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Colluthus

(381 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Κόλλουθος; Kóllouthos). A Greek native of Lycopolis in Egypt, who lived during the reign of Anastasius I (AD 491-518). Biography: Suda s.v. Κόλουθος, 3,1951, according to this Cod. Ambrosianus gr. 661; for the form of the name cf. [1, XI-XII]. Epic poet, author of a poem about the Calydonian Boar Hunt ( Kalydōniaká in six bks.), of encomia (hymns of praise) in hexameters and of an epic poem Persiká, which may have dealt with Anastasius's triumphs over the Persians in the year 505 (cf. [4]). His surviving work is a small epic poem in 392 verses, the ‘Rape of Helen…

Phoronis

(129 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Φορωνίς/Phorōnís). Epic by an anonymous author, 7th/6th cent. BC. It received its name from a hero from Tiryns, Phoroneus, the 'father of all men' (fr. 1 PEG). The frequency of the word πρῶτος/ prȏtos, 'the first', in the fragments indicates the poet's interest in the first beginnings of human life. Fr. 2: the Daktyloi Idaioi discover the art of Hephaestus. Fr. 4: Callithoe [2] is the first to adorn the great statue of the 'Argive' Hera: the epithet is problematic (bibliography in [1. 120]). Paus. 2,15,5 and 2,1…

Soterichus

(104 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Σωτήριχος/ Sōtḗrichos). Epic writer of the 3rd/4th cents. AD from Hyasis (in Libya), lived under Diocletianus (AD 284-305), and, according to Suda s. v. Σ., wrote an encomium to him. Further works: Bassariká or Dionysiaká (4 books), Pantheia of Babylon, Ariadne, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Python or Alexandriacus (on the storming of Thebes by Alexander [4] the Great) and an epic on his own homeland; Schol. Lycoph. 486 [2. 64111] also mentions Kaledōniaká (on the myth of the Caledonian boar) [2]. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 FGrH 641 2 M. Ch. G. Müller,…

Eudaemon

(181 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐδαίμων; Eudaímōn). Correspondent of  Libanius (Ep. 167; 255; 633) and his ‘fraternal’ friend for over thirty years (cf. Ep. 108; 132; 164; 315; 632; 826; 1057), from Pelusium in Egypt, born before AD 337 (probably c. 314/24: [2. 279]), died before AD 392. According to the Suda (ε 3407) a ‘grammarian’ (but he may also have taught rhetoric), author of a Τέχνη γραμματική/ Téchnē grammatikḗ (‘Grammar’) and an Ὀνοματικὴ ὀρθογραφία/ Onomatikḕ orthographía (‘Orthography of Names’) (cf. Lib. Ep. 255,7, regarding E.'s opinion on the vocative of Ἡρακλῆς/ Heraklês), which …

Epimerismi

(588 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] ἐπιμερισμοί ( epimerismoí) are ‘subdivisions’ (Apollonius Dyscolus, Syntaxis 491,13 Schneider-Uhlig; Lat. partitiones,  Priscianus) ‘of verses or sentences into words’ (this is the sense, in which Sext. Emp. Adv. Math. 1,159-168 in the 2nd cent. AD used μερισμός; merismós): each word was analyzed grammatically and prosodically, and sometimes also semantically. It is a teaching aid of the Byzantine School (Tzetzes on Hes. Op. 285); in the 11th-12th cents., it was referred to as schedographia (‘writing of didactic pieces’, σχέδη ( schédē), of uncertain etymolo…

Epitherses

(110 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] Author of a treatise ‘On comic and tragic Attic idioms’ (Περὶ λέξεων Ἀττικῶν καὶ κωμικῶν καὶ τραγικών (Steph. Byz. s.v. Νίκαια), probably mentioned in Erotian, Vocum Hippocraticarum coll. 24,3 Nachmanson (the MS Text Θέρσις was corrected by Meineke as Ἐπιθέρσης; Nachmanson suggests the abbreviation Θέρσης). If he was indeed identical with the grammarian from Nicaea, he would be the father of the orator Aemilianus (cf. Sen. Controv. 10,5,25); because he is mentioned in Plut. De def…

Persinus

(100 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Περσῖνος; Persînos). Epic writer of the Hellenistic period, from Ephesus or Miletus. Author of the Orphic Sōtḗria ('Songs for the Rescue'; Orph. T 178, p. 52 Kern). Two sayings have been passed down to us, one about the tyrant Eubulus, the other as a response to the question who is the best poet ( according to the judgment of all poets, he himself is the best poet, according to the others, it is Homer). P. attributed the invention of the hexameter to Linus. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 666A-666D  U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenische Dichtung, vol. 1…

Eulogius

(178 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐλόγιος; Eulógios). Perhaps the person to whom was dedicated the lexicon of Hesychius (6th cent. AD [4; 1. 358]; but [5] dates E. to the period between Theodosius of Alexandria ([4th cent. AD] and Choeroboscus [9th cent. AD]) and who is known through the citations in the Etymologicum Magnum and in the Etymologicum Gudianum. He is also the source of some Homeric epimerisms [2; 3]. E. was a grammarian and his nickname was Scholastikós; he was the author of a didactic book about morphology in ‘Questions and Answers’ (Ἀπορίαι καὶ λύσεις, ‘Difficulties …

Maiistas

(122 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Μαϊίστας; Maïístas). Author (his name perhaps Egyptian) of the hexametric aretalogy of Sarapis. This forms the second part (l. 29-84) of an inscription (3rd cent. BC) on a column in the Serapeum of Delos, which tells the history of the cult of the god from its inception to the construction of the first temple [1]. The beginning of the inscription (l. 1-28) comprises the prose chronicle of the priest Apollonius II. M.'s text following may be a Greek aretalogy intended for Greeks, o…

