Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(7 words)

[see baḳriyya and ṣiddīḳī ].


(396 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
, abū ’l-ḥasan aḥmad b. ʿabd allāh b. muḥammad , appears to be the most acceptable form of the name of the alleged author, or final rāwī , of historical novels dealing with the early years of Islam, who also is credited with a mawlid and a fictional life of Muḥammad. The ¶ earliest biography devoted to him is to be found in al-D̲h̲ahabī, Mīzān , Cairo 1325, i, 53. Al-D̲h̲ahabī indignantly describes al-Bakrī as a liar and inventor of untrue stories, whose books were available at the booksellers (and, presumably, enjoyed good sales). Consi…


(910 words)

Author(s): de Jong, F.
, Muḥammad Tawfīḳ b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , Egyptian religious dignitary. He was born in Cairo on 27 D̲j̲umādā II 1287/24 August 1870, and was appointed naḳīb al-as̲h̲rāf [ q.v.], s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ al-ṭuruḳ al-ṣūfiyya (head of the ṭarīḳas [ q.v.]), and head of al-Bakriyya [ q.v.] in January 1892 in succession to his deceased brother ʿAbd al-Bāḳī, obtaining life-membership of the mad̲j̲lis s̲h̲ūrā al-ḳawānīn (Legislative Council) and of the d̲j̲amʿiyya al-ʿumūmiyya (General Assembly) in that very same year. During the period in which he held the office of s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲…


(198 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, muḥammad b. ʿabd al-raḥmān al-ṣiddīḳī al-s̲h̲āfiʿī al-as̲h̲ʿarī abū ’l-makārim s̲h̲ams al-dīn , Arab poet and mystic, born 898/1492, lived a year alternately in Cairo and a year in Mecca, and died in 952/1545. Besides his Dīwān (Bibl. Nat, Paris, Catalogue des mss. ar. by de Slane, no. 3229-3233; Descriptive Catalogue of the Arabic, Pers . and Turk . Mss. in the Library of Trinity College , Cambridge, 1870, no. 55-7), a collection of mystical poems entitled Tard̲j̲umān al-Asrār (Vollers, Katalog der islam . usw. Hass. der Universitätsbiblioth. zu Leipzig , no. 573; Derenbourg, Les mss.…


(429 words)

Author(s): Shaw, S.J.
, b. abī ’l-surūr , name of two Arab historians of the notable family of Egyptian s̲h̲ayk̲h̲s of the Bakriyya ṭarīḳa (of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī order). 1. muḥammad b. abī ’l-surūr b. muḥammad b. ʿalī al-ṣiddīḳī al-miṣrī , d. 1028/1619. His works include, in addition to a universal history in two parts ( ʿUyūn al-Ak̲h̲bār , Nuzhat al-Abṣār , also abridged under the title of Tuḥfat (or Tad̲h̲kirat ) al-Ẓurafāʾ ), several histories of the Ottoman Turks ( Fayḍ al-Mannān , al-Durar al-At̲h̲mān fī Aṣl Manbaʿ Āl ʿUt̲h̲mān , and al-Minaḥ al-Raḥmāniyya with an appendix on Egypt entitled al-Laṭāʾif al-Rabb…


(438 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C.
, muṣṭafā b. kamāl al-dīn b. ʿalī al-siddīḳī al-ḥanafī al-ḵh̲alwatī muḥyi ’l-dīn , Arab author and mystic, born in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1099/Sept. 1688 at Damascus, being left an orphan at an early age, was brought up by his uncle and entered the Dervish order of the Ḵh̲alwatīyya. In the year 1122/1710 he made his first pilgrimage to Jerusalem there he wrote his prayer-book al-Fatḥ al-Ḳudsī and procured a certificate from ʿAlī Ḳarabās̲h̲ of Adrianople, that it was not a bidʿa , as one of his opponents had said, to read this book aloud at the end of the night…

Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī

(2,309 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥ. b. Ayyūb , was, with al-S̲h̲arīf al-Idrīsī [ q.v.], the greatest geographer of the Muslim West, and one of the most characteristic representatives of Arab Andalusian erudition in the 5th/11th century. Although little is known about the details of the life of Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, it is possible to describe the various aspects of his scientific activity, all of which seems to have taken place in his own country; in fact, he appears never to have travelled in the East, or even North Africa, which he …


(44 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a nisba borne by members of the famed Egyptian family of s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s of the Bakriyya Ṣūfī order [see al-bakrī b. abi ’l-surbūr and bakriyya ]; it related to their claimed descent from the first caliph Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīḳ [ q.v.]. (Ed.)


(119 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S.
, a cape forming the extreme north-western point of Morocco and of Africa, 7 or 8 miles west of Tangier, the ancient Ampelusia Promontorium. Al-Idrīsī does not mention it; al-Bakrī knows of it as a hill jutting out into the sea, 30 miles from Arzila [see aṣīla ] and 4 from Tangier, which has springs of fresh water and a mosque used as a ribāṭ . Opposite it on the coast of al-Andalus is the mountain of al-Ag̲h̲arr (= Ṭarf al-Ag̲h̲arr > Trafalgar). The name Is̲h̲bartāl (probably connected with the Latin spartaria = places overgrown with esparto) given it by al-Bakrī is not known to the natives. (G.S. C…


(74 words)

, a collective noun denoting all those who claim descent from Abū Bakr. In Egypt, the head of this family, the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Bakrī, has, since 1811, been the naḳīb of the descendants of the Prophet ( as̲h̲rāf ), and, since 1906, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ , that is to say, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of all the religious orders. See RM M , iv, 241 ff.; L. Massignon, Annuaire du Monde musulman 4, 1954, 274.


