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Sarhang

(127 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), a term denoting a rank of officer or commander in mediaeval Persian armies and paramilitary groups (cf. Vuller, Lexicon persicolatinum, ii, 261-2, 293; dux exercitus, praefectus ). Thus the sarhangs were leaders of bands of ʿayyārs [ q.v.] or Sunnī orthodox vigilantes combatting the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs in 3rd/9th century Sīstān, and Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲, founder of the Ṣaffārid dynasty [ q.v.], embarked on his rise to power by becoming a sarhang in the ʿayyār forces of a local leader in Bust, Ṣāliḥ b. al-Naḍr al-Kinānī ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Sīstān , ed. Bahār, passim; Gardīzī, Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār

al-Ḳabḳ

(11,847 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | MacKenzie, D.N.
, D̲j̲abal al-Ḳabḳ (the most common rendering), al-Ḳabk̲h̲ ( e.g., Masʿūdī) or al-Ḳabd̲j̲ ( e.g. Ṭabarī, Yāḳūt), Turkish Kavkaz, the name given by the Muslims to the Caucasus Mountains. The form ḳabḳ may derive from Middle Persian kāfkōh “the mountain of Kāf”, Armenian kapkoh ; in Firdawsī we find the Caucasus called kūh-i ḳāf (Hübschmann, Armenische Grammatik , i, 45, cf. Marquart, Ērānšahr , 94). A village called Ḳabḳ is also mentioned by Ibn Rusta, 173, tr. Wiet, 201, as being the first stage on the road from Harāt to Isfizār and Sīstān. 1. Topography and ethnology. The Caucasus became k…

ʿUtayba

(2,022 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a great and powerful Bedouin tribe of Central Arabia, second only in importance to the ʿAnaza or ʿUnayza [ q.v.], and playing a significant role in the history of Arabia in the last 150 years or so. Doughty describes them as having pasture grounds extending from al-Ṭāʾif [ q.v.] in the Ḥid̲j̲āz in the west to al-Ḳaṣīm [ q.v.] in northern Nad̲j̲d in the east. The name appears in various renderings in the travel accounts of Europeans, e.g. the ʿAteyba, pl. elʿAteybân of Doughty, and the ʾOṭeybah of Palgrave; according to J.J. Hess, the modern pronunciation use…

Zābul, Zābulistān

(534 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name found in early Islamic times for a region of what is now eastern Afg̲h̲anistān, roughly covering the modern Afg̲h̲ān provinces of G̲h̲aznī and Zābul. The early geographers describe what was a remote region on the far eastern frontiers of the Dār al-Islām in understandably vague terms as an extensive province with G̲h̲azna [ q.v.] as its centre. It thus emerges that it lay between Kābul and the Kābul river valley on the north and the territories around the confluence of the Helmand river and Arg̲h̲andāb known as Zamīndāwar and al-Ruk̲h̲k̲h̲ad̲j̲ [ q.vv.], but the boundaries her…

al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī

(2,416 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
the nisba or gentilic of several Egyptian scholars of the Mamlūk and early Ottoman periods, the most important of whom are as follows: (1.) S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī (ʿAbd Allāh?) b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Fazārī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, legal scholar and secretary in the Mamlūk chancery, and author of several books. The main sources for his life are the fairly brief mentions of him in biographical and historical sources of the late Mamlūk period by al-ʿAynī, al-Maḳrīzī, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, al-Sak̲h̲āwī and Ibn …

ʿŪd

(7,132 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A. | Bosworth C.E. | Farmer H.G. | Chabrier J.-Cl.
(a.) means basically "wood, piece of wood, plank, spar" (pls. aʿwād , ʿīdān ). I. In daily life 1. ʿŪd as perfume and incense and as a medicament In the Arabic materia medica it indicates the so-called "aloe wood". This designation, used in trade, is conventional but incorrect because aloe wood is called ṣabr [ q.v.]. ʿŪd has to do with certain kinds of resinous, dark-coloured woods with a high specific weight and a strong aromatic scent, which were used in medicine as perfume and incense ( ʿūd al-bak̲h̲ūr ) and were highly coveted because of their rarity and v…

Umayya

(1,381 words)

Author(s): Levi Della Vida, G. | Bosworth, C.E.
b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams , ancestor of the Umayyads, the principal clan of the Ḳuraysh of Mecca. His genealogy (Umayya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Ḳuṣayy) and his descendants are given in Wüstenfeld, Geneal . Tabellen , U, V, and Ibn al-Kabbī, in Caskel-Strenziok, i, nos. 8 ff. Like all other eponyms of Arab tribes and clans, his actual existence and the details of his life have to be accepted with caution, but too great scepticism with regard to tradition would be as ill-advised as absolute faith in its statement…

Tak̲h̲t-i Ṭawūs

(548 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), the Peacock Throne, a name given to various highly-decorated and much bejewelled royal thrones in the eastern Islamic world, ¶ in particular, to that constructed for the Mug̲h̲al Emperor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān (1037-68/1628-57 [ q.v.]). There are relevant accounts in the contemporary Indo-Muslim sources, e.g. in ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Lāhawrī’s Bāds̲h̲āh-nāma and Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ’s ʿAmal-i Ṣāliḥ , and in the accounts of European travellers who claimed to have seen the throne, such as Tavernier, Bernier and Manucci. These last authorities, …

Ḥiṣār

(16,216 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Colin, G.S. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Et al.
, siege. The following articles deal with siegecraft and siege warfare. On fortification see burd̲j̲ , ḥiṣn , ḳalʿa and sūr . i.— General Remarks Siege warfare was one of the essential forms of warfare when it was a matter of conquest, and not merely of plundering raids, in countries in which, from ancient times, most of the large towns had been protected by walls and where, during the Middle Ages, the open countryside was to an ever increasing extent held by fortresses [see ḥiṣn and ḳalʿa ]. Although the forces available were rarely sufficient to impose a co…

Sabīl

(3,095 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Behrens-Abouseif, Doris
(a.), pi. subul , literally “way, road, path”, a word found frequently in the Ḳurʾān and in Islamic religious usage. 1. As a religious concept. Associated forms of the Arabic word are found in such Western Semitic languages as Hebrew and Aramaic, and also in Epigraphic South Arabian as s 1 bl (see Joan C. Biella, Dictionary of Old South Arabic , Sabaean dialect, Cambridge, Mass. 1982, 326). A. Jeffery, following F. Schwally, in ZDMG, liii (1899), 197, surmised that sabīl was a loanword in Ḳurʾānic usage, most likely taken from Syriac, where s̲h̲ebīlā has both the l…

Ḳi̊s̲h̲laḳ

(549 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t., < ḳi̊s̲h̲ “winter”), winter quarters, originally applied to the winter quarters, often in warmer, low-lying areas, of pastoral nomads in Inner Asia, and thence to those in regions like Persia and Anatolia into which Türkmens and others from Central Asia infiltrated, bringing with them their nomadic ways of life; Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, i, 464-5, defines ḳi̊s̲h̲laḳ as al-mus̲h̲attā . Its antonym is yaylaḳ “summer quarters” (< yay “spring”, later “summer”), denoting the upland pastures favou…

Mīkālīs

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an Iranian family of K̲h̲urāsān prominent in the cultural and social worlds there and also active as local administrators and town officials under the Sāmānids and early G̲h̲aznawids [ q.vv.]. They were apparently of Sog̲h̲dian origin, and amongst their pre-Islamic forebears is mentioned the Prince of Pand̲j̲kent S̲h̲īr Dīvāstič, killed at Mount Mug̲h̲ by the Arabs in 104/722-3 [see mā warāʾ al-nahr. 2. History]; al-Samʿānī traces the family back to the Sāsānids Yazdagird II and Bahrām Gūr ( K. al-Ansāb , facs. edn., fols. 548b-549b). It must neverthe…

Ḳufṣ

(723 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised form of Persian Kūfičīs, a people inhabiting south eastern Persia, more exactly the Kirmān-western Balūčistān region, in early mediaeval Islamic times. The name, literally “mountain dwellers”, probably stems ultimately from O. Pers. ākaufačiya — (< O. Pers. kaufa- “mountain”), the name of a people in the Daiva inscription of Xerxes, who are mentioned together with the mačiya “men of Maka” (= Makrān, the coastal region of Balūčistān?), via N. Pers. kūfid̲j̲ / kūfič (cf. R. G. Kent, Old Persian grammar, texts , lexicon 2, New Haven 1953, 151, 165). In early Islamic sour…

