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Ettlingen

(215 words)

Author(s): P. Ameling
Stadt in Baden, seit dem frühen 13. Jh. im Besitz der Markgrafen von Baden, heute zum Landkreis Karlsruhe gehörig. Durch seinen Reichtum an natürlicher Wasserkraft besaß E. immer viele Mühlen, darunter spätestens seit 1482 auch eine Papiermühle. 1530 kam mit Valentin Kobian aus dem nahegelegenen Durlach der erste Drucker nach E., der jedoch bereits 1532 nach Hagenau weiterzog, wo er vor Gründung einer eigenen Offizin schon als Druckergeselle gearbeitet hatte. In E. brachte er von September 1530 …

Philoctas

(50 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλόκτας/ Philóktas or Φιλοκράτης/ Philokrátēs). As the leader of a sacred embassy ( archithéōros) from Ptolemy II. and the city of Alexandria he brought votive offerings to Delos between 274 BC and 257 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, vol. 1, 1974, 316f. Nr. 209.

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Metropolis

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Hippalus

(283 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἵππαλος; Híppalos). [German version] [1] Son of Sosus, priest of a royal cult, officer Son of Sosus (?); father of the district commander Theomnestus (PP 1/8, 260; 3/9, 5147) and the athlophore Batra (PP 3/9, 5051). From 185-169 BC, priest of the royal cult in Ptolemais Hermou; documented in 182 and 173 as an eponymous officer; before November 176 (from 185?) ἀρχισωματοφύλαξ ( archisōmatophýlax, ‘arch-bodyguard’) and first stratēgós of the Thebaid (court title dependent on reading of PLond VII 2188, 214); from November 176 until at least May 172 τῶν πρώτων φίλων ( tôn prṓtōn phílōn) and ep…

Harwennefer

(77 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (= Haronnophris, Greek Hourgonaphor). Leader of an indigenous uprising who was crowned as Pharaoh in Thebes in October/November 205 BC; his rulership also included Abydus and Pathyris; a Ptolemaic offensive displaced him from Abydus (and Ptolemais) only in 201-200. In the summer of 199,  Anchwennefer is recorded as his successor. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P. W. Pestman, Haronnophris and Chaonnophris, in: S. P. Vleeming (ed.), Hundred-Gated Thebes, 1995, 101-134 B. C. McGing, in: APF 43, 1997, 285ff.

Machairophoroi

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(μαχαιροφόροι; machairophóroi). [German version] [1] In the Ptolemaic period, part of the royal guard and especially used for rural policing purposes and for the protection of high civil officials (later also for the kōmárchēs or the práktōr laographías); the members of the guard did not necessarily have to be Egyptians (cf. e.g. OGIS 737). In the Imperial period the term is often simply used as a synonym for ‘soldier(s)’; there were machairophóroi in the service of the imperial household and as bodyguards for officials who had to handle taxes and other monies. To …

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Thrasycles

(190 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Θρασυκλῆς/ Thrasyklês). [German version] [1] Representative of Athens in the Peace of Nicias, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Athenian, who in 421/0 BC requested the proxenía for a resident of the Peloponnese (IG I3 80,7) and belonged to those who swore an oath on the truce and the alliance between Sparta and Athens in the so-called Peace of Nicias [1] in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 412/1, T. was strategos along with Strombichides in the campaign to Asia Minor (Thuc. 8,15,1; 17,3; 19,2). Peloponnesian War Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 517180 Develin 157; 141. …

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Nomarches

(274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (νομάρχης/ nomárchēs). Office in the Egyptian administration. It already existed before the Ptolemies. Even if the word nomarches is derived from the Greek némein (‘administer’) rather than from nomos [2], his office was connected with a specific administrative district, in which he was responsible for the distribution and all other issues concerning the royal finance and tax administration. When Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 3,5,2; 3,5,4), appointed two Persians (?, [1. 82]), Petiesis and Doloaspis, as nomárchai for all Egypt, and left the nomárchai of th…

Oenanthe

(82 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (ᾨνάνθη/ Ōinánthē). Of Samos, wife of Agathocles, hetaíra of Ptolemy III, mother of Agathocles [6] and of Agathoclea [2]. For a short time, she was the mentor of the young Ptolemy V. The Alexandrians murdered O. in Oct./Nov. 203 BC when her son was overthrown. She is said to have gained influence only through personal relationships, but the tradition may well be biased. PP VI 14731. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. 2, 437f.

Cleomenes

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κλεομένης; Kleoménēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, rejected the Spartan terms of peace in 404 BC Athenian who rejected the Spartan terms of peace in the popular assembly in 404 BC (Plut. Lysandros 14). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Member of a Spartan court of arbitration concerning Salamis at the end of the 7th cent. BC Spartan, member of a Spartan court of arbitration that allegedly awarded the island of  Salamis to the Athenians at the end of the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Solon 10). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [3] C. I. Spartan king, probably …

Plato

(7,761 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πλάτων/ Plátōn). [German version] [1] The philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Athenian philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) [German version] A. Life The Seventh Letter (which is not intended to constitute a complete autobiography) and scattered reports from various ancient authors (of these, Plutarchus' [2] Life of Dion and Philodemus' Academica Gaiser/ Academicorum Historia Dorandi are particularly instructive) are our most important sources of information on the life of P. To these should be added the chronological accounts in Apuleius, De Platone et eius d…

Comanus

(550 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Κομανός; Komanós). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. BC C. from Naucratis. Greek grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC, who composed an exegetical work on Homer (an hypómnēma?; Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace challenged it in ‘Against C.’/Πρòς Κομανóν, schol. Hom. Il. 1,97-99; 2,798a; 24,110b). Identification with the homonymous Alexandrian politician  C. [2] is debatable, even if the grammarian is called ‘the king's chief cup-bearer’ in schol. Hes. Op. 97. The roughly 20 fragments reveal a respectable philological …

Lampon

(420 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Λάμπων; Lámpōn). [German version] [1] Son of Pytheas of Aegina, 5th cent. BC Son of Pytheas of Aegina; after the victory at Plataeae (479 BC), he suggested to Pausanias that the body of Mardonius be defiled just like the latter had dishonoured the body of Leonidas [1] at Thermopylae (Hdt. 9,78f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Seer, co-founders of Thurii L. the Seer. He participated in the founding of Thurii (Diod. Sic. 12,10,3; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 332; Phot. s.v. Θουριομάντις; Plut. Mor. 812d). By interpreting an omen (σημείον /sēmeíon: one-horned ram) in…

Thibron

(355 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θίβρων/ Thíbrōn). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, around 400 BC Spartan, who inaugurated Sparta’s war against the Persians in the autumn of 400 BC, but only had command of a small force (Isoc. Or. 4,144), He had some successes only after he had taken on Cyrus’ [3] former mercenaries (about 5000-6000 men) (Xen. An. 7,6,1; 7,8,24; Xen. Hell. 3,1,4-6; Diod. Sic. 14,36,1-37,4). He then went to Caria on the instructions of the éphoroi (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6-7), but was replaced in Ephesus by Dercylidas and punished in Sparta by being exiled be…

Court titles

(3,061 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A. Antecedents in the ancient Orient Court titles (CT) and court ranks in antiquity, used for the description and creation of personal proximity of members of courtly society to the  ruler or to the hierarchical rank classification of the upper class involved in administration, are a consequence of the emergence of territorial monarchies from the time of Alexander [4] the Great and the resulting organization of  courts as centres of political rule. The question of ancient Oriental antec…

Anchwennefer

(143 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Greek Chaonnophris, name with mythological reference. Successor of Harwennefer as anti-king in southern Egypt (201/0 - 27.8.186 BC). After the death of Harwennefer, Ptolemy V ruled again for a short while in the Thebais and in Elephantine, but was pushed back again by A.; from 190 battles with varying success, until A. was finally defeated by Komannos. Because of the conquest, the second Philae decree and the Philanthropa decree C. Ord. Ptol. 34 were passed. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, Hurgonaphor et Chaonnophris, les derniers pharaons i…

Berenice

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …

Asclepiodotus

(391 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Ἀσκληπιόδοτος; Asklepiódotos). [German version] [1] Ptolemaean governor of Caria after 305 BC After 305 BC Ptolemaean governor (?) of Caria. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 90f. [German version] [2] Military theoretician (1st cent. BC) Author of a treatise in 12 chapters on military theory (Ἀσκληπιοδότου φιλοσόφου τακτικὰ κεφάλαια; transmitted in the cod. Laur. LV-4 (F) and 11 other MSS dependent from it) and identified with a listener of Poseidonius me…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Achillas

(75 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Ἀχιλλᾶς; Achillâs). Egyptian, praef. regius, but probably not Ptolemaeus XIII's guardian. He carried out the murder of Pompey and was made high commander of the army by Potheinus in the fight against Caesar (48/7 BC).  Arsinoe [II 6] IV retains him first in this office, but then has him killed at the order of  Ganymedes. PP 6, 14594. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The aulic titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 73 f. no. 029.

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Cleaenete

(34 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κλεαινέτη; Kleinainétē). The daughter of  Numenius, sister of Agathoclea [3]. in 166/5 BC priestess of Arsinoë [II 4] Philopator. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Chr. Habicht, Athen in hell. Zeit, 1994, 109.

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Diophanes

(155 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Διοφάνης; Diophánēs). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-218 BC Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-18 BC; most of the P. Enteuxeis texts date to his time in office. PP 1,247. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 56ff. [German version] [2] Greek rhetor from Mytilene, 2nd cent. BC 2nd-cent. BC Greek rhetor from Mytilene; exiled from his homeland for political reasons, he went to Rome and became the teacher and friend of Tib.  Gracchus. Together with C.  Blossius [2] from Cumae, he is suppose…

Sarapion

(118 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σαραπίων/ Sarapíōn). [German version] [1] Priest of Horus, 2nd cent. BC Priest of Horus and in c. 160 BC the first Egyptian to hold the office of the eponymous priest of Alexander. Possibly identical with PP I/VIII 914. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester, 1994, 45 f. [German version] [2] Dioiketes, 2nd cent. BC Dioikētḗs, in office after 145 and 142 BC, of the same rank as the 'friends of the first class' (PKöln V 223; PTebt III I732,1; Court titles B. 2.). Perhaps identical with a minor administrator documented 163-155 BC ( hypod…

Ophellas

(399 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Οφέλλας/ Ophéllas). [German version] [1] Official in the Hellenistic period O. of Olynthus, presumably a subordinate of Cleomenes [7] in the administration of Egypt ( epimelētḗs in Athribis; see epimelētaí ). He is said to have blackmailed the nomárchai subordinate to him ([Aristot.] 1353a 5ff.). Agathocles [2] Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 599. [German version] [2] Friend and official of Alexander [4] the Great Son of Silenus, Macedonian from Pella, phílos of Alexander [4] the Great and his (liturgical)…

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Callimander

(30 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καλλίμανδρος; Kallímandros). Delegate of the Alexandrians who was to offer the Egyptian monarchy to a Seleucid prince in 56 BC. PP 6, 14768. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Sosigenes

(297 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Σωσιγένης; Sōsigénēs). [German version] [1] S. of Caunus is attested as oikonómos of Ptolemaeus [1] I in Lycia (SEG 27,929, Limyra) in 288/7 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 2nd cent. BC Comedy writer, only attested epigraphically as a participant of the Attic Dionysiac agon in 157 BC, where he took sixth place with the play Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed man'). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 603. [German version] [3] Astronomer, computed the Julian calendar for Caesar Astronomer charged by Caesar w…

Sitometria

(114 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (σιτομετρία; sitometría). The 'allotment' of grain to the citizens of Greek states through a sitométrēs (e.g. Hyp. F 271a Blass; Aristot. Pol. 1299a 23; documented as late as the Roman Imperial Period) and from a special store (cf. rations for mercenaries). S. could also mean a daily or monthly payment, in money, from the state or from a private source. Such payments were not necessarily regular or tied to the status of the recipient. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography H. Dirscherl, Die Sitonia von Oxyrhynchos: Menge, Kosten, Finanzierung, ökonomische Bede…

Phommus

(83 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φομμοῦς; Phommoûs) was, as syngenḗs ('king's relative') and epistratēgós (Court titles B 2) of the Thebaid, a predecessor of Plato [3] from c. August/September 115 until at least February 110 BC. In OGIS 168,26f., the king calls him his adelphós ('brother'). P. was an Egyptian, probably from the Delta; his career can perhaps be used as proof that Cleopatra [II 6] III sought indigenous support. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography E. van't Dack et al., The Judaean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 103-1 BC, 1989, 73; 108.

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Hermocrates

(514 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἑρμοκράτης; Hermokrátēs). [German version] [1] Syracusan statesman, 424 BC Syracusan statesman and general. Became prominent for the first time at the peace conference of Gela in 424 BC and successfully invited the Sicilian Greeks with the slogan ‘Sicily to the Siceliots’ to settle the internal disputes (Thuc. 4,58-64). In 415 he recommended the formation of a coalition against Athens reaching beyond Sicily (Thuc. 6,32,3-34). Initially chosen as one of three authorized strategoi, but soon, like his colleagues, deposed because of his lack of success (Thuc. 6,73,1; …

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Semtheus

(51 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Egyptian village scribe ( Komogrammateus ) and owner of a dōreá, an estate awarded by the king (PPetrie II 38 a; III 31; PLille I 47,2 f.; 9 f.; 48,2 f.; 8 f.), of about 27.5 sq km (10,000 árourai; Aroura) in 251/0 BC. PP I 837 f.; 841; IV 8387. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Paos

(145 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Πάως; Páōs). Egyptian who made a career in Ptolemy VIII's service. P.'s career epitomizes the attempt to mobilize the Egyptian people in the dispute with Cleopatra [II 5] II. In 137/6 BC P. was the tôn prṓtōn phílōn, in 133/2 the (civil) stratēgós of several administrative districts in the Thebais; presumably in 132/1, in the course of the wars, he became syngenḕs kaì stratēgòs tês Thēbaḯdos, and finally in the summer of 129, as the successor of Boethus [1], he was syngenḕs kaì epistratēgòs kaì stratēgòs tês Thebaḯdos but he was replaced by Lochus [2] in 127/6 at …

Nicocreon

(395 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Νικοκρέων/ Nikokréōn). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Evagoras, c. 375 BC N. plotted unsuccessfully against Evagoras [1], the king of Salamis on Cyprus (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 103,12), and had to flee (around 375 BC). N.'s daughter became the mistress of Evagoras and of the heir to the throne, Pnytagoras. According to [1. 99-101] the result of this union was the future king Pnytagoras II, whose son was Nicocreon [2]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Beloch, GG 4,2 2 LGPN 1, 335, nr. 1. [German version] [2] King of the town of Salamis on Cyprus, 332/1 BC Son of Pnytagor…

Eumenes

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὐμένης; Euménēs). [German version] [1] Chancellor of Philippos II and Alexander the Gr. * 362/1, Son of Hieronymus of Cardia, from 342 onwards chancellor for the Macedonian king Philip II and then for Alexander III, for whom he kept the ephemerides (Nep. Eumenes 1,4-6; Plut. Eumenes 1,4; Arr. Anab. 7,4,6; Ath. 10,434b). In 326, E. was strategos on a military mission in north-western India and then he was the trierarch of the Indus fleet (Arr. Anab. 5,24,6, Ind. 18,7; Curt. 9,1,19). At the mass wedding in Susa in 324, E. was probably the only Greek…

Praktor

(313 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(πράκτωρ/ práktōr, πρακτήρ/ praktḗr: Poll. 8,114, 'executor', 'manager', from práttein, 'do'). [German version] I. Classical Period Greek official of a state executory authority, who, on instruction, recovered state claims, particularly fines. In Athens ten práktores chosen by lot annually were in service. Informed by the authorized court magistrate of penalties imposed, they entered them in the list kept on the Acropolis when state debtors did not pay immediately (IG II2 45; And. 1,77-79; Dem. Or. 25,4; 25,28; 43,71) [1. 270 f.]. An authority of the same name wi…

Lot, election by

(2,381 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nollé, Johannes (Munich) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
(Greek κλῆρος/ klêros , Lat. sors). I. Political [German version] A. Greece The lot was used especially in democracies, but not only in such, as a means to distribute office among those who were equally eligible, rather than appointing the best candidate under the circumstances. For Athens, the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia states that Solon introduced the selection of the archons by lot from a short list of pre-selected candidates ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 8,1; but differing: Aristot. Pol. 2,1273b 35-1274a 3; 1274a 16-17; 3,1281b 25-34). In the…

Lenaeus

(332 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [2] L. Pompeius Satyrist and freedman of Pompey Magnus Suet. Gram. 15 reports, aside from several romantic and improbable occurrences from the life of the young L., that he was a freedman of Pompeius Magnus, accompanied him on almost all his campaigns and after his death and the death of his sons (the last one died in 35 BC) earned his living as a school teacher in Rome. He remained so faithful to Pompey that he reacted to criticism of him in Sallustius' Historiae with an acerbissima satura, an extremely stinging satire, calling Sallust a monster both in his life an…

Hegelochus

(247 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγέλοχος; Hēgélochos). [German version] [1] Fleet officer under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC Son of Hippostratus, officer under  Alexander [4]. Initially commander of the vanguard cavalry, he was commissioned to form a Macedonian fleet from ships collected from Greek cities in the summer of 333 BC (Arr. Anab. 2,2,3; inexact Curt. 3,1,19f.; Amphoterus was his subordinate, not his colleague). After the death of  Memnon his fleet dominated the Hellespont, where he i.a. stopped an Athenian grain fleet (Ps.-…

Xenoi

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ξένοι/ xénoi). 'Alien', i.e. free-born person not belonging to the Greek citizenship structure, who voluntarily stayed in a place and enjoyed certain rights there. Non-free aliens (slaves, prisoners of war) were not members of the group of xenoi, which was primarily defined in terms of rights. [German version] I. Classical Greece The term xenoi generally describes large groups of free-born people, staying permanently or temporarily in a particular community, without being citizens of it (Thuc. 2,31,1; 2,36,4; 6,30,2; Aristot. Pol. 1300b 31 f.), often used in contrast to ἀστοί/ ast…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Psenptah

(280 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] See Nesysti [3] See Nesysti [3] Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] High priest of Ptah in Memphis, died in 103 BC Son of Petobastis [2], father of Petobastis [3], high priest of Ptah in Memphis. In c. 122 BC, P. married a Berenice, who was possibly related to the ruling dynasty of the Ptolemies. He died in 103. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Die Herkunft der Kleopatra Philopator, in: Aegyptus 70, 1990, 191-203, esp. 199 f.  E. A. E. Reymond, From the Records of a Priestly Family from Memphis, 1981, 116 f. No. 16  J. Quaegebeur, The Genealogy of the Me…

Klerouchoi

(1,718 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(κληροῦχοι; klēroûchoi, proprietors of a klêros , of a ‘land allotment’). I. Athens [German version] A. 5th cent. BC Apart from its metaphorical meaning in Sophocles (Soph. Aj. 508: ‘having a certain fate’) first mentioned in literature by Herodotus (5,77,2) as a designation of 400 Athenians, who received fields in Chalcis [1] after the Athenian victory over the Chalcidians in 506/505 BC. The number is probably exaggerated, and cannot be corrected from Aelianus (Var. 6,1), who reports that 2,000 Athenians were settled on lands of the Chalcidian hippobótai . These kleroûchoi had to re…

Philocles

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…

Harmachis

(225 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Egyptian Ḥrw-m-ḫ.t, ‘Horus in the horizon’). [German version] [1] Name of the great Sphinx Name under which the great  Sphinx of  Gizeh was venerated as the embodiment of the sun god since the beginning of the New Kingdom ( c. 1500 BC). Many votive steles document the popularity of the cult amongst private people as well as kings. Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography J. Assmann, s.v. H., LÄ2, 992-996. [German version] [2] Priest of Ptah of Memphis, about 200 BC Son of Anemhor, father of Nesysti III; high priest of Ptah of Memphis ( c. 260 ─ after 194-193 BC); sometimes i…

Heptanomia

(97 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Administrative unit set up by Augustus before AD 11/12 in Egypt, comprising the area between the Delta and Thebes. Its seven districts were Memphites, Heracleopolites, Aphroditopolites, Oxyrhynchites, Cynopolites, Hermopolites, and perhaps Letopolites. From the beginning the Arsinoites and often also the small Oasis were included. Its expansion to 11 districts under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus is attested, but its composition cannot currently be clearly determined. The Heptanomia was subordinate to an epistrategos with the rank of procurator Augusti. Ameli…

Theoxene

(101 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θεοξένη; Theoxénē) from the Ptolemaic royal house married c. 295 BC Agathocles [2], who sent her and her two sons ( parvuli, Just. Epit. 23,2,6-8) with her dowry back to Egypt shortly before his death in 289. The political purpose of the marriage is unclear. Because of her dowry ( regale instrumentum) T. is considered to be the daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4], but she may have been the daughter of Berenice [1] and the sister of Magas [2] and hence his step-daughter. PP VI 14511. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Ägypten in hellenistischer Zeit, 20…

Magas

(587 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μάγας; Mágas). [German version] [1] Father of Berenice Father of Berenice [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Geyer, s.v. M., RE 14, 292f. [German version] [2] Administrator of Cyrenaea, 3rd cent. BC M. was born no later than 320 BC as the son of Philippus and Berenice [1], perhaps the brother of Theoxene (PP VI 14511), who married Agathocles [2] after 300 (there was no adoption by Ptolemy I: SEG 18, 743; on a house belonging to him in Alexandria cf. [1. 287]). M. reconquered the seceded Cyrene for Ptolemaeus I shortly …

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Euphron

(449 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὔφρων; Eúphrōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros who worked in Athens in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. Based on the evidence from extant sculpture pedestals, he created votive reliefs. The bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus is extant. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Jeffery, 363, no. 29 C. Karouzos, En feuilletant les vieilles publications, in: BCH 70, 1946, 263-270 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 298, 304. [German version] [2] Pro-Spartan Theban, succesful in a democratic coup Afte…

Leontiscus

(136 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λεοντίσκος; Leontískos). [German version] [1] Olympic winner from Messana of Messana (Sicily). Two times Olympic winner in wrestling (456, 452 BC) [1]. He won his fights (in a similar manner to the pancratiast Sostratus) by breaking fingers (Paus. 6,4,3). His victor's statue in Olympia is by Pythagoras of Rhegium [2]. Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) Bibliography 1 L. Moretti, Olympionikai, 1957, no. 271, 285 2 H.-V. Herrmann, Die Siegerstatuen von Olympia, in: Nikephoros 1, 1988, 154, no. 40. [German version] [2] Son of Ptolemy I, late 4th cent. BC Son of Ptolemy I and Thais, brother …

Galestes

(100 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Γαλέστης; Galéstēs). Son of the Athamanian king  Amynander, fled to Pydna to Ptolemy VI, whose phílos (φίλος) he became. In 150 BC G. led an expeditionary corps against Demetrius [7] I, and in 145 against Alexander [13] Balas. In 144 Ptolemy VIII took his dōreaí (δωρεαί, ‘benefices’; i.a. in Herakleopolites) away from him; G. fled to Hellas and gathered exiles; he died in an attempt to return to Alexandria and enthrone an alleged son of Ptolemy VI. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Schäfer, PKöln V 223/4 L. Criscuolo, L'archivo di Philô (PKöln V 222-225), in…

Philopator

(139 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλοπάτωρ/ Philopátōr, literally 'father lover'). Cultic epithet of Hellenistic rulers, first borne by Ptolemaeus IV, then by his wife Arsinoe [II 4] III  ( theoì philopátores). The epithet P. was also used outside the Ptolemaic dynasty (e.g. Mithridates [4] IV, Ariarathes V, Demetrius [9] III, Antiochus [13] XII). It describes somebody his father designated as his successor during his lifetime. Co-regency could, but did not have to, be connected with the title. The Egyptian background, which the title …

Hierax

(335 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ἱέραξ; Hiérax). [German version] [1] H. of Antiochia, strategos of Ptolemy VI after 146 BC H. of Antiochia, deserted Demetrius [7] I for Alexander [13] Balas (Diod. Sic. 33,3), and then deserted him in 146 BC for Ptolemy VI, whom he had proclaimed king by the Antiochenes (Diod. Sic. 32,9 c). He had a high position at the court and, as strategos (?) of Ptolemy VIII, he foiled the uprising of  Galestes, but then was eliminated by the king (Diod. Sic. 33,22; FGrH 87 F 4). PP 1/8,264; 2, 2163; 6, 17012. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Commander in chief of Ptolemy IX in 88 BC Sent by Ptolemy…

Margus

(305 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
(Μάργος; Márgos). [German version] [1] Strategos 255 BC M. from Carynea, probably serving as nauarch of the Achaean fleet contingent during the Illyrian War, was killed in 229 BC near Paxos ‘after faithfully serving the koinon of the Achaeans ’(Pol. 2,10). During the reformation of the league, he killed the tyrant of Bura in 275, thus forcing Iseas, the tyrant of Carynea, to resign and to have his town join the league (Pol. 2,41). Before Aratus [2] he played a prominent part and in 255 he was the first to be elected sole strategos (Pol. 2,43). Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Ptolemai…

Dionysodorus

(550 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Διονυσόδωρος; Dionysódōros). [German version] [1] Taxiarch to Theramenes c. 400 BC Taxiarch to Theramenes, betrayed to the Thirty by Agoratus (Lys. or. 13,30; 39-42). The latter was taken to court in 399/98 BC by D.'s brother and brother-in-law, Dionysius, the speaker of the 13th oration written by Lysias. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Theban and Olympic winner, envoy and participant in the battle of Issus Theban and Olympic winner. Sent as an ambassador to  Darius [3] and taken prisoner together with other Greek ambassadors by Parmenion in …

Antigone

(839 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀντιγόνη; Antigónē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thessalian  Phere Daughter of Thessalian  Phere and mother of the Argonaut Asterion (Hyg. Fab. 14,1). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia, wife of  Peleus, by whom she has a daughter Polydora (Pherec. FGrH 3 F 61a). Peleus accidentally kills Eurytion and therefore flees to Acastus at Iolcus, who exculpates him. Acastus' wife Astydameia tries in vain to win him for herself and then in reve…

Moncores

(96 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Harpaesis, syngenḗs (court title). (District) strategos of Pathyritis, Ombitis etc. at least between 69/8-62 BC [3]. As such, subordinate to Callimachus [9]. Two of his sons and two of his grandsons were also strategoi. This Egyptian family was responsible for the office of strategos in Hermonthis for three generations. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 H.J. Thissen, Zur Familie des Strategen Monkores, in: ZPE 27, 1977, 181-191 2 L.M. Ricketts, The Epistrategos Kallimachos and a Koptite Inscription: SB V 8036 Reconsidered, in: AncSoc 13…

Castor

(571 words)

Author(s): Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Κάστωρ; Kástōr). [German version] [1] see Dioscuri see  Dioscuri Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] [2] C. of Rhodos Greek historian, 1st cent. BC Greek historiographer of the first half of the 1st cent. BC, whose vita in Suda s.v. is confused with that of the homonymous Galatian dynast, author of Chronicle in six books from Belus ( Baal) and  Ninus (2123/2 BC) on until the restructuring of the Near East by Pompey (61/0 BC), with lists of kings and officials from Assyria, Sicyon, Argus, Athens, Alba and Rome. The structure of his many-stra…

Ammonius

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…

Aetus

(108 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀετός; Aetós). [German version] [1] Priest of Alexander 253/2 BC From Aspendus, son of Apollonius, father of  Thraseas. Ptolemaic general of Cilicia and founder of Arsinoe [III 3] (between 279 and 253 BC), priest of Alexander 253/2, as eponymous officer documented 245/4 and 242/1. PP 2, 1828; 3/9 4988; [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Priest of Alexander 197/6 BC Grandson of A. [1], priest of Alexander 197/6 BC honoured in Cos: Bull. 1994, 451. PP 3/9 4988a; [1. 344]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, A Hellenistic inscription from Arsinoe in Cil…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Lysimachus

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Λυσίμαχος; Lysímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Aristides [1], born around 480 BC, is a dialogue partner in Plato's Láchēs (178ff.), where he is represented as the prototype of the unsuccessful son of a celebrated father. A decree mentioned by Demosthenes (20,115; cf. Plut. Aristides 27), according to which L. is said to have been granted support from the state because he was penniless after the death of his father, is probably a construction from the 4th cent. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 1695 III-IV. [German version] [2] G…

Nicanor

(1,649 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Νικάνωρ; Nikánōr). [German version] [1] Military official under Alexander the Great, died 330 BC Second son of Parmenion. Under Alexander [4] the Great he led the hypaspistaí of the hetaîroi in the major battles. During the pursuit of Darius [3], Alexander commanded him to pursue the Persian king with a group of riders who had given up their horses and the Agrianes under Attalus [2] as fast as possible (Arr. Anab. 3,21,7-8). He died soon after (330 BC). His brother Philotas stayed behind with an escort for his funeral. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 554. …

Hagesarchus

(59 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] of Megalopolis, father of the Cypriot strategos Ptolemy (PP 6,14778), himself Ptolemaic stratēgòs epì Karías (στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ Καρίας) under Ptolemy III, was also responsible for Samos; attested in 225/4 BC as an eponymous officer of a military unit. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Hallof, Ch. Mileta, Samos und Ptolemaios III., in: Chiron 27, 1997, 255-283, esp. 268ff.

Hieron

(898 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἱέρων; Hiérōn). [German version] [1] H. I. Tyrant of Syracuse around 500 BC from Gela,  Deinomenid, brother of Gelon [1], born c. 540/530 BC. Married first a daughter of Nicocles of Syracuse (before 485), then of Anaxilaus of Rhegium ( c. 480) and finally of Xenocrates, a brother of Theron of Acragas ( c. 475). He was many times a victor in horse and chariot races in Delphi (482, 478, 470) and Olympia (476, 472, 468) [1. 208ff.]. Entrusted with the rulership of Gela by Gelon in 485, he succeeded the latter in 478 as tyrant of Syracuse. H. operat…

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Aristolaus

(35 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Αριστόλαος; Aristólaos). Son of Ameinias, dedicated a statue of Ptolemy II in Olympia. Strategos of Caria between 270 and 259 BC, holder of a dorea (PP 6, 15036). Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Andromachus

(676 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀνδρόμαχος; Andrómachos). [German version] [1] Possessor of a dorea (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) Documented between 253 and 249 BC in Egypt as possessor of a δωρεά ( dōreá) of 10,000 arourai. ‘Father’ of  Ptolemaeus Andromachou (?) [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Strategos of Syria and Phoenicia (end of 3rd cent. BC) Aspendian, commanded the phalanx in 217 BC at Raphia, later strategos of Syria and Phoenicia. PP 2, 2150. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [3] Ptolemaean official (1st half of 2nd cent. BC) Son of  Eirene, grandson of  Ptolemaeus Agesarchou; c. 197/8…

Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Eucles

(52 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Εὐκλῆς; Euklês). Son of a Dionysius, successor of Zeno as head of the δωρέα ( dōréa) of Apollonius near Philadelphia in 248 BC until its dissolution in 243. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Orrieux, Les archives d'Euclès et la fin de la dôréa du dioecète Apollonios, in: CE 55, 1980, 229-239.

Eunostus

(46 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Εὔνοστος; Eúnostos). Son of Pasicrates (?), at the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC he was the city king of Soli on Cyprus; under unknown circumstances he married Eirene [2] after 307. PP 6,14508. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Nicolaus

(2,154 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | CH.KÄ. | Et al.
(Νικόλαος/ Nikólaos). [German version] [1] Strategos of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria, 219 BC Aetolian, stratēgós of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria. In 219 BC, he unsuccessfully besieged the dissident Theodotus in Ptolemais,  but succeeded in preventing the encirclement of Dora by Antiochus [5] III. Made supreme commander in 218, he occupied the coastal pass north of Sidon, but was repelled by Antiochus at the Damuras river. N. then probably defected to Antiochus, whom he accompanied in 209 to Hyr…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Pelops

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πέλοψ; Pélops). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus Son of Tantalus (Cypria fragment 13 EpGF; in Hyg. Fab. 82 from his liaison with Dione), husband of Hippodamia [1], father of Atreus, Thyestes, Pittheus and other children (Pind. O. 1,88f. with schol.). P.'s original homeland was Asia Minor (cf. Pind. Ol. 1,24; Hdt. 7,8).  P.'s father Tantalus chops him into pieces, cooks him and serves him up to the gods. Demeter is the only one who fails to notice the horrendous deed and eats part of his shoulder (A…

Apollonia

(1,493 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλωνία; Apollōnía). [German version] [1] City in southern  Illyricum This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League City in southern  Illyricum, in antiquity on the north bank of the Aous, c. 6 km from the sea, near modern Pojani (Albania). Founded by Corinthians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC, with the participation of Corcyra (mythical oikist Gylax). Hdt. 9,93-95, Paus. 5,22,3 f. and inscriptions attest to the wealth of A. during the 5th cent. BC; …

Numenius

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νουμήνιος/Noumḗnios). [German version] [1] Author of didactic poems from Heraclea, c. 300 BC N. from Heraclea, physician and poet, end of the 4th cent. BC. He was a pupil of the physician Dieuches [1] (Ath. 1,5), wrote on cookery and composed didactic poems on fishing (Ἁλιευτικόν/ Halieutikón, SH 568-588), on the theriac (Θηριακόν/ Thēriakón: SH 589-594), on medicinal prescriptions (SH 595) and ‘On Banquets (Δείπνων ἀναγραφαί/ Deípnōn anagraphaí: Ath. 1,5a). He may be the source on Nicander [4] (cf. schol. Theriakon 237; 257; 519; 637) and Archigenes. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibl…

Lysandra

(151 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Λυσάνδρα; Lysándra). Daughter of Ptolemaeus I and Eurydice [4], sister of Ptolemy Keraunos. She probably only married Alexander, the son of Cassander, after 297/6 BC (FGrH 260 F 3,5). After his death in 294/3 she married Agathocles [5], the son of Lysimachus [2] (Plut. Demetrius 31,5; Paus. 1,9,6 probably erroneously assume the date 299, which made a split into two persons necessary, PP VI 14529 and 14530; the formulation by Plutarch, however, speaks against this possibility). Thu…

Myrmidon

(122 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μυρμιδών/ Myrmidṓn, ‘ant’). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Myrmidones Eponymous progenitor of the Homeric people of the Myrmidones (Hellanikos FHG 1 F 17); son of Eurymedusa, fathered by Zeus in the guise of an ant (Eratosth. In Serv. Aen. 2,7; Clem. Al. Protreptikos 34). With his wife Pisidice, daughter of Aeolus, M. fathered Antiphus and Actor (Apollod. 1,52) as well as the gluttonous Erysichthon (Hellanikos l.c.). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Military official under Ptolemy I, 315 BC Athenian, sent in 315 BC by Ptolemy I along with 10,000 soldier…

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Mania

(517 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Μανία; Manía). [German version] [1] Greek personification of madness Greek personification of madness. Cultic worship as Maníai (plural!) in the place of that name near Megalopolis. According to Paus. 8,34,1-3, Orestes went mad there (identification with Erinyes/Eumenides? Erinys). In the singular M. is found only in Quint. Smyrn. 5,451ff. for the rage of Ajax [1]. M. appears with an annotation of the name on a Lower Italian vase by Asteas depicting Hercules's infanticide ( Lyssa, Oestrus). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of the Roman goddess Larunda Another name for…

Panas

(77 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (also Pen-Nout). Son of Psenobastis (PP I 344), father of Ptolemy (PP I 322); syngenḗs and stratēgós (see Court titles B. 2) of the Egyptian district of Tentyritis under Cleopatra [II 12] VII, priest of various indigenous gods, administrator of Augustus and thus one of the local elite who had managed to cross from Ptolemaic to Roman service. PP I/VIII 293. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 125f. (0137).

Petobastis

(204 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] see Nesysti [2] see Nesysti [2] Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Egyptian priest at end of 3rd/beginning of 2nd cent. BC Son of Nesysti [3], High Priest of Ptah in Memphis at the end of the 3rd/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC.; father of Psenptah [2], grand father of P. [3]. Ptah; Memphis Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography J. Quaegebeur, in: D. J. Crawford et al., Studies on Ptolemaic Memphis, 1980, 68 no. 21  D. Devauchelle, Review of E.A.E. Reymond, From the Records of a Priestly Family from Memphis, in: Chronique d'Égypte 58, 1983, 135-145, in part. 142f. …

Callicles

(471 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Καλλικλῆς; Kalliklês). [German version] [1] Collocutor in Plato's Gorgias Collocutor in Plato's ‘ Gorgias; taking it as his premise that nature ranks above the law, he advocates the right of the stronger (Pl. Grg. 483 c-d). This is the lesson of the  Gorgias (Gorg. Encomium Helenae 6), understood by Aristotle (Aristot. Soph. el. 12,173a 8-16) as the conflict between truth and the opinion of the majority. C. is, however, no Sophist: on the contrary, he distances himself from them (Pl. Grg. 520a). From his So…

Epigenes

(499 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Ἐπιγένης; Epigénēs). [German version] [0] Of Sicyon, Greek tragedian, 6th cent. BC E. of  Sicyon. According to the Suda s. v.  Thespis (θ 282 = TrGF I 1 T 1), the first tragedian (6th cent. BC). The audience supposedly reacted to the lack of Dionysiac content in his plays with the proverbial exclamation οὐδὲν πρὸς τὸν Διόνυσον ( oudèn pròs tòn Diónyson, ‘But this has nothing to do with  Dionysus!’; TrGF I 1 T 18,3). Perhaps E.'s activity may be related to the τραγικοὶ χοροί ( tragikoì choroí, ‘tragic choruses’) attested for Sicyon in Hdt. 5,67 [2. 21-23].  Tragedy I Zimmermann, Bernhard (Fr…

Perigenes

(132 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Περιγένης/ Perigénēs). [German version] [1] Politician of the Hellenistic period Son of Leontiscus, from Alexandria, próxenos ( proxenía ) of Siphnus (IG XII Suppl. p. 111) c. 278/270 BC, presumably father of P. [2]. A P. from Samos is honoured in 264 as próxenos of Olus, but this identification is rather improbable [1. 196 note 2]. PP VI 14941. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 Robert, OMS 1. R.S. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 146. [German version] [2] Ptolemaic fleet commander Son of P. [1], possibly father of Iamnea (PP …

Caphisodorus

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καφισόδωρος; Kaphisódōros). Son of Caphisodorus; father of Metrophanes (PP 6, 14679) and Ptolemaeus (PP 6, 14688); between 163 and 145 BC archisōmatophýlax ( Court titles B.2.); stratēgós of the Egyptian district Xoite and priest of the políteuma of the Boeotians; in 156/55 eponymous priest of Alexander. PP 1/8, 269; 3/9, 5167. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. v. d. Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 28.

Pachom

(69 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (also called Hierax). Son of Pachom (PP VIII 300b), father of Pamenches, attested as syngenḗs and stratēgós in various Egyptian nomes c. 50/30 BC. Besides his state offices, P. held a number of indigenous priestly offices, which subsequently also appear in the titles of his son. PP I/VIII 265; 301. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 119f. Nr. 0127.

Komarches

(282 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμάρχης; kōmárchēs). Expressive designation for an official of the Ptolemaic and Roman period in Egypt, who was responsible for all the concerns of village administration ( kṓmē ), was subordinate to the toparches and nomarches (the komarches was also active in metropoleis, being responsible for city districts). In the Ptolemaic period, the office of the dioikētḗs appointed him, and it was a (much) aspired post. The komarches came from the village for which he was responsible. The differentiation from the komogrammateús is difficult; he w…
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