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Imminent Parousia Expectation

(387 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] The term imminent Parousia expectation refers in the first place to the primitive Christi…

Universal Salvation

(873 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Given the substantially diverse notions of salvation and redemption in the philosophy of religion (including realization and fulfillment of essential potentiality, reunion of what is separate, identity, and essentification), universal salvation can be understood as a metaphys…

Existentialism (Theology)

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] Existential theology is less a unified theological position or method than a particular theological attitude in the sense of a polemical and appellative …


(886 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Falkenburg, Brigitte | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy – III. Fundamental Theology I. Religious Studies The term “boundary” is used spatially, temporally, and metaphorically. Spatially, a boundary separates localities and territories, signaled by boundary markers (cf. OE mearc, “boundary, landmark”). In certain cases, boundaries must not …


(313 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] Especially in the context of an apocalyptic theology of history (History, Theology of), premoni-¶ tions of the end of the world and the return of Jesus Christ (Parousia) as judge and savior based on portents and omens are described and interpreted by initiates by virtue of special revelations and …


(487 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] (Gk ἀποκατάστασις πάντων) or the redemption/restoration of all is the eschatological notion that all human beings (things, creatures) without exception will be received into eschatological salvation (the kingdom of God). One the one hand, apocatastasis conflicts with the more common eschatological notion of a “double outcome,” which envisions an…


(1,102 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut | Bosse, Katrin
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Especially in the tradition of theologia negativa, unavailability (or inaccessibility, Ger. Unverfügbarkeit) char­acterizes divinity, the unconditioned (Absolute necessity), and the absolute, which is divorced (Lat. absolutum) from all relationships and conditions and thus is not available and accessible in any natural, material intramundane referential context. In categorial dist…


(937 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut | Oberdorfer, Bernd
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics I. Philosophy of Religion Future is relevant to the philosophy of religion, first, in relation to the analysis of existence (Existentialism [Philosophy], Existentialism [Theology]). According to this, future is the content of approaching time that lies before us and is ultimately inaccessible despite all planning (Unavailability). This content reveals its importance for the understanding of human existence in contrast to other beings that are subje…

Fries, Jakob Friedrich

(549 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] (Aug 23, 1773, Barby – Aug 10, 1843, Jena), a philosopher in the circle of so-called German Idealism, a physicist and mathematician, the founder of Friesianism (Ernst Friedrich Apelt) or neo-Friesianism (Leonard Nelson; R. Otto). From a Herrnhuter family, Fries attended the school in Niesky together with F.D.E. Schleiermacher, with whom his thought in the philosophy of religion has affinity, and studied with Ernst Platner, among others, in Leipzig and with J.G. Fichte in Jena, whe…

Present and Future Eschatology

(570 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] The distinction between present and future eschatology as the doctrine of the “last things” can be derived from the ambiguity of the term “last.” On the one hand, “last” may be understood qualitatively, or in terms of value, as what is ultimately valid; on the other hand, it may be understood temporally or chronolog…


(1,397 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Sarot, Marcel | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. History of Religions As a theological category, damnation belongs primarily in the context of the history of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The etymology of the term itself connotes a local and a judicial dimension: the punishment of expulsion to a real or imaginary place as an exclusion from …


(3,560 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Clayton, Philip | Stolzenberg, Jürgen | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Since time immemorial, the use of the term spirit h…


(396 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] As the opposite of election or salvation by God, and in divergence from common linguistic usage in dogmatics, rejection must be …

Existential Interpretation

(658 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] Against the background of the existentialism (theology) of R. Bultmann ( Neues Testament und Mythologie, 1941; ET: The New Testament and Mythology, 1941), existential interpretation refers to a hermeneutics (III; V, 2) of biblical, especially NT, texts, specifically grounded in existential analysis (Dasein) as a counterpart to the program of demythologization. It assumes the foreignness of the biblical …


(1,613 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Rosenau, Hartmut | Sparn, Walter | Stock, Konrad
[German Version] I. Philosophy Sensuality is a collective term for various human faculties that mediate sensations. Sensations are mental states. In contrast to abstract thoughts, memories, and fantasies, sensations are qualitatively dependent on the present state of the sensate person. It is traditional to distinguish between perceptual sensations and affective sensations. Sensations function as information, making it possible for us to react appropriately to our environment, have an idea of it, an…

Absolute, The

(937 words)

Author(s): Stolzenberg, Jürgen | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion …


(1,399 words)

Author(s): Westhelle, Vítor | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics While the term liberty (Lat. libertas) denotes the state or property of being free, liberation describes the process through which liberty or freedom is achieved. Liberation is the conscious praxis of freedom to achieve freedom from oppression (Freire). In the New Testament, ἐλευθερόω/ eleutheróō denotes the process of being set free through the work of Christ from the dominion of sin (V), death (VI), and decay (Rom 6:18, 22; 8:2, 21; John 8:32, 36). Enslavem…

Borderline Situation

(358 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] This concept was introduced by K. Jaspers to …


(1,158 words)

Author(s): Rosenau, Hartmut | Gander, Hans-Helmuth
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Philosophy I. Fundamental Theology Historicality as a specific determinant of human existence in contrast to everything that is simply there (Existence) must be distinguished from the historicity of an event or situation in the sense of its having been authenticated as an assured historical fact (see also Historicism, History/Concepts of History, Historiography) – unlike, for example, the stories of sagas and legends or the poetry of myth – even though it wo…

Unconscious, The

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund | Rosenau, Hartmut | Fraas, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. Religious Studies S. Freud claimed credit for discovering the unconscious as a key concept for psychoanalysis, but much older concepts of the unconscious are found in religious and philosophical systems: (a) in the works of Plato(ἀνάμνησις/ anámnēsis as the unconscious condition for conscious mental activity) and Plotinus, (b) in Indian Vedānta and Buddhism ( avidyā, “ignorance,” inducing māyā), and (c) in the medieval Christian mysticism of Meister Eckhart ( Seligkeit) and the 14th-century English mystical text The Cloud of Unknowing, we find references to the conce…
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