Ildeñizids or Eldigüzids

(1,977 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a line of Atabegs or Turkish slave commanders who governed most of northwestern Persia, including Arrān, most of Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, and D̲j̲ibāl, during the second half of the 6th/12th century and ¶ the early decades of the 7th/13th. Down to the death in battle in 590/1194 of Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l b. Arslan, last of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Iraq and Persia, the Ildeñizids ruled as theoretical subordinates of the Sultans, acknowledging this dependence on their coins almost down to the end of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. Thereafter, they were in effec…

Salmās

(913 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a district, and of its mediaeval urban centre, in the western part of the Persian province of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. The district comprises ¶ a fertile plain near the northwestern corner of Lake Urmiya, bounded on the west by the Harāwīl mountain range with the pass of Ḵh̲ānasūr (2,408 m/7,900 feet) leading into Turkey, and on the south by the Kūh-i Awg̲h̲ān. The modern town of Salmās, S̲h̲ābūr or Dīlmān(lat. 38° 13′ N., long. 44° 50′ E.), lies 48 km/30 miles to the south-south-west of Ḵh̲ōy [see khoi ] on the Zala Čay river. The region of Salmās has be…

Ordūbād

(245 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town in eastern Transcaucasia on the left bank of the middle course of the Araxes or Aras River, lying in lat. 38°54′ N. and long. 46° 01′ E. and at an altitude of 948 m/2,930 ft. The Turco-Persian name “army town” implies a probable foundation during the period of the Mongol ¶ invasions or of the ensuing Il-K̲h̲ānids, especially as the latter made Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān the centre of their power. Certainly, Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī (mid-8th/14th century) describes it as a provincial town, one of the five making up the tūmān of Nak̲h̲čiwān [ q.v.], watered by a stream coming down from Mount Ḳub…

Niẓām al-Mulk

(4,053 words)

Author(s): Bowen, H. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Isḥāḳ al-Ṭūsī , the celebrated minister of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans Alp Arslān [ q.v.] and Maliks̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. According to most authorities, he was born on Friday 21 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 408/10 April 1018, though the 6th/12th century Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Bayhaḳ of Ibn Funduḳ al-Bayhaḳī [ q.v.], which alone supplies us with detailed information about his family, places his birth in 410/1019-20. His birth-place was Rādkān, a village in the neighbourhood of Ṭūs, of which his father was revenue agent on behalf of the G̲h̲aznawīd gov…

Ḳūla

(342 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town in western Anatolia, classical Opsicum. It lies on the margin of a fertile plain, a few miles south of the upper course of the Gediz river and to the north of the main Manisa-Uşak road, in lat. 38°33′ north and long. 28°40′ east and at an altitude of 2,140 feet/652 m. it is in a volcanic area (classical Katakekaumene or Combusta), with the extinct volcano Karadevlit north-east of the town; hence many of the houses are built from dark basalt. There are numerous marble remains from classical times, but the citadel, apparently late mediaeval, is ruinous. Ḳūla came …

Ṭūs

(5,013 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a district in K̲h̲urāsān, original Persian form Tōs (also thus in the later 8th century Armenian geography, see Markwart-Messina, A catalogue of the provincial capitals of Ērānshahr , Rome 1931, 11, 47), which played a notable part in the medieval Islamic period of Persia’s Islamic history. ¶ 1. History. In early Islamic times, Ṭūs was the name of a district containing several towns. The town of Nawḳān flourished down to the end of the 3rd/9th century. The form Nawḳān < Nōḳan is confirmed by the present name of the Mas̲h̲had quarter Nawg̲h̲ān (where the diphthong aw corresponds to the old wāw…

Zaynab bt. D̲j̲aḥs̲h̲

(467 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Riʾāb al-Asadiyya, one of the Prophet’s wives, whom he married after her divorce from Muḥammad’s freedman and adopted son Zayd b. Ḥārit̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Zaynab’s mother was a maternal aunt of the Prophet, Umayma bt. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, and her father, from the tribe of Asad, a client of the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams. One of the first emigrants to Medina, she was a virgin (according to some traditions, a widow) when Muḥammad gave her in marriage to Zayd. In the year 4/626 Muḥammad saw Zaynab alone in her house, was taken with he…
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