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Mussolini, Benito

(411 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Mussolini, Benito ( July 29, 1883, Dovia di Predappio [Forli Province] – April 28, 1945, Giulino di Mezzegra [Como Province; executed]), Italian journalist and politician. At the outbreak of the war, this man who would later found Fascism still numbered among the advocates of a neutral, internationally orientated Italian politics. Mere weeks afterward, Mussolini, the former revolutionary socialist politician and journalist, had a falling-out with the party leadership of the Partito Socialista Italiano (PSI, Italian Socialist Party), calling for his country’s enterin…

Subject Index

(2,634 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Subject Index 08/15, see Null-Acht-Fünfzehn (Maxim Machine Gun) A Adriatic 255 Advertising 255 Aerial Warfare Africa Africa (German East Africa) 569 Africa (German Southwest Africa) 576 Africa (North Africa) 785 Africa (South Africa) 919 Africa (Sub-Saharan Africa) 938 Aircraft 260 Airship, see Zeppelin Alain-Fournier, Henri 262 Albania 262 Alberich, Operation 264 Albert I, King of the Belgians 265 Albion 266 Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg 267 Alekseyev, Mikhail Vasilyevich 267 Allenby, Edmund 268 Alpine Warfare 269 Alsace-Lorraine 273 Animals 275 Annunzio, see D’Annunzio, …

Hirschfeld, Magnus

(333 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Hirschfeld, Magnus (May 14, 1868, Kolberg [Kołobrzeg, Poland] – May 14, 1935, Nice), German doctor and sexual researcher. Hirschfeld is regarded as the pioneer of sexual research in Germany. One of his achievements was to outline a biological theory of homosexuality and he was a committed advocate of equal social rights for homosexuals. In 1897 he co-founded the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Scientific Humanitarian Committee) for the decriminalization of homosexuality and served as its first chairman until 1929. In 1907 he was an expert witness …

Frank, Ludwig

(289 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Frank, Ludwig (May 23, 1874, Nonnenweier [today part of Schwanau in the district of Ortenau] – September 3, 1914 [killed in action], Nossoncourt, Département Vosges), German attorney, social democratic politician, and member of the Reichstag. Frank was first city councilor in Mannheim, then a member of the Landtag of Baden. In 1904, he founded the sozialistische Arbeiterjugendbewegung (Socialist Young Workers’ Movement), whose most prominent representative he remained for the rest of his life. Pol…


(720 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Contributors Afflerbach, Holger, Prof. (Leeds) Albes, Jens, Dr. (Koblenz) Allain, Jean-Claude, Prof. † Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane, Prof. (Paris) Baumeister, Martin, Prof. (Munich) Bavendamm, Gundula, Dr. (Taunusstein) Beaupré, Nicolas, Dr. (Clermont-Ferrand) Becker, Annette, Prof. (Paris) Becker, Jean-Jacques, Prof. (Paris) Beckers, Thomas, MA (Düsseldorf ) Behrenbeck, Sabine, Dr. (Cologne) Bendick, Rainer, Dr. (Osnabrück) Berghoff, Hartmut, Prof. (Washington DC/ Göttingen) Bessel, Richard, Prof. (York) Blom, J.C.H., Prof. (Leiden) Bohn, Robert, Prof. Dr. (Fle…

Hitler, Adolf

(814 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Hitler, Adolf (April 20, 1889, Braunau am Inn, Austria – April 30, 1945, Berlin [suicide]), soldier, private first class, subsequently German politician (1933–1945 Reich chancellor). By Hitler’s own account, the First World War was for him “the most unforgettable and greatest period of my life on this earth” ( Mein Kampf, 1925). Even during the Second World War, he repeatedly reminded those around him of his time as a soldier from 1914 to 1918, “when nothing troubled me”; he had “passionately enjoyed being a soldier” ( Monologe im Führerhauptquartier, 1941). Living as an artist in Mu…


(7,427 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Persons Aalst, Cornelis J.K. van 774 Abbas II Hilmi Bey 785 Abd el-Malik 786 Abderhalden, Emil 1015 Abdul Hamid II 599, 620, 662 Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, Emir and King of Transjordan 283, 620 Adenauer, Konrad 883 Adler, Friedrich 54, 933 Adler, Viktor 933 Adolfi, John G. 517 Aitken, Arthur Edward 569 Alain-Fournier, Henri 262 Albert I, King of the Belgians 28, 265f., 597, 686, 717 Albertini, Luigi 245 Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg 267, 299, 673, 1045 Alby, Henri Edouard 295 Alderson, Sir Edwin A.H. 290, 400 Aldington, Richard 144 Aleksandar I Karadjordjević, Prince Regent of Serbia…


(1,820 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Serbia Established in 1882, the Southern Slavic Kingdom of Serbia was governed until 1914 by Petar I of Serbia (1844–1921), who an officers’ conspiracy had brought to power in 1903 and who was subsequently elected king by the Serbian National Assembly. Relying on the support of the Radical Party of Prime Minister Nikola Pašić (1846–1926), the king championed a Greater Serbian policy that was particularly directed against the interests of Austria-Hungary. In 1906, this policy led to a trade war, t…

Writing the History of the First World War

(6,763 words)