(142 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, al-ḥasan b. ʿalī b. warsand founder of a sect among the Berbers of Morocco, whose adherents are called Bad̲j̲aliyya. Al-Bakrī states that he appeared there before Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲īʿī [ q.v.] came to Ifrīḳiya (before 280/893). Al-Bad̲j̲alī came from Nafṭa (Nefta) and found many adherents among the Banū Lamās. ¶ His teaching agreed with that of the Rawāfiḍ, but he asserted Chat the Imāmate belonged only to the descendants of al-Ḥasan. So al-Bakrī and Ibn Ḥazm state, in opposition to Ibn Ḥawḳal (ed. de Goeje, 65), who says that he was a Mūs…


(323 words)

Author(s): Jong, F. de
, a branch of the K̲h̲alwatiyya Ṣufī order [ q.v.] in Egypt, named after Marwān b. ʿĀbid al-Mutaʿāl (d. 1329/1911). His father, ʿĀbid al-Mutaʿāl b. ʿAbd al-Mutaʿāl (d. 1299/1881-2), had been initiated into the K̲h̲alwatiyya order by Ḥusayn al-Muṣaylihī (cf. Mubārak, K̲h̲iṭaṭ . xv, 45), a k̲h̲alīfa [ q.v.] of Muḥammad al-Ḥifnī’s disciple Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲intināwī. ʿĀbid al-Mutaʿāl later obtained al-k̲h̲ilāfa and acted as a s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of his own K̲h̲alwatiyya order, which had not yet differentiated itself, either in name or in p…


(1,236 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, a Berber tribe belonging to the great branch of the Butr and related, if one is to believe the ancient Berber traditions cited by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn. to the tribes of Ḍarīsa, Saṭfūra, Lamāya, Maṭmāṭa, Ṣadīna, Malzūza and Madyūna who lived, in the early Middle Ages, in eastern Barbary. It is also apparently in the same region that the ancient habitat of Mag̲h̲īla is to be sought in the period in question. According to the Berber traditions cited by various early Arab historians, the Mag̲h̲īla, after coming from Palestine into North Africa, reached…


(558 words)

Author(s): Becker, C.H.
, a group of oases in the Lybian desert. The Baḥriyya is the most northerly of the Lybian desert. The Wāḥāt Baḥriyya (also singular), i.e., the northern oases, are distinguished from the Wāḥāt Ḳibliyya, the southern oases, i.e., the Dāk̲h̲la [ q.v.] and Ḵh̲ārga [ q.v.]. Between these two groups lie the little oases of Farafra (included in the Dāk̲h̲la by some), or al-Farāfira, called al-Farfarūn by al-Bakrī and al-Yaʿḳūbī. The three large oases are also distinguished as inner, middle and outer; the inner is the Baḥrīyya which is also calle…

ʿAyn Temus̲h̲ent

(152 words)

Author(s): Despois, J.
, a town in Algiers situated 45 m. (72 km.) S-W of Oran, on the road to Tlemcen, and on the site of the Roman city of Albulae and of Kaṣr Ibn Sinān, mentioned by al-Bakrī in the 5th/11th century (de Slane’s trans, 1913, 146, 160) to the S-E of the plain of Zīdūr. A redoubt, erected by the French in 1839 near the spring called Aīn Temouchent (French orthography), and unsuccessfully attacked by the troops of ʿAbd al-Ḳādir in 1845, is the source of a centre of colonisation which has grown into a to…


(308 words)

Author(s): Despois, J.
, an oasis in the eastern Libyan desert, in Egypt, situated approximately on lat. 27° N. and long. 28° E., equidistant from the Nile and the Libyan frontier. It is a halting stage between the oases of al-Dāk̲h̲la 170 km. to the south-west and those of al-Baḥriyya 160 km. to the north-north-east; the routes are motorable only with difficulty. Al-Farāfra is a single village of about 1,000 inhabitants. Its mud huts surround a slightly raised fortification. Village and oasis are situated in a vast p…


(449 words)

Author(s): Castro, Fátima Roldán
, a district of the kūra of Niebla in the southwestern part of al-Andalus, the modern Huelva. The name appears in various forms in the Arabic sources, such as Wānyu in al-ʿUd̲h̲rī (5th/11th century) and Wāniba (Yāḳūt), both going back to Latin Onuba. Its political history is closely linked with that of Niebla [see labla ], even though it was for a while, in the time of the Taifas, separated from Niebla. This was, in fact, a period of prosperity and security for the people there. This was due to the actions of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-B…


(514 words)

Author(s): Quint, M.
, a topographical term denoting a depressed plain, is similar in meaning to and sometimes replaced by d̲j̲aww , as in D̲j̲awf or D̲j̲aww al-Yamāma (al-Bakrī, ll, 405) and D̲j̲awf or D̲j̲aww Tuʾām. The name d̲j̲awf is applied to many locations: chiefly D̲j̲awf al-Sirḥān and D̲j̲awf Ibn Nāṣir (also known as D̲j̲awf without the definite article (al-Bakrī), ¶ D̲j̲awf al-Yaman, al-D̲j̲awf, and the two D̲j̲awfs—D̲j̲awf Hamdān and D̲j̲awf Murād of the lexicographers). D̲j̲awf Ibn Nāṣir of north-west al-Yaman is a broad plain, roughly tr…


(1,300 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, a Berber confederation belonging to the Maṣmūda group, established in the Tāmasnā [ q.v.] province, extending along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, between Salé and Safi, from the 2nd/8th to the 6th/12th century. ¶ They were an important confederation, able, according to the Andalusian geographer al-Bakrī, to put more than 12,000 cavalry into the field simultaneously. They appear to have played a certain political rôle up to the arrival of the Almoravids (second half of the 5th/11th century). Prior to this time, our information …
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