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ʿAmr b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Umayya al-Umawī, known as al-As̲h̲dak

(365 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Umayyad governor and general. Governor of Mecca when Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya came to the throne (60/680), he was the same year appointed governor of Medina. On Yazīd’s orders, he sent an army to Mecca to subdue the anti-Caliph ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, and entrusted the command to a brother of the latter, ʿAmr; but ʿAmr was taken prisoner and, with his brother’s consent, flogged to death by his personal enemies. At the end of the following year, al-As̲h̲daḳ was dismissed. Later he went with the Calip…

al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ Bi ’llāh

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E. | van Donzel, E.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Hārūn b. al-Muʿtaṣim , ʿAbbāsid caliph. He was given the name Hārūn after his grandfather Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd; his mother was a Greek slave called Ḳarāṭīs. On the day that his father al-Muʿtaṣim bi ’llāh [ q.v.] died (18 Rabīʿ I 227/5 January 842), al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ was proclaimed his successor. Before al-Muʿtaṣim’s death, an alleged descendant of the Umayyads, named Abū Ḥarb, usually called al-Mubarḳaʿ [ q.v.] “the veiled one” from the veil that he always wore, had provoked a dangerous rising in Palestine, and Rad̲j̲āʾ b. Ayyūb al-Ḥiḍārī, whom al-Muʿta…


(2,044 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Humphreys, R.S.
, the name of two Ayyūbid sultans. I. al-Malik al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Dāwūd b. al-Malik al-Muʿaẓẓam , born in D̲j̲umādā I 603/December 1205) in Damascus. After the death of his father at the end of D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 624/November 1227 Dāwūd succeeded him on the throne of Damascus and the Mamlūk ʿIzz al-Dīn Aybak acted as regent. Dāwūd’s uncle however, covetous of territory, did not leave him long in peace. Al-Malik al-Kāmil [ q.v.] first of all claimed the fortress of al-S̲h̲awbak [ q.v.], and when it was refused him he occupied Jerusalem, Nābulus and other places (625/1228). In t…

S̲h̲ams al-Dawla

(488 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Ḥasan, Būyid prince and ruler in Hamad̲h̲ān [ q.v.] 387-412/997-1021. After the death of Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla [ q.v.], the amīr s proclaimed as his successor in Rayy his four-year-old son Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla [ q.v.] under the guardianship of his mother Sayyida and gave the governorship of Hamad̲h̲ān and Kirmāns̲h̲āhān to S̲h̲ams al-Dawla, who was also a minor. When Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla grew up, he sought to overthrow his mother and with this object made an arrangement with the vizier al-K̲h̲aṭīr Abū ʿAlī b. ʿAlī …


(846 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E.
bi-llāh , Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 289-95/902-8, son of al-Muʿtaḍid and a Turkish slave concubine named Čiček (Arabic D̲j̲īd̲j̲ak). In 281/894-5 he was appointed by his father governor of al-Rayy and several towns in the neighbourhood, and five years later he was made governor of Mesopotamia and took up his quarters in ¶ al-Raḳḳa. After the death of al-Muʿtaḍid on 22 Rabīʿ II 289/5 April 902, he ascended the throne and at once won the good-will of the people by his liberality, by destroying the subter…


(373 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Musayyib, Ḥusām al-Dawla Abū Ḥassān , member of the Arab ʿUḳaylid dynasty of ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra (d. 391/1000). After the death in 386/996 or 387/997 of the ʿUḳaylid amīr Abu ’l-D̲h̲awwād Muḥammad b. al-Musayyib, a quarrel arose between his brothers, ʿAlī and al-Muḳallad, each of whom claimed power. ʿAlī was the elder, but al-Muḳallad wrote to the Būyid amīr Bahāʾ al-Dawla [ q.v. in Suppl.] and promised him an annual tribute, and then told his brother that Bahāʾ al-Dawla had appointed him governor of al-Mawṣil and asked ʿAlī’s help to take the town…