Author(s): Krumeich, Gerd | Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Historiography Writing the History of the First World War The historiography of the First World War had already begun during the war. At first, its most important feature was to record a “great and exalting time” for the participants and their descendants, a record in which the documents and propaganda were largely blotted out. The development of rotary printing press methods, the standardized integration of documentary photo illustrations, and the possibilities offered by economical color-separation pri…

Table of Contents

(237 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Table of Contents Volume I Foreword vii Foreword to the Revised Edition viii Essays 1 States 3 Germany Wolfgang J. Mommsen 5 France Jean-Jacques Becker 18 Belgium Laurence van Ypersele 28 Great Britain Jay Winter 33 Austria-Hungary Manfried Rauchensteiner 44 Russia Dittmar Dahlmann 63 Italy Mario Isnenghi 72 United States Ronald Schaffer 78 Social Aspects of the War 87 Women Ute Daniel 89 Children and Adolescents Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau 103 Workers Dick Geary 108 Soldiers Benjamin Ziemann 118 Scientists Jürgen von Ungern-Sternberg 129 War Literature Bernd Hüppauf 135 Religion Annet…


(1,158 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Foreword The First World War endures in human memory as an event of especial significance. The French still refer to it as the “Grande Guerre”; the Germans and Austrians, “der Große Krieg”; and the British and Americans, the “Great War.” Those who survived it are no more. Even the children of the war years have died by now. Yet the war did not pass away with the generation that waged and endured it. World War One will remain the defining experience of the 20th century. The war evolved from a localized European conflict to a global catastrophe. The swift disintegration of multina…

Stinnes, Hugo

(421 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Stinnes, Hugo (February 12, 1870, Mülheim an der Ruhr – April 10, 1924, Berlin), German industrial magnate. Stinnes was of the most influential industrialists of the Wilhelminian Empire and the Weimar Republic. The heir to a Ruhr family enterprise engaged in coal mining, trading, and shipping, the entrepreneur founded the Rhine Westphalia Electric Power Corporation in Essen in 1898, serving as chairman of the board after 1902, as well as the Deutsch-Luxemburgische Bergwerks- und Hütten-AG (German-Luxembourg Mining Inc.) in 1901. Stinnes advocated vociferously for the extens…

Göring, Hermann

(227 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard
Göring, Hermann (January 12, 1893, Rosenheim – October 15, 1946, Nürnberg [suicide]), German fighter pilot and politician. Commander in chief of the air force from 1935–1945. Called the “erste Paladin des Führers” (“The Führer’s Champion”) and the “second man in the Reich,” Göring served as a World War I flying ace – as National Socialist propaganda never tired of mentioning. Göring took part in the First Battle of Alsace as a lieutenant of the Fourth Badisches Infantry Regiment No. 112 (“Prince W…

Image Credits

(87 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Image Credits Dr. Ernst Aichner: Ingolstadt, 593. Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne: 276f., 280, 356, 669, 940. Imperial War Museum, London: 92, 97. Irina Renz, Stuttgart: 956. Stadtarchiv Lörrach, C/VIII/23: 498. The remaining illustrations are taken from the Bibliothek für Zeitgeschichte (BfZ), now a special collection of the Württembergische Landesbibliothek in Stuttgart. The editors wish to thank all the above sources for their permission to reproduce these illustrations. Hirschfeld, Gerhard, Krumeich, Gerd and Renz, Irina


(3,646 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Timeline1914–1918 1914 June 28 Assassination of heir to the Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo. July 5 “Hoyos Mission”: Kaiser Wilhelm II assures Austria-Hungary of Germany’s support. July 23 Austria-Hungary delivers Serbia an ultimatum. July 25 Mobilization of the Serbian Army. The Russian Crown Council resolves to support Serbia. July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. July 30 General mobilization of the Russian Army. July 31 General mobilization in Austria-Hungary and Belgium. August 1 Germany declares war on Russia. General mobilization …

Foreword to the Revised Edition

(148 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Foreword to the Revised Edition The lasting interest in our Enzyklopädie Erster Weltkrieg, released in 2003, has motivated us to publish a third edition, revised and expanded, as part of the Universitätstaschenbücher (University Paperbacks Series, UTB). In order to include the intensive research on the First World War undertaken since its original publication, we have added a number of new entries. A comprehensive record of the persons and places increases the usefulness of this reference work. The bibliography has likewise been …


(9,690 words)

Author(s): Hirschfeld, Gerhard | Krumeich, Gerd | Renz, Irina
Places Aarschot 29 Abadan 798 Abercorn 569, 684 Abrolhos Islands 502 Abu Chuff 563 Abyssinia 227 Acre 945 Aden 625 Adrianople (Edirne) 350, 946 Adriatic 44, 57, 73, 255, 313, 350, 368, 452, 482, 506, 644, 741, 875f., 888, 896, 918, 1021 Aegean 236, 350, 392, 454, 486, 585 Afghanistan 474, 495, 592, 626, 777 Africa 184–187, 191f., 194, 213, 218, 225, 293, 299, 306, 343, 355, 380f., 407, 413, 428, 430–434, 438, 511, 569, 576f., 597, 625, 627, 630, 663, 668, 683f., 735, 737, 746, 764, 785–788, 806, 824, 835, 867, 876, 888, 893, 902, 919f., 938f., 961, 1021 Agadir 687, 746 Agram (Zagreb) 61 Ağri 409 Aire …