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Perilaus

(201 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Περίλαος/ Perílaos, Περίλεως/ Períleōs). [German version] [1] Son of Icarius and Periboea Son of Icarius [2] and Periboea [1], brother of Penelope (Apollod. 3,126). According to Peloponnesian legend, P. appeared before the Areopagus as the prosecutor of Orestes [1], rather than Tyndareos, who was already dead (Paus. 8,34,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Argive Argive; a statue depicting him in combat with the Spartan Othryades was displayed in the theatre at Argos (Hdt. 1,82; Paus. 2,20,7). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Greek worker in bronze, 6th cent. BC (al…

Nannacus

(67 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάννακος/ Nánnakos, according to Steph. Byz. Ἀννακός/ Annakós). Mythological king of Phrygia who supposedly lived to be over 300 years old. He predicted the flood of Deucalion and prayed with his people to be spared. Numerous proverbs relating to his great age and his tearful pleading are associated with him (Zenob. 6,10; Macarius Chrysocephalus 2,23; 8,4; Apostolius 15,100; cf. already Herondas 3,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Pherecydes

(735 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φερεκύδης; Pherekýdēs). [German version] [1] P. of Syrus Mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC Greek mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC; according to an older tradition, he was a contemporary of Alyattes ( c. 605-560 BC; Pherecydes 7 A 2 DK; Acusilaus 9 A 1 DK), whilst according to another tradition, the acme of his career as a writer was in the 59th Olympiad (544-541 BC, so he would have been a contemporary of Cyrus [2]; Diog. Laert. 1,118 and 121; cf. Pherecydes 7 A 1 DK). According to Diog. Laert. 1,116, his book was still extant in the 3rd cent. AD; its title was probably Heptámych…

Melampus

(468 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
[German version] [1] Mythical seer (Μελάμπους/ Melámpous). Mythical seer. Son of Amythaon, brother of Bias [1], husband of Iphianassa [1], father of Mantius, grandfather of Amphiaraus, born in Pylus. As a child he received the gift of interpreting bird songs when snakes licked his ears. Apollo granted him other prophetic gifts. He was considered a seer, a miracle healer and an expiatory priest, and also the founder of the cult of Dionysus in Greece (Hdt. 2,48f.). When his brother Bias wooed Pero, M. a…

Phegeus

(304 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Φηγεύς; Phēgeús). [German version] [1] Son of Alpheius Son of Alpheius [2] (Hyg. Fab. 244), brother of Phoroneus; mythological king of Phegea in Arcadia, which was later called Psophis (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φηγεία; Paus. 8,24,2). He expiated the sin of Alcmaeon [1], who had killed his own mother, and married him to his daughter Alphesiboea (different name: Arsinoe [I 3]). However, Alcmaeon had to move on and then married Achelous' [2] daughter Callirhoe [2], for whom Alcmaeon deceitfully robbed P. of Harmo…

Trophonius

(575 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τροφώνιος/ Trophṓnios, or Τρεφώνιος/ Trephṓnios). Hero of the Boeotian Lebadia, stepson or brother of Agamedes (Paus. 9,37,5; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 508). The following are mentioned as parents: Apollo and Epicaste (Paus. loc. cit.; schol. Aristoph. loc .cit.), Zeus and Iocaste (schol. Aristoph. loc. cit.), Valens/Ischys and Coronis [1] (Cic. Nat. D. 3,56), Erigonus (Hom. h. 3,296 f.; Paus. 9,37,4 f., etc.). Children: Alcander [1] and Hercyra. In the myth, T. and Agamedes are the famous builders of Delphi's first temple of Apollo  (Hom. h. 3,2…

Phemonoe

(59 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φημονόη/ Phēmonóē). Daughter of Apollo; she was his first seer (Pythia) in Delphi and invented the hexameter verse; the maxim 'know yourself'(γνῶθι σεαυτόν/ gnôthi seautón) is supposed to have come from her (Paus. 10,5,4; 10,6,3; 10,12,5; Str. 9,3,5). Her name is also widely used to mean a prophetess (Luc. 5,126. 185; Stat. Silv. 2,2,39). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Mantius

(46 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάντιος; Mántios). Son of the seer Melampus, brother of Antiphates, father of Cleitus [1] and of the seer Polypheides (Hom. Od. 15,242ff.), according to Paus. 6,17,6 also of Oïcles (who in Hom. ibid. is his nephew), grandfather of Theoclymenus. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Paradeisos

(418 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Galter, Hannes D. (Graz)
[German version] As repeatedly mentioned in royal epithets and authentications of power, it was one of the paramount tasks of Assyrian kings to secure fertility and prosperity in the country. The palace gardens of Assyrian residences, in which from the 11th century BC onward foreign types of trees and shrubs were cultivated and animals of conquered regions were kept, and which certainly owed their origin to an interest in horticulture and exotica, can also be understood - in addition to their func…

Oenone

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἰνώνη; Oinṓnē). [German version] [1] Poetic term for the island of Aegina Poetic term for the island of Aegina (Pind. N. 4,46; 5,16; 8,7; Pind. I. 5,34; cf. Ov. Met. 7,474). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nymph from the Troad Nymph from the Troad, daughter of the river god Cebren, sister of Asterope (Apollod. 3,154f.; according to Tzetz. on Lycophr. 57 daughter of Oeneus), mother of Corythus (Parthenius 34; Ov. Met. 7,361). Paris, exposed in the Idaean mountains, becomes her lover and spends his first love with her, but the…

Mnemon

(81 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μνήμων; Mnḗmōn). [German version] [1] Slave of Achilles Slave of Achilles [1] whose sole responsibility it was to warn his master not to kill any of Apollo's offspring as he was predestined to die soon thereafter. He forgets to issue the warning when Achilles is fighting Cycnus [2] and Tennes and is consequently put to death (Lycoph. 240-242 with schol. ad loc.; Plut. Quaest. Graec. 28). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] see Artaxerxes [2] II see Artaxerxes [2] II

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Phylacus

(188 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φύλακος; Phýlakos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia (in Attica), also of Phylace [1]. Son of Deïon(eus) [1] and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus (Apollod. 1,51; 86), father of Iphiclus (Hom. Il. 2,705; 13,698) and Alcimede (Apoll. Rhod. 1,47). P. caused the infertility of his son by threatening him with a knife bloody from castrating rams. After Melampus [1] heals Iphiclus in the course of his brother Bias [1]'s battle for Iphiclus's oxen…

Lucretia

(223 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Wife of Numa Pompilius Wife of Numa Pompilius, mother of Pompilia, grandmother of Ancus Marcius [I 3] (Plut. Numa 21,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Collatinus Wife of Collatinus. Raped by the Roman prince Sex. Tarquinius, she commits her husband with L. Iunius [I 4] Brutus and P. Valerius to revenge and kills herself. This incident initiates the expulsion of the Tarquinians from Rome and with it the fall of rule by kings (Liv. 1,57-60 [1]; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,64,4-67,4; Ov. Fast.…

Maneros

(102 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μανερῶς; Manerôs Hdt. 2,79; Μανέρως; Manérōs Plut. Is. 17,367 etc.). According to Hdt. l.c. M. is the only son of the first king of Egypt who, after his early death, is honoured by a dirge ‘M., which is said to correspond to the Greek Linus song. M. means either Egyptian mniw-r‘gooseherd (Cerny) or r jmntt r jmntt‘westward! westward! (Lloyd), a cry heard at funerals. It is not clear which Egyptian name or which sequence of Egyptian words was garbled to form Greek M. [1. 338]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 A. B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book 2. Commentary 1-98, 1976.

Pleisthenes

(204 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πλεισθένης; Pleisthénēs). [German version] [1] Son of Pelops or Atreus, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus Mythical figure from the family of Pelops, often also named as the family's eponym (Aesch. Ag. 1569 etc.): either the son of Pelops and Hippodameia [1] (with Atreus, Thyestes and Pittheus as brothers; schol. Pind. O. 1,144), or the son of Atreus and Cleola born in exile in Macestus (Triphylia), father of Agamemnon and Menelaus [1] (schol. Eur. Or. 4), or husband of Aërope and father by her of Agamemnon and…

Philyra

(206 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φιλύρα/Philýra, literally 'lime-tree'). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, already in Hesiod (Theog. 1002) the mother of the centaur Chiron, in whose cave she lived according to Pindar (N. 3,43). The Hesiodic, Aeolic spelling Phillyrídēs for Chiron points to an archaic stratum of the myth (West on Hes. Theog. 1002). She was loved by Kronos who, being surprised by Rhea while making love to her, turned himself and P. into horses. Their child was the centaur Chiron, whose monstrous shape so horrified the mother that she prayed…

First man

(404 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Graeco-Roman antiquity had no conception of a 'first man' in the sense of the Judaeo-Christian myth of Adam and Eve. The first point of comparison appears with the myth of the Ages of Man in Hes. Op. 109-200. According to this, there were various races of men during the Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic and (present) Iron Ages (Period, Era), each of which (except the last) was superseded by the next. While the first two demonstrated characteristics that were rather superhuman and uto…

Phaon

(312 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Ferryman from Lesbos (Φάων/ Pháōn, ‘ the radiant’). Ferryman from Lesbos who carries Aphrodite in the guise of an old woman, from Lesbos to the mainland without a charge. In reward, she gives him a rejuvenating and beautifying ointment. This story of the origin of P.'s radiant beauty only appears in later sources (Ael. VH 12,18; Serv. Aen. 3,279; Palaephatus 48; Lucian. Dialogi mortuorum 19(2),2 ). Initially, he is primarily encountered in comedy: Cratinus (PCG IV fr. 370) presents hi…

Ocnus

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄκνος/ Óknos, Latin Ocnus). 'One who hesitates', 'one who wavers': character punished in the Underworld; he is forced to twist a rope forever, which is then devoured by a donkey standing behind him (cf. Danaids, Sisyphus, Tantalus; Prop. 4,3,21f.). According to Paus. 10,29,1f., O. was a symbol of a hard-working man whose wasteful wife kept using up what he had earned. Other versions: O. sits helpless before a donkey that has stumbled, as its load of wood falls to the ground (Apul. M…
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