(423 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
li-amr allāh , abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad , ʿAbbāsid caliph (reigned 530-55/1136-60), born on 12 Rabīʿ II 489/9 April 1096, the son of al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.] and a slave girl. After the deposition of his nephew al-Rās̲h̲id [ q.v.], al-Muḳtafī was acknowledged as caliph on 8 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 530/17 September 1136. While the Sald̲j̲ūḳs were fighting among themselves, he did his best not only to maintain his independence but also to extend his rule, and one district after the other in ʿIrāḳ fell into his hands. In 543/1148 a number of amīrs denounced their allegiance…


(406 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, properly Kür-Bug̲h̲a (T. “stouthearted bull, stallion”) Abū saʿīd Ḳiwām al-Dawla , Turkish commander of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period and lord of al-Mawṣil. In the war waged by Tutus̲h̲ b. Alp Arslan, Berk-yaruḳ’s uncle [ q.v.], against the two rebellious governors Aḳ Ṣonḳor and Būzān, which ended with the capture and execution of these two, the amīr Kurbuḳa, who had been sent to their help by Berk-yaruḳ, was also taken prisoner. After Tutus̲h̲ had fallen in Ṣafar 488/February 1095 (cf. barkyārūḳ ), Kurbuḳa was released by his son Riḍwān, and with his brother…

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ

(286 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Alï , cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In the reign of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd ʿAbd al-Malik led several campaigns against the Byzantines, in 174/790-1, in 181/797-8, and according to some authorities also in 175/791-2, although other sources assert that in this year the forces were commanded not by ʿAbd al-Malik but by his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. He was also for some time governor of Medina and held the same office in Egypt. At length, however, he could not escap…


(666 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E.
bi ’llāh , Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Hārun al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 255-6/869-70. After al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s death, a number of officials wished to pay homage to the young Muḥammad, son of the deceased caliph and a Greek slave; instead, however, al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s brother al-Mutawakkil [ q.v.] was proclaimed his successor and only after the deposition and murder of the unfortunate al-Muʿtazz ¶ (1 S̲h̲aʿbān 255/15 July 869) did Muḥammad ascend the throne on 7-8 S̲h̲aʿbān/21-2 July with the name al-Muhtadī. His ideal was the Umayyad ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzī…

Ibn al-Baladī

(102 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Saʿīd , vizier of al-Mustand̲j̲id. In 563/1167-8 Ibn al-Baladī, who at that time was Nāẓir in Wāsiṭ, was appointed vizier. There was an old feud between him and the ustād-dār ʿAḍūd al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. After the murder of the caliph in Rabīʿ II 566/December 1170 by ʿAḍud al-Dīn and the amīr Ḳuṭb al-Dīn, they forced his successor al-Mustaḍīʾ to appoint ʿAḍud al-Dīn vizier, whereupon Ibn al-Baladi was executed. (K.V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā, al-Fak̲h̲rī, ed. Derenbourg, 426-9 (Eng. tr. Whitting, 305 f.) Ibn al…

Amir al-Umarāʾ

(260 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, chief Emīr, commander-in-chief of the army. As the name shews this dignity was originally confined to the military command. But the pretorians continued to become more powerful, and already the first bearer of the title, the eunuch Mūnis, soon became the real ruler, for it was to him that the weak and incapable Caliph al-Muḳtadir owed his rescue on the occasion of the conspiracy on behalf of ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Muʿtazz in 296 (908). After the appointment of Muḥammed b. Rāʾiḳ the governor of Wāsiṭ…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Walīd

(155 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph al-Walīd I. In 91/709-10, he took part in the campaign against the Byzantines, under the orders of his uncle, Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, and during the following years, he also participated in the battles against the same enemies. In 96/714-5, al-Walīd, whose designated successor was Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, tried to exclude Sulaymān from the succession in favour of his son ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, but his attempt failed. After the death of Sulayman at Dābiḳ, 99/717, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz wan…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya

(519 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, ʿAlid rebel. After the death of Abū Hās̲h̲im, a grandson of ʿAlī, claims were laid to the Imamate from several quarters. Some asserted that Abū Hās̲h̲im had formally transferred his right to the dignity of Imām to the ʿAbbāsid Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Others said that he had spoken in favor of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAmr al-Kindī and wanted to proclaim him Imām. As he, however, did not come up to the expectations of his followers, they turned from him and declared ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya, a great-grandson of ʿ…

al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr

(296 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Mālik al-Tamīmī , a warrior of the early Islamic period who, after the death of the Prophet, joined Sad̲j̲āḥ [ q.v.] for a time and became the lieutenant of K̲h̲ālid b. al-Walīd [ q.v.], taking part in the battle of Buzāk̲h̲a [ q.v.] as early as 11/632. After the capture of al-Ḥīra, he commanded a detachment which won a victory over the Persians in the region of al-Anbār, probably in 12/633. In Rad̲j̲ab 13/August-September 635, he took part in the conquest of Damascus and the following year led a troop of cavalry at the battle of Yarmūk [ q.v.]. He fought with distinction at al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.], …

al-Muttaḳī Li ’llāh

(588 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E.
, abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm , ʿAbbāsid caliph, reigned 329-33/940-4, son of al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.] and a slave-girl named K̲h̲alūb. At the age of 26 on 21 Rabīʿ I 329/24 Dec. 940 he succeeded his half-brother al-Rāḍī [ q.v.]; by this time the caliphate had sunk so low that five days passed after the death of al-Rāḍī before steps were taken to choose his successor. Al-Muttaḳī at once confirmed the Amīr al-Umarāʾ Bed̲j̲kem [ q.v. in EI 1] in office; after his death however, in Rad̲j̲ab 324/April 941, the Turks and Daylamīs in the army began to quarrel with one another. Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Barīdī [see al-barīdī …


(1,475 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Bosworth, C.E.
bi-llāh , Abu ’l-Faḍl D̲j̲aʿfar . ʿAbbāsid caliph, son of al-Muʿtaḍid by a Greek slave concubine named S̲h̲ag̲h̲ib, reigned 295-320/908-32, but with two episodes when he was temporarily deposed, the first on 20 Rabīʿ I 296/17 December 908 in the fourth month of his caliphate, when Ibn al-Muʿtazz [ q.v.] replaced him for a day, and the second on 15 Muḥarram 317/28 February 929, when his brother Muḥammad al-Ḳāhir [ q.v.] was raised to the throne for two days. After the death of his brother al-Muḳtafī in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 295/August 908, al-Muḳtadir, who was only 13 at the time,…

Aḥmad b. Abī Duʾād

(548 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Pellat, Ch.
al-īyādī , abū ʿabd allāh , Muʿtazilite ḳāḍī born at Baṣra about 160/776. Through his own merit and also, it is said, through the good offices of Yaḥyā b. Akt̲h̲am [ q.v.], who introduced him to the Court at Bag̲h̲dād, he reached a position of great honour under the Caliph al-Maʾmūn, soon becoming one of the Caliph’s closest friends. Shortly before his death, the Caliph recommended his brother and successor al-Muʿtaṣim to admit Aḥmad, a fervent follower of the Muʿtazilite doctrine, to the circle of his advisers, and as a resu…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥad̲jd̲j̲ād̲j̲

(311 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik , Umayyad general. He was a faithful partisan of his cousin Yazīd III and one of his ¶ most eminent assistants. Already in al-Walīd II’s reign he helped Yazīd, who headed the malcontents, to enlist troops against the caliph. When they had succeeded in getting together an army in Damascus, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz received the supreme command and marched against al-Walīd. Yazīd’s brother ʿAbbās, who was about to go to the caliph’s assistance, was attacked and forced to pay homage to Yazīd. Shortly afterwards ʿ…

Rabīb al-Dawla

(242 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
Abū Manṣūr b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn , vizier of the ʿAbbāsids and Sald̲j̲ūḳs. When the vizier Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī [ q.v.] made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 481/1089, he appointed his son Rabīb al-Dawla and the naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ Ṭirād b. Muḥammad al-Zaynabī his deputies, and in 507/1113-14, on the death of Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr [see d̲j̲ahīr , banū ], Rabīb al-Dawla was appointed vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.]. In D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 511/April 1118 the fourteen-year old Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad [ q.v.] succeed…
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