iberian and Libyan mercenaries, who had deserted from Carthaginian service (Paus. 10,17,9); participated in the rebellion of the neighbouring  Ilienses against the Romans in 178 BC and defeated the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Liv. 41,6,12) in 177.   Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Bostar

(180 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdstart; Βώσταρ; Bṓstar i.a.). [German version] [1] Cartaginian strategos in 1st Punic War Carthaginian strategos in the 1st Punic War; he shared command with  Hasdrubal and Hamilcar in 256 BC against M.  Atilius Regulus, fell prisoner to the Romans at the battle of Adis and died in Rome (Pol. 1,30; Diod. Sic. 24,12) [1.20]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carhaginian sub-commander in 2nd Punic War Carthaginian sub-commander in Spain in the 2nd Punic War; in 217 he fell back from the Romans to Saguntum, where he let himself be duped into r…

Zarzas

(76 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Libyan zrbts? [1. 26490]). Prominent Libyan, leader beside (and with equal authority with?) Mathus and Autaritus in the  Mercenaries' War [2. 108 f.; 112 f.; 3. 31-33], e.g. in the battle on the Bagradas and with Spendius in the pursuit of Hamilcar [3]; [1. 26964; 264]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 Huss 2 L. Loreto, La grande insurrezione libica contro Cartagine del 241-237 a.C., 1995 3 W. Huss, Die Libyer Mathos und Zarzas und der Kelte Autaritos als Prägeherren, in: SM 38, 1988, 30-33.

Autaritus

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Αὐτάριτος; Autáritos). Celtic mercenary in  Hamilcar Barca's army in Sicily; leader in Libya from 241 BC of the largest contingent (2,000 Celts) in the Mercenaries' War against Carthage; he escaped the defeat at Bagradas, urged the massacre of  Gescon and other captured Carthaginians and was the negotiator of the surrender at the foot of the Prion, in a hopeless position. As guarantor of the treaty, he was executed in Tunes with  Spendius and  Zarzas following the breaking of the treaty by the insurgents in 238 (Pol. 1,77-86). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliograph…

Thearidas

(226 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θεαρίδας/ Thearídās). [German version] [1] From Megale polis, father of Lycortas From Megale polis, father of Lycortas, who negotiated over his conquered home city with Cleomenes [6] III in 222 BC (Syll.3 626; Plut. Cleomenes 24) [1. 194; 199 f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas, grandson of T. [1], administrator of Messene [2] c. 182 BC (IvOL 46,6). As the elder brother of the statesman and later historian Polybius [2], who was deported by the Romans, after 167 T. seem…

Geskon

(295 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Carthaginian name (*Grskn = ‘protégé of Skn’; Γέσκων, Γίσκων, Γίσγω; Géskōn, Gískōn, Gísgō; Lat. Gisgo, Gisco). [German version] [1] Father of Hannibal [1], exiled after 480 BC Son of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1]; after 480 BC he lived as an exile in Selinus, as did probably also his son Hannibal [1] for a while (Diod. Sic. 13,43,5) [1. 30f.; 2. 40]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander 343-339 BC Carthaginian commander in 343-339 BC in the war against  Timoleon, for which he had been recalled from exile (Diod. Sic. 16,81,3; Poly…

Taurion

(103 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ταυρείων; Taureíōn). Macedonian, phílos (Court titles B.) of Antigonus [3] and Philippus [7] V, when as their governor in the Peloponnese T. was acting on behalf of the Achaei (Pol. 4,6,4; 10,2; 10,6; 19,7 f.; 80,3; 5,92,7; 95,3; 95,5). In 219/8 BC T. was affected by the Apelles [1] affair (Pol. 4,87,1 f.; 4,87,8 f.; 5,27,4) and in 217 was probably one of the peace negotiators at Naupactus [1. 112]; T.'s negative influence on Philippus (Pol. 9,23,9) and his complicity in the death of Aratus [2] (Plut. Aratus 52,2-3) are questionable. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munic…

Rhodopis

(133 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ῥοδῶπις/ Rhodôpis, 'of rosy appearance'). Legendary hetaera in Naucratis (1st half of the 6th cent. BC), Thracian (?), slave of Iadmon of Samos, then taken by the Samian Xanthus to Egypt, where Charax, brother of  Sappho, is supposed to have bought her freedom (Hdt. 2,134,3; 135,1 f.); her identification with Doricha, the object of Charax' fatal love (Sappho fr. 26,11 Diehl; cf. fr. 7 Lobel/Page), is unclear (Hdt. 2,135,5; Str. 17,1,33; contra: Ath. 13,596b-d). R. acquired a fortu…

Lasthenes

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λασθένης; Lasthénēs). [German version] [1] Cavalry commander of the Chalcidians, 4th cent. BC L. of Olynthus, hípparchos (‘cavalry commander’) of the Chalcidians; in 348 BC L. with Euthycrates [1] betrayed his home town to Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,66; 19,265; Diod. Sic. 16,53,2). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Cretan mercenary leader, 2nd cent. BC Cretan mercenary leader, from 147 BC onwards influential adviser at the court of Demetrius [8] II ( syngenḗs, patḗr; Court titles B.3.); possibly stratēgós of Coele Syria (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,86; 126f.; 1 M…

Himilco

(674 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(*[ʾ]hmlkt = ‘brother of Mlkt’, Ἰμίλκων; Imílkōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander, relative of Hannibal, strategos Carthaginian commander, son of a Hanno, great-grandson of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1] and a relation of  Hannibal [1], whom he accompanied to Sicily in 407 BC as (fleet?) strategos and after whose death H. took over the supreme command (Diod. Sic. 13,80; Iust. 19,2,7). H. besieged, conquered and destroyed  Acragas in 406/405, then  Gela and  Camarina, but soon after, in 405, failed in his siege of  Syracuse because…

Mercenaries' War

(420 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern term (‘Libyan War’, for instance in Pol. 1,13,3; Diod. 26,23) for the uprising of the mercenaries employed by Carthage in the 1st Punic War (241/0-238 BC). It plunged Carthage into a serious crisis as the revolt of the mercenaries from various ethnic origins who still had to be paid despite the emptiness of the state coffers also provoked rebellion among the Libyans under the leadership of Mathus. The general Hanno [6] who had already fought against rebels in the Carthagini…

Tisippus

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τείσιππος/ Teísippos, Τίσιππος/ Tísippos) from Trichonium. Stratēgós of the Aetolian League (Aetoli) in 163/2 (?) and possibly also in 156/5 BC (IG IX2 1,1,101-103; [1. 435 f.]), who during the third of the Macedonian Wars had manifested himself together with Lyciscus [3] as an unscrupulous extremely pro-Roman politician: in 168 at the massacre in Arsinoe [III 2] of 550 Aetolians, in 167 as an envoy of congratulation to L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in Amphipolis (Pol. 30,11,5; 30,13,4; Liv. 45,28,6-8; [2. 192 f.; 3. 89-91]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Biblio…

Theoxenus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεόξενος; Theóxenos). Achaean from Leontium, father of Callicrates [11]. In 197 BC , as stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaei) he defeated a Macedonian army at Alabanda in support of the Rhodeans (Liv. 33,18,5 f.). His corresponding votive gift in Delos is recorded there in the lists of inventories for the years 194-179 [1. 1356; 2. 1374]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 M. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques, vol. 2, 1987 2 J. Deininger, Der politische Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.

Menalcidas

(135 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεναλκίδας/ Menalkídas). Spartan, of radically pro-Roman disposition. He had been taken into custody in 168 BC at Alexandria for property offences, but was pardoned because he was a favourite of C. Popillius Laenas (Pol. 30,16,2). In 151/0, as strategos of the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map), during the corruption case concerning the Achaean commitment to Oropus, he betrayed Callicrates [11], bribed Diaeus and, condemned to death in the escalating Achaean-Spartan conflict, fle…

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal after the victory at the Ticinus for 400 pieces of gold (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Leader of the pro-Carthaginian p…

Xenocleides

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ξενοκλείδης/ Xenokleídēs). [German version] [1] Corinthian naval commander, 5th cent. BC Corinthian. One of five naval commanders sent by Corinth against Corcyra in 433 BC (Thuc. 1,46,2). The fleet achieved a partial victory near the Sybota islands (Thuc. 1,47-54; Diod. 12,33,3 f.). On the return voyage X. captured Anactorium on the Gulf of Ambracia and occupied the town with Corinthian settlers (Thuc. 1,55,1). In 426/5 BC X. led 300 hoplites in defence of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,114,4). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 318 K.-W. Wel…

Hegesilochus

(145 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἡγεσίλοχος; Hēgesílochos). [German version] [1] Rhodian, middle of 4th cent. BC Rhodian, exploited the conflict between Rhodes and Athens ( Social Wars [1]) in 356/5 BC, in order to take over power in Rhodes at the head of an oligarchical clique with the support of  Maussollos of Caria. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984, 31, with n. 41 (sources and bibliography). [German version] [2] Rhodian prytanis and envoy, 2nd cent. BC (also: Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos). Son of Hagesias, Rhodian, moderate friend of Rome, who as prytanis (17…
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