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(153 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] Piechowski, Paul Felix (30.6.1892 Turoscheln, Ostpreußen – 9.6.1966 Bonn-Bad Godesberg). 1911–1914 Studium der Theol. und Philos. (Lic. theol.; Dr. phil.), anschließend bis 1919 Militäreinsatz; 1919 Pfarrer in Berlin-Neukölln, 1928 in Berlin-Britz; 1934 Amtsenthebung wegen eines Disziplinarvergehens. Nach Medizinstudium (Dr. med.) seit 1938 als Arzt tätig. P. beteiligte sich in den 20er Jahren an der Gründu…


(116 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] Rauschenbusch, August Christian Ernst (27.5.1777 Bünde, Westfalen – 19.4.1840 Altena), 1801 Pfarrer in Lüdenscheid, 1802 in Kronenberg, 1808 Direktor der Bürgerschule in Schwelm, 1815–1840 Pfarrer in Altena/Lenne, 1824–1827 Superintendent in Iserlohn (1808 Dr. phil. Heidelberg). R. legte zahlreiche theol. und hist. Veröff. vor, darunter das »Leben Jesu im Zusammenhange dargestellt« (1837). Er war Mithg. des »Bergischen Gesangbuches« (1808) und Autor eines reformpäd. »Erziehungsbüchl…

Undogmatisches Christentum

(301 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[English Version] . Vorläufer eines expliziten prot.-theol. Antidogmatismus reichen bis in die Reformationszeit zurück. Zentrale Bedeutung erhielt er in der Aufklärungstheol. Zahlreiche Theologen und Religionsphilosophen des späten 18.Jh. profilierten die christl. Glaubensüberzeugungen über eine massive Dogmenkritik (z.B. J.G. Herder, Von Rel., Lehrmeinungen und Gebräuchen, 1798). Zum theologiepolit. Schlagwort wurde der Begriff i…

Jatho, Karl Wilhelm

(258 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Sep 25, 1851, Kassel – Mar 11, 1913, Cologne). After attending school and military service, Jatho studied theology in Marburg and Leipzig. In 1876, he entered the service of the church (pastor in Bucharest and Boppard am Rhein). After 1891, he held office in Cologne. In 1903, Jatho published the first collection of his sermons. This publication and subsequent others of a similar nature attracted great attention because of their vibrant expression of religion, although they also e…

Fuchs, Emil

(192 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (May 13, 1874, Beerfelden – Feb 13, 1971, Berlin) became pastor in Rüsselsheim in 1905, in Eisenach in 1918, and was professor of religion at the Pädagogische Akademie (teacher training college) in Kiel from 1931. Fuchs was dismissed from the civil service in 1933. During the Third Reich, he was forbidden to engage in any form of public activity. For a time, he joined a Quaker …

Krause, Heinrich

(163 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 2, 1816, Weißensee near Berlin – Jun 8, 1868, Weißensee), studied theology in Berlin from 1834 onward and received his Lic.theol. in 1845. After having been refused a Habilitation, Krause was active as a liberal Protestant journalist: he became editor of the Zeitschrift für die unirte evangelische Kirche in 1848 and of the popular journal Der Protestant in 1851. From 1854 until his death, he was editor of the Protestantische Kirchenzeitung für das evangelische Deutschland. In 1848, Krause was one of th…

Religiöser Menschheitsbund

(145 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] The Religiöser Menschheitsbund (Religious Humanity Alliance) was founded in 1921 by R. Otto in analogy to the League of Nations. As an inter-religious group it aimed to bring the ideals of social justice and peace to bear at an international level. Through the gathering of representatives of various religion…

Nagel, Julius

(206 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Sep 17, 1809, Bahn, Pomerania – Jan 17, 1884, Breslau [Wrocław]). From 1835 Nagel was a pastor in Colzow, Wollin Island. Although influenced during his theological studies in Berlin by F.D.E. Schleiermacher, Nagel was very critical of church union. His attitude led in 1847 to his res…

Rauschenbusch, August Christian Ernst

(137 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (May 27, 1777, Bünde, Westphalia – Apr 19, 1840, Altena), 1801 pastor in Lüdenscheid, 1802 in Kronenberg, 1808 head of the Bürgerschule in Schwelm, between 1815 and 1840 pastor in Altena on the Lenne, from 1824 to 1827 superintendent in Iserlohn (1808 Dr.phil., Heidelberg). Rauschenbusch published numerous theological and historical works, including the Leben Jesu im Zusammenhange dargestellt (1837 [The life of Jesus presented in context]). He was joint editor of the hymnal, Bergisches Gesangbuch (1808), and author of a small reform education manual ( Erziehungsbü…

Piechowski, Paul Felix

(182 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 30, 1892, Turoschein, East Prussia – Jun 9, 1966, Bonn-Bad Godesberg), studied theology and philosophy from 1911 to 1914 (Lic.theol., Dr.phil.); this was followed by military service until 1919. In 1919 he became pastor in Berlin-Neukölln, in 1928 in Berlin-Britz; he was removed from office in 1934 following disciplinary proceedings. After medi-¶ cal studies, he practiced as a doctor from 1938. In the 1920s Piechowski took part in founding religious socialist organizations. Around 1930 he was one of the best-known representatives of the feder…

Stephan, Horst Emil

(193 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1873, Sayda, Saxony – Jan 9, 1954, Leipzig). While studying theology in Leipzig, he began teaching in Zittau and Leipzig in 1899. In 1906 he earned his habilitation in Leipzig and in 1907 in Marburg, where he was appointed associate professor in 1911 and full professor of systematic theology in 1919. In 1922 he moved to Halle and in 1926 to …

Foerster, Erich

(143 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias

Undogmatic Christianity

(346 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] Precursors of an explicit Protestant theological antidogmatism go back to the Reformation period. It played a central role in the theology of the Enlightenment. Numerous theologians and philosophers of religion in the late 18th century presented the beliefs of the Christian faith with a massive criticism of dogma (e.g. J.G. Herder, Von Religion, Lehrmeinungen und Gebräuchen, 1798). The phrase became a shibboleth in theological politics in the last third of the 19th century. It was mostly theologians holding ecclesiastical positions that…

Mulert, Christian Hermann

(229 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jan 11, 1879, Niederbobritzsch, Saxony – Jul 22, 1950, Mügeln near Leipzig). From 1897 to 1903, Mulert studied theology and philosophy in Leipzig, Marburg, Berlin, and Kiel. After some years as a pastor and teacher of religion, he was from 1907 a university lecturer in Kiel. In 1917 he became assistant professor, and in 1920 full profes…

Wehrung, Gottfried Georg

(189 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Oct 6, 1880, Dorlisheim, Elsaß [Alsace] – Jan 20, 1959, Tübingen). In 1906 he was appointed tutor in Straßburg, where he became associate professor of systematic theology in 1915. In 1920 he was appointed professor of systematic theology at Münster, in 1927 at Halle, and in 1921 at Tübingen. From 1923 to 1955 he was an editor of the Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie. In his theology, Wehrung attempt to overcome the problems of substantiation raised by the debate over historicism through an understanding of religion grounded in ethics ( Geschichte und Glaube, 1933…

Knolle, Theodor

(108 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 18, 1885, Hildesheim – Dec 1, 1955, Hamburg). Knolle, a cofounder of the Luther Society in 1918, became chief pastor of St. Petri in Hamburg in 1924. In 1929 he received his D.theol. from Halle. In 1933 he was appointed general superintendent in Hamburg, but conflicts with the Deutsche Christen
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