Herennius Philo

(711 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] A. Person H. was an antiquarian and grammarian in the second half of the 1st cent. AD (main source for the biography: Suda s.v. Φίλων Βύβλιος, φ 447, where the text, however, is problematic). His original name was Phílōn, the ethnicon Býblios (after the town Byblos in Phoenicia), the praenomen H. perhaps taken over from Herennius Severus Plin. Ep. 4,28 [4]. He was the teacher of  Hermippus of Berytus. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) [German version] B. Works (FGrH 790): Historical and antiquarian works: 1) The ‘Phoenician History’ (Φοινικικὴ ἱστορία or Φοινικικ…

Menophilus

(33 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] of Damascus, known only from 15 hexameters cited by Stobaeus from his poem ‘Tresses (Πλοκαμῖδες/ Plokamîdes), a song on the beauty of his beloved's hair. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 558.

Callistus

(78 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Κάλλιστος; Kállistos). Author of an epic about the Persian Wars of Emperor  Iulianus, whom he accompanied on his campaigns in his role as domesticus (Socr. 3,21,14-17). He reports how the emperor died having been slain by a daimon. Possibly he is identical with Callistion, the epic poet and assessor of the praefectus praetorio Orientis Sallustius Secundus, to whom Libanius addressed his letters no. 1233 and 1251. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography O. Seeck, RE Suppl. 4, 864.

Mythography

(3,249 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(μυθογραφία; mythographía). [German version] I. Introduction Mythography is a commonly used term for ancient and post-antique literature that presents, collects and also interprets myths (and is therefore applied also to indigenous recording of comparable narrative traditions in other cultures or to ethnographic transcriptions of them). The term mythography, however, has to remain imprecise, if only because of the implicit problem in finding a definition for myth, especially in relation to its differe…

Simonides

(1,357 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Σιμωνίδης/ Simōnídēs). [German version] [1] Iambographic poet (the iambographic poet) see Semonides Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) [German version] [2] Lyric poet, 6th/5th cents. BC Greek lyric poet, 6th/5th cents. BC Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) [German version] I. Life S. was born in Ioulis on Ceos [1], the son of Leoprepes, uncle of Bacchylides. Of the two birth dates given in the Suda - the 56th Olympiad (556/553 BC) and the 62nd Olympiad (532/529 BC), the earlier is generally accepted. According to the Suda, S. died in the 78th Olympi…

Hegesinus

(161 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡγησίνους; Hēgēsínous). [German version] [1] Teacher of Carneades, 2nd cent. BC H. of Pergamum, 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC, likely identical with Hegesilaus in Clem. Al. strom. 1,64,1. He took over the direction of the Academy from Evander (Diog. Laert. 4,60). H., the last representative of the Middle Academy (Galen hist. phil. 3 = Diels, DG 599f.; Clem. Al. ibid.), was the teacher of Carneades (Cic. Acad. 2,16), his later (before 155 BC) successor in the scholarchate. The name H. turns up only in succession lists; information going beyond mention of the name is lacking.  Academy Stanzel,…

Eirenaeus, Irenaeus

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Εἰρηναῖος; Eirēnaîos). Grammarian, student of Heliodorus the metrician, 1st cent. AD ( terminus ante quem due to the quotation in the Hippocratic lexicon by Erotianus, 116,8 Nachmanson). He probably taught also in Rome under the Latin name of Minucius Pacatus (perhaps the rhetor Pacatus in Sen. Controv. 10, praef. 10). He was not a freedman [2]. The Suda mentions him in the praefatio and s.v. ‘E.’ (ει 190) as well as s.v. ‘Pacatus’ (π 29), and lists numerous titles of grammatical and lexicographical writ…

Troilus

(434 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Τρωίλος/ Trōílos, Lat. Troilus). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus Son of Priamus (or Apollo) and Hecabe (Hom. Il. 24,257; Apollod. 3,151). The sparse early textual records yield only that T. - referred to by the epithet hippochármēs ('horse fighter' or 'chariot fighter', Hom. Il. 24,257, on this [1. 292]) - was killed by Achilles [1], an event which according to Proclus (45 Kullmann, [1. 291-293]) had been presented earlier in the Kýpria . The many visual representations from the Archaic Period indicate that the story of T. was well known …

Encyclopaedia

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
[German version] I. General An encyclopaedia is a work containing the ‘totality of knowledge’ for a whole field or for individual disciplines. The word is derived from Greek   enkýklios paideía (ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία), whose Latin translation orbis doctrinarum is closer to the modern understanding of encyclopaedia. The term is first documented in a letter of AD 1490 to Poliziano [12; 13]. Encyclopaedia and ‘Encyclopaedism’ (cf. French encyclopédisme, Italian enciclopedismo) are modern words and concepts that may be used within certain limits for antiquity (on their …

Philostephanus

(477 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Φιλοστέφανος/ Philostéphanos). [German version] [1] P. of Cyrene Pupil of Callimachus, 3rd cent. BC Pupil (γνώριμος/ gnṓrimos) of Callimachus [3] (Ath. 331d; cf. [4. vol. 2, 752]), lived in the reign of Ptolemaeus Philopator (222-206 BC, cf. [1. 30]). Author of ostensibly geographical works whose true compass is in the aetiological and paradoxographic (Gell. NA 9,4,3 puts P. alongside other authors of res inauditae, Aristeas, Ctesias, Onesicritus), of which we have only scanty fragments and titles, which may also denote parts of a single comprehensive wor…

Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…
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