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Mnasiades

(46 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μνασιάδης/ Mnasiádēs). Son of Polycratus, from Argos, athlete, eponymous priest of Alexander in 218/7 BC, father of Polycrates (PP II 2172, VI 15065). PP IX 5200b. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. van der Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 15.

Kome

(894 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(κώμη; kṓmē, plural κῶμαι; kômai). [German version] A. Greece in the 5th and 4th cents. BC With the meaning ‘village’, kome signified in the Greek world a small community. Thucydides regarded life in scattered, unfortified kômai as the older and more primitive form of communal living in a political unit (Thuc. 1,5,1; on Sparta: 1,10,1; on the Aetolians: 3,94,4). Under the Aristotelian model of pólis formation, families first group together in a kṓmē, and then the kômai group together in a pólis (Aristot. Pol. 1,1252b 15-28; cf. 3,1280b 40-1281a 1). Scattered living in a kome is typical for an éthnos (‘tribal state’; Aristot. Pol. 2…

Ananias

(49 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Onias IV, brother of Chelcias. 105-101 BC commander of the army of Cleopatra III; is supposed to have dissuaded Cleopatra from annexing Judea as a province. PP 2, 2149; 6, 15173. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography I. Michaelidou-Nicolaou, Prosopography of Ptolemaic Cyprus, 1976, 33 no. 34.

Bacchon

(46 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Βάκχων; Bákchōn). Son of Nicetas, from Boeotia, Ptolemaic nesiarch of the League of Islanders in 286 BC. He stayed in office until after 280 (PP 6, 15038). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 136ff.

Philoctas

(50 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλόκτας/ Philóktas or Φιλοκράτης/ Philokrátēs). As the leader of a sacred embassy ( archithéōros) from Ptolemy II. and the city of Alexandria he brought votive offerings to Delos between 274 BC and 257 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, vol. 1, 1974, 316f. Nr. 209.

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Metropolis

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Hippalus

(283 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἵππαλος; Híppalos). [German version] [1] Son of Sosus, priest of a royal cult, officer Son of Sosus (?); father of the district commander Theomnestus (PP 1/8, 260; 3/9, 5147) and the athlophore Batra (PP 3/9, 5051). From 185-169 BC, priest of the royal cult in Ptolemais Hermou; documented in 182 and 173 as an eponymous officer; before November 176 (from 185?) ἀρχισωματοφύλαξ ( archisōmatophýlax, ‘arch-bodyguard’) and first stratēgós of the Thebaid (court title dependent on reading of PLond VII 2188, 214); from November 176 until at least May 172 τῶν πρώτων φίλων ( tôn prṓtōn phílōn) and ep…

Harwennefer

(77 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (= Haronnophris, Greek Hourgonaphor). Leader of an indigenous uprising who was crowned as Pharaoh in Thebes in October/November 205 BC; his rulership also included Abydus and Pathyris; a Ptolemaic offensive displaced him from Abydus (and Ptolemais) only in 201-200. In the summer of 199,  Anchwennefer is recorded as his successor. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P. W. Pestman, Haronnophris and Chaonnophris, in: S. P. Vleeming (ed.), Hundred-Gated Thebes, 1995, 101-134 B. C. McGing, in: APF 43, 1997, 285ff.

Machairophoroi

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(μαχαιροφόροι; machairophóroi). [German version] [1] In the Ptolemaic period, part of the royal guard and especially used for rural policing purposes and for the protection of high civil officials (later also for the kōmárchēs or the práktōr laographías); the members of the guard did not necessarily have to be Egyptians (cf. e.g. OGIS 737). In the Imperial period the term is often simply used as a synonym for ‘soldier(s)’; there were machairophóroi in the service of the imperial household and as bodyguards for officials who had to handle taxes and other monies. To …

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Thrasycles

(190 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Θρασυκλῆς/ Thrasyklês). [German version] [1] Representative of Athens in the Peace of Nicias, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Athenian, who in 421/0 BC requested the proxenía for a resident of the Peloponnese (IG I3 80,7) and belonged to those who swore an oath on the truce and the alliance between Sparta and Athens in the so-called Peace of Nicias [1] in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 412/1, T. was strategos along with Strombichides in the campaign to Asia Minor (Thuc. 8,15,1; 17,3; 19,2). Peloponnesian War Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 517180 Develin 157; 141. …

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Nomarches

(274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (νομάρχης/ nomárchēs). Office in the Egyptian administration. It already existed before the Ptolemies. Even if the word nomarches is derived from the Greek némein (‘administer’) rather than from nomos [2], his office was connected with a specific administrative district, in which he was responsible for the distribution and all other issues concerning the royal finance and tax administration. When Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 3,5,2; 3,5,4), appointed two Persians (?, [1. 82]), Petiesis and Doloaspis, as nomárchai for all Egypt, and left the nomárchai of th…

Oenanthe

(82 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (ᾨνάνθη/ Ōinánthē). Of Samos, wife of Agathocles, hetaíra of Ptolemy III, mother of Agathocles [6] and of Agathoclea [2]. For a short time, she was the mentor of the young Ptolemy V. The Alexandrians murdered O. in Oct./Nov. 203 BC when her son was overthrown. She is said to have gained influence only through personal relationships, but the tradition may well be biased. PP VI 14731. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. 2, 437f.

Cleomenes

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κλεομένης; Kleoménēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, rejected the Spartan terms of peace in 404 BC Athenian who rejected the Spartan terms of peace in the popular assembly in 404 BC (Plut. Lysandros 14). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Member of a Spartan court of arbitration concerning Salamis at the end of the 7th cent. BC Spartan, member of a Spartan court of arbitration that allegedly awarded the island of  Salamis to the Athenians at the end of the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Solon 10). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [3] C. I. Spartan king, probably …

Plato

(7,761 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πλάτων/ Plátōn). [German version] [1] The philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Athenian philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) [German version] A. Life The Seventh Letter (which is not intended to constitute a complete autobiography) and scattered reports from various ancient authors (of these, Plutarchus' [2] Life of Dion and Philodemus' Academica Gaiser/ Academicorum Historia Dorandi are particularly instructive) are our most important sources of information on the life of P. To these should be added the chronological accounts in Apuleius, De Platone et eius d…

Comanus

(550 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Κομανός; Komanós). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. BC C. from Naucratis. Greek grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC, who composed an exegetical work on Homer (an hypómnēma?; Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace challenged it in ‘Against C.’/Πρòς Κομανóν, schol. Hom. Il. 1,97-99; 2,798a; 24,110b). Identification with the homonymous Alexandrian politician  C. [2] is debatable, even if the grammarian is called ‘the king's chief cup-bearer’ in schol. Hes. Op. 97. The roughly 20 fragments reveal a respectable philological …

Lampon

(420 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Λάμπων; Lámpōn). [German version] [1] Son of Pytheas of Aegina, 5th cent. BC Son of Pytheas of Aegina; after the victory at Plataeae (479 BC), he suggested to Pausanias that the body of Mardonius be defiled just like the latter had dishonoured the body of Leonidas [1] at Thermopylae (Hdt. 9,78f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Seer, co-founders of Thurii L. the Seer. He participated in the founding of Thurii (Diod. Sic. 12,10,3; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 332; Phot. s.v. Θουριομάντις; Plut. Mor. 812d). By interpreting an omen (σημείον /sēmeíon: one-horned ram) in…

Thibron

(355 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θίβρων/ Thíbrōn). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, around 400 BC Spartan, who inaugurated Sparta’s war against the Persians in the autumn of 400 BC, but only had command of a small force (Isoc. Or. 4,144), He had some successes only after he had taken on Cyrus’ [3] former mercenaries (about 5000-6000 men) (Xen. An. 7,6,1; 7,8,24; Xen. Hell. 3,1,4-6; Diod. Sic. 14,36,1-37,4). He then went to Caria on the instructions of the éphoroi (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6-7), but was replaced in Ephesus by Dercylidas and punished in Sparta by being exiled be…

Court titles

(3,061 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A. Antecedents in the ancient Orient Court titles (CT) and court ranks in antiquity, used for the description and creation of personal proximity of members of courtly society to the  ruler or to the hierarchical rank classification of the upper class involved in administration, are a consequence of the emergence of territorial monarchies from the time of Alexander [4] the Great and the resulting organization of  courts as centres of political rule. The question of ancient Oriental antec…

Anchwennefer

(143 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Greek Chaonnophris, name with mythological reference. Successor of Harwennefer as anti-king in southern Egypt (201/0 - 27.8.186 BC). After the death of Harwennefer, Ptolemy V ruled again for a short while in the Thebais and in Elephantine, but was pushed back again by A.; from 190 battles with varying success, until A. was finally defeated by Komannos. Because of the conquest, the second Philae decree and the Philanthropa decree C. Ord. Ptol. 34 were passed. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, Hurgonaphor et Chaonnophris, les derniers pharaons i…

Berenice

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …

Asclepiodotus

(391 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Ἀσκληπιόδοτος; Asklepiódotos). [German version] [1] Ptolemaean governor of Caria after 305 BC After 305 BC Ptolemaean governor (?) of Caria. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 90f. [German version] [2] Military theoretician (1st cent. BC) Author of a treatise in 12 chapters on military theory (Ἀσκληπιοδότου φιλοσόφου τακτικὰ κεφάλαια; transmitted in the cod. Laur. LV-4 (F) and 11 other MSS dependent from it) and identified with a listener of Poseidonius me…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Achillas

(75 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Ἀχιλλᾶς; Achillâs). Egyptian, praef. regius, but probably not Ptolemaeus XIII's guardian. He carried out the murder of Pompey and was made high commander of the army by Potheinus in the fight against Caesar (48/7 BC).  Arsinoe [II 6] IV retains him first in this office, but then has him killed at the order of  Ganymedes. PP 6, 14594. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The aulic titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 73 f. no. 029.

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Cleaenete

(34 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κλεαινέτη; Kleinainétē). The daughter of  Numenius, sister of Agathoclea [3]. in 166/5 BC priestess of Arsinoë [II 4] Philopator. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Chr. Habicht, Athen in hell. Zeit, 1994, 109.

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Diophanes

(155 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Διοφάνης; Diophánēs). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-218 BC Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-18 BC; most of the P. Enteuxeis texts date to his time in office. PP 1,247. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 56ff. [German version] [2] Greek rhetor from Mytilene, 2nd cent. BC 2nd-cent. BC Greek rhetor from Mytilene; exiled from his homeland for political reasons, he went to Rome and became the teacher and friend of Tib.  Gracchus. Together with C.  Blossius [2] from Cumae, he is suppose…

Sarapion

(118 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σαραπίων/ Sarapíōn). [German version] [1] Priest of Horus, 2nd cent. BC Priest of Horus and in c. 160 BC the first Egyptian to hold the office of the eponymous priest of Alexander. Possibly identical with PP I/VIII 914. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester, 1994, 45 f. [German version] [2] Dioiketes, 2nd cent. BC Dioikētḗs, in office after 145 and 142 BC, of the same rank as the 'friends of the first class' (PKöln V 223; PTebt III I732,1; Court titles B. 2.). Perhaps identical with a minor administrator documented 163-155 BC ( hypod…

Ophellas

(399 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Οφέλλας/ Ophéllas). [German version] [1] Official in the Hellenistic period O. of Olynthus, presumably a subordinate of Cleomenes [7] in the administration of Egypt ( epimelētḗs in Athribis; see epimelētaí ). He is said to have blackmailed the nomárchai subordinate to him ([Aristot.] 1353a 5ff.). Agathocles [2] Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 599. [German version] [2] Friend and official of Alexander [4] the Great Son of Silenus, Macedonian from Pella, phílos of Alexander [4] the Great and his (liturgical)…

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Tlepolemus

(811 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Τληπόλεμος/ Tlēpólemos, Doric Τλαπόλεμος/ Tlāpólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Astyochia Son of Heracles [1] and Astyochia. After the Heraclidae retreated from the Peloponnese, T. settled in Argos along with Licymnius [1] and killed him there in the midst of an argument (Diod. 4,58,5-8; in Tiryns: Pind. Ol. 7,20-38; unintentionally: Zenon of Rhodos FGrH 523 F 1). As a result, T. fled to Rhodos, where he followed the Doric tradition and "settled three times according to phyle " (Hom. Il. 2,668), that is, he created a new political fo…

Polemaeus

(352 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολεμαῖος/ Polemaîos). [German version] [1] Macedonian commander, c. 300 BC (also called Ptolemaeus and Polemon in MSS, but correctly P ., IG II2 469 and IK 28,2). Son of one P., Macedonian, nephew of Antigonus [1]. P. was probably already an officer in the Macedonian army under Alexander [4] the Great, possibly sōmatophýlax (Court titles B) of Philippus Arridaeus [4] (Arr. Succ. 1,38). In 319, he went to Eumenes [1] as a hostage of Antigonus (Plut. Eumenes 10); in 314 he was sent as general to Cappadocia and to secure the Hellespont (Diod. Sic.…

Straton

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Στράτων; Strátōn). [German version] [1] Attic comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Attic comedy writer of the 4th cent. BC, according to the Suda belonging to the Middle Comedy [1. test. 1], but on the basis of fr. 1,43 (mentioning Philitas [1] of Cos) certainly to the New Comedy [2.62 f.]. At the Dionysia of 302, S. attained the fourth place [1. test. 2]. Of the comedy Phoinikídes (fr. 1 PCG) a rhesis survives on papyrus (fr. 1,4-8; 11; 13-15; 17-21; 23-25; 34-50; cf. [3]) and in a divergent version in Athenaeus (fr. 1,1-47; cf. [1.621 f.]); the spe…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R. A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [German version] [2] Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, pupil of Isocrates (Ath. 1,18,11 A). Of his works, the following titles are known (cf. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Memorabil…

Hacoris

(51 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Herieus, father of Euphron (Greek for Herieus) (OGIS 94; PKöln 4,186). Commanded troops under Comanus against Anchwennefer in 187 BC, probably as the strategos of Hermopolites or Cynopolites. Appellation of the town of Acoris [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, Hakoris, in: AncSoc 22, 1991, 235ff.

Eiras

(46 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Εἰράς; Eirás). Sometimes also called Náeira; lady-in-waiting of Cleopatra VII who in Octavian's propaganda was attributed decisive political influence. E. died together with the queen. PP 6,14720. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography H. Heinen, Onomastisches zu E., Kammerzofe Kleopatras VII, in: ZPE 79, 1989, 243-247.

Hieronymus

(2,779 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Et al.
(Ἱερώνυμος; Hierṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander of the Persian fleet 395 BC, politician Athenian, one of  Conon's representatives in his command over the Persian fleet in 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4), campaigned for more expansive politics in Athens (Aristoph. Eccl. 201; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 73). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 533930. [German version] [2] Statesman in Megalopolis around 350 BC Oecist from Mainalus in Arcadia at the founding of Megalopolis ( Megale Polis) in 370 BC (Paus. 8,27,2), was one of the leading s…

Strategos

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(στρατηγός/ stratēgós, 'army leader'; pl. strategoi). In many Greek states the formal title for a military commander. [German version] I. Classical Greece In Athens, strategoi are occasionally mentioned earlier (e.g. Peisistratus [4] as strategos; Hdt. 1,59,4; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 17,2), but it was only after the tribal reorganization of Cleisthenes [2], probably first in 501/0 BC, that a regular board of strategoi was appointed: one from each of the 10 phylai, elected annually by the assembly (but candidates may have been pre-selected in the phylai, see [2]), and eligible for …

Motes

(49 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μότης; Mόtēs). Ptolemaic strategos of Caria 248/7 BC who, together with the oikonómos Diodotus, intervened in the administration of the town of Kalynda (PCZ 59341). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt, 1976, 99f., 216, 245  PP VI 15058.

Pancrates

(537 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παγκράτης/ Pankrátēs). [German version] [1] Musician, archaic style Musician; according to Aristoxenus [1] an enthusiast of the archaic style ( trópos) of Pindar and Simonides (Plut. De Musica 1137f). Harmon, Roger (Basle) [German version] [2] Poet, 3rd-2nd cent. BC Hellenistic poet (3rd-2nd cent. BC), author of the didactic poem Θαλάσσια ἔργα ( Maritime works), of which three fragments, dealing with the pilotfish, the wrasse and the salp and their 'common' names, are preserved by Athenaeus (who always refers to him as Arkás). Identification with the homonymous author of a Bokchorē…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Thenephmus

(32 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θένεφμος; Thénephmos). Egyptian, recorded as early as 247/6 BC as owner of a dōreá ('estate awarded by the king') of 10,000 árourai. PP IV 10083. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Komomisthotes

(54 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμομισθώτης; kōmomisthṓtēs). Ptolemaic official, first attested in 259/258 BC in Palestine (PLond. VII 1948), who was responsible for leasing of state land to farmers within a village administrative district (cf. also PTebt. 183). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography D. Crawford, Kerkeosiris, 1971, 103 A. 4 Rostovtzeff, Hellenistic World 1, 344f.; 3, 1401f.

Dryton

(71 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Born before 192 BC, died 126/123, from Crete, citizen of Ptolemais, active at various locations as a soldier and hipparch (Archive with documents from 174-99). On 4.3.150 he wed Apollonia, in his second marriage, and thus set an example, promoting Graeco-Egyptian society as the blend of the two cultures. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 88ff. R. Scholl, D.s Tod, in: CE 63, 1988, 141-144.

Melancomas

(65 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μελαγκόμας/ Melancomas). Eponymous priest of Alexander in 166/5 BC. Son of the Aetolian Philodamus, served in 180-145 as garrison commander and priest of the theoí euergétai ( euergétēs ) in Citium, father of the garrison commander M. (PP VI 15119). PP III/IX 5194 (VI 15120?). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. van der Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 24.

Leonides

(479 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Λεωνίδης; Leōnídēs). Cf. also Leonidas. [German version] [1] General Ptolemy I, c. 300 BC General of Ptolemy I, stratēgós in Cilicia in 310/309 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,19,4). L. probably consecrated a helmet at Delos in 309/308 (IG XI 2, 161 B 77), and in 308 he was appointed by Ptolemy as commander of his Greek possessions. In 307/306, L. fulfilled the function of stratēgós in Sicyon and Corinth; after 301, together with Philocles (?), he commanded Ptolemaic mercenaries in Pamphylia (SEG 17, 639; Aspendus). It is unclear whether he can be identified with Berve, vol. 2, no. 470. Ameling, Walter (…

Hermias

(778 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Around 350 BC tyrant over Atarneus and Assos (or Hermeias) Around 350 BC successor of Eubulus as tyrant over  Atarneus and  Assos (Diog. Laert. 5,3), possibly pupil of Plato (Str. 13,1,57; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 250; by contrast Pl. Ep. 6,322e). Along with other philosophers he brought Aristotle to the court and married him to his niece  Pythias. After the Persians had reconquered Egypt in 343/342, H. considered his region to be under threat and contacted  Philippus II (…

Cronius

(349 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κρόνιος; Krónios). [German version] [1] Platonist Platonist (Syranus, In Aristot. Metaph. 109,11) of the Pythagorizing tendency, mostly called a Pythagorean, (perhaps older) contemporary and friend (Porph. De anthro nympharum 21) of  Numenius, about the mid 2nd cent. AD. As a rule C. is only mentioned with him but frequently before him and generally shares his opinion. C. was read in the school of Plotin (Porph. Vita Pythagorica 14); he composed hypomnemata (ibid., probably no commentaries on whole w…

Pamenches

(62 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Pachom; c. 50/30 B.C. syngenḗs and stratēgós (Court titles B. 2.) in various Egyptian nomes. Along with his government offices P. held a series of indigenous priestly offices, which already appear in the titles of his father. PP III 5688; VIII 292 b. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 121f. Nr. 0128.

Theogenes

(485 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θεογένης/ Theogénēs). [German version] [1] Athlete from Thasos, 5th cent. BC Famous fighter from the island of Thasos, Olympic champion in 480 BC (against Euthymus of Locri [1. nos. 191; 214; 222]) in fist-fighting [1. no. 201] and in 476 BC in pankration [1. no. 215]. This constellation of victories was first documented for T. on an inscription in Delphi [2. no. 37] dating from the 2nd cent. BC, which attests that the athlete was adored by his home polis for as long as four generations after his death. Pausanias tells of three victories in Delphi, ten in the Isthmia a…

Lycarion

(99 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Λυκαρίων; Lykaríōn). Son of Numenius, from an important family; in the middle of the 1st cent. BC known as syngenḗs ( Court titles B. 2.), honorary head of the gerousia of Alexandria [1], dioikētḗs , exēgētḗs ( exēgētaí ), epì tês póleōs of Alexandria, gymnasiarch ( Gymnasiarchy) of Alexandria. L. is an example of the accumulation of offices in the late Ptolemaic period as well as of the link between state and city duties. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography PP I 37; 156; III 5349a L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1974, 140 no. 0176.

Ptolemies

(408 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (οἱ Πτολεμαϊκοὶ δυναστεῖς/ hoi Ptolemaïkoì dynasteîs, Str. 2,5,12). Hellenistic dynasty which established itself in Egypt after the death of Alexander [4] the Great and ruled there until Egypt was instituted as a Roman province by Augustus; the dynasty is named after its founder, Ptolemaeus [1] I as 'Ptolemies' or after his father Lagus [1] as 'Lagidae' (Λαγίδαι/ Lagídai). The ambitions of the first P. were not limited to Egypt, but extended to the whole of Alexander's empire (cf. Ptolemaeus [6] III; Hellenistic states) and large parts…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Philadelphos

(369 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλάδελφος/ Philádelphos, literally 'One who loves his/her brother/sister'). (Cult-) epithet of Hellenistic kings. It was borne first of all by Arsinoe [II 3] II. (Philadelphos is only documented from 165/4 BC with referenceto her brother and husband Ptolemy II.). The name is very frequently used in the dynasty of the Ptolemies (Cleopatra [II 9] Berenice III, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra [II 10] Tryphaina; Cleopatra [II 12] VII and her brothers became theoì néoi philádelphoi during the lifetime of Ptolemy XII; cf. also Ptolemaeus Philadelphos). Philad…

Simaristus

(44 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Σιμάριστος; Simáristos). Alexandrian from a respected family extending back to the 3rd century BC; in 58 BC he led an Alexandrian hetairía against Ptolemaeus [18] XII (Dion Chrys. Or. 32,70). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F. Zucker, Σιμαριστ<ει>οι, in: Philologus 101, 1957, 164-166.

Hor

(162 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] An Egyptian from the district of  Sebennytus, a village scribe and perhaps also scribe for the district, he began a five-year journey in 173 BC, which he had been instructed to make by an oracle.   Pastophóros of Isis and from 167/6 priest (κάτοχος/ kátochos?) at the ibis Sanctuary of Saqqara/Memphis, where he had an administrative position in the temple. His oracular prophesies delivered via dreams, were listened to even in the palace. Among other destinations he travelled from Alexandria to Sarapeum in 168, where he deli…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes [2]. However, Z. owes his fame to his criticism of Homerus [1] in his work Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως/ Katà tês Homērou poiḗseōs ('Against Homer's verse'; 9 books; fragments in [2]) which earned him the epithet Ὁμηρομάστιξ ( Homēromástix, 'Scourge of Homer'). Motivated by the Cynic approach, Z. endeav…

Chaereas

(228 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χαιρέας; Chairéas). [German version] [1] Strategos at Cyzicus, 410 BC Son of Archestratus (Lycomide?) of Athens. In 411/10 BC co- strategos in Samos, sent to Athens on the  Paralus, but was able to return (Thuc. 8,74,1-3; 86,3). In 410 strategos at Cyzicus (Diod. Sic. 13,49,6; 50,7; 51,3). PA 15093. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 9238 Fraser/Matthews, GPN 2, 1994, 469, no. 3 A. W. Gomme et al., Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 5, 1981, 266-268. [German version] [2] Nauarch of Ptolemy IX, 1st cent. BC Nauarch of Ptolemy IX; perhaps strategos of Cyprus; 88 BC…

Psenamun

(90 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, 1st cent. BC Father of P. [2], c. 80-35 BC. Before 50/49 he was the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, afterwards he held further priestly offices. PP III/IX 5375. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Last High Priest of Ptah in 28/7 BC Son of P. [1], born c. 42 BC, last High Priest of Ptah and other gods, received most of his titles in  28/7. P. died after 23 BC. PP III/IX 5375 a. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Leucius

(289 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Λεύκιος; Leúkios). [German version] [1] Roman in the Ptolemaic army L. (= Lucius), son of Gaius, Roman, Ptolemaic phroúrarchos on Itanus (between 221-209 BC), thus the first Roman known to have had a higher rank in the Ptolemaic army. PP VI 15117. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] L. Charinus Ostensible author of apocryphal Acts of the Apostles Ostensible author of apocryphal Acts of the Apostles. As such L. appears once with a double name in the middle of the 9th cent. in Photius (Bibl. cod. 114), who ascribes to him the authorship of the …

Komogrammateus

(452 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμογραμματεύς; kōmogrammateús). Administrative official in Ptolemaic Egypt, although the position itself is doubtlessly older. Egypt was divided up into nomoí, tópoi and kômai, and corresponding to this sequence is, in order, basilikós grammateús, topogrammateús and komogrammateús (It is, however, not certain whether the topogrammateús was the superior of the komogrammateus; sometimes both posts were filled by the same person). The komogrammateus was responsible for an area, which usually encompassed one village, but sometimes also several villages ( kôm…

Sophron

(861 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σώφρων/ Sṓphrōn). [German version] [1] Poet, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC from Syracuse. According to Suda σ 893, approximately contemporaneous with (Arta)Xerxes in Persia and Euripides in Athens, i.e. from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC. This is in keeping with the traditional belief that his son Xenarchus composed a mime that referred to a historical event occurring in 394 or 389 BC (fr. 1; 4 Olivieri; [1. 59]). S. became famous for his mimoi, quasi-dramatic dialogues or monologues in a kind of rhythmic prose that depicted everyday characters for humorous purposes t…

Eulaeus

(267 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὐλαῖος; Eulaîos). [German version] [1] Main river of the area of Susiana One of the main rivers of the area of Susiana (Arr. Anab. 7,7; Diod. Sic. 19,19,1; Plut. Eumenes 14; Str. 15,3,4; 22; Plin. HN 6,100; 31,35 et al.) on which the metropolis Susa was also situated; it appears in the Hellenistic period as the Greek polis with the name Σελεύκεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Εὐλαίῳ(Seleucia on the E.). It is indeed certain that E. was named after the river name Ulaï that appears in Mesopotamian and Biblical testimonials; however the identification of E. and the other rivers of Susiana passed…

Seleucus

(2,908 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
(Σέλευκος/ Séleukos, Lat. Seleucus). [German version] [1] Co-regent in the Regnum Bosporanum, c.400 BC Co-regent with Satyrus [2] I in the Regnum Bosporanum, 433/2-393/2 BC (according to Diod. Sic. 12,36,1). As Satyrus is elsewhere (Diod. Sic, 14,93,1) described as a sole ruler, and other sources do not mention his name, his existence is not certain. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. …

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Bolis

(49 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Βῶλις; Bôlis). Senior officer of Ptolemy IV, from Crete. Tasked by Sosibius in 213 BC to free Achaeus from the beleaguered city of Sardes, he changed sides and ensured that Achaeus was handed over to Antiochus III (Pol. 8,15-20). PP 6, 14750. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Mardion

(34 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μαρδίων; Mardíōn). Slave or statesman of Cleopatra VII. The propaganda of Octavian declared him, a eunuch, to be responsible for leading the Egyptian state (PP VI 14615). Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Agreophon

(30 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] From Caunus, father of Zeno, visits Egypt in 253 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography H. Hauben, Les vacances d'Agréophon (253 av. J. C.), in: CE 60, 1985, 102-108.

Cleopatra

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα; Kleopátra, Lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, first wife of  Phineus. C. was rejected in favour of  Idaea [3], whom Phineus married as his second wife; her sons were blinded (Apollod. 3.200; Hyg. Fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Idas and Marpessa Daughter of  Idas and  Marpessa, wife of  Meleager. After her abduction by Apollo she was also called ‘Alcyone’ after her mother's …

Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Alabarches

(73 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Dissimilated form of Arabarches in the Josephus-MSS AP 11, 383 and the texts cited below (different from [1]). The identification with an independent office of the Jewish community is impossible (see TAM 2,1, 256; Cod. lust. 4,61,9); BCH 16, 1892, 119 no. 44. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 Abd-El-Ghany, The Arabs in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt through papyri and inscriptions, in: L. Criscuolo, G. Geraci (ed.), Egitto e storia antica, 1989, 233-242, 236 f.

Nomophylakes

(473 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(νομοφύλακες / nomophýlakes, ‘guardians of the law’) [German version] I. Classical Period In the Classical Period, nomophýlakes were officials responsible for ensuring compliance with the laws ( nómoi). In Athens, the Areopagus (Areios Pagos) was said to have performed the function of the nomophylakía  until the reforms of Ephialtes [2] (462 BC) ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 3,6; [4,4]; 8,4; 25,2). According to one version in a fragment of Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 64), Ephialtes appointed a college of seven nomophýlakes, who also held some religious offices, but it is more likely…

Potheinus

(321 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Ποθεῖνος/ Potheînos). Eunuch, nutricius ('tutor') of Ptolemaeus [20] XIII (Caes. B Civ. 3,108), probably appointed guardian by the will of Ptolemy [18] XII. His precise position at the court of Alexandria is unclear. If P. is indeed an amicus regis (Caes. B Civ. 3,104,1), this was probably not the same as one of the court titles phílos; Cassius Dio (42,36,1) describes him as tḕn dioíkēsin tôn toû Ptolemaíou chrēmátōn prostetagménos ('administrator of the goods of Ptolemy') - this may refer to the office of dioikētḗs , which, however, P. can har…

Arsinoe

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη; Arsinóē). I. Myth [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Leukippos Daughter of Leucippus, sister of the Leucippids, who were abducted by the Dioscuri, she was the mother by Apollo of the Messenian Asclepius (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta A. had a shrine (Paus. 3,12,8); on the agora of Messene there was an A. spring (Paus. 4,31,6), in the Messenian Asclepieum there was, amongst other things, a painting of A. (Paus. 4,31,11f.). The relationship of the Messenian to the …

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Hegesistratus

(274 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγησίστρατος; Hēgēsístratos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sigeum, around 530 BC Son of  Peisistratus and the Argive Timonassa (Hdt. 5,94; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 17,3). Installed as tyrant of Sigeum by his father around 530 BC, he defended the city as a colony of the Peisistratids against the Mytilenaeans (Hdt. loc. cit.).  Tyrannis Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 11793,VI (B) M. Stahl, Aristokraten und Tyrannen, 1987, 220f. Traill, PAA 481600. [German version] [2] Seer in the army of Mardonius, 5th cent. BC H. of Elis, son of Tellias. Fled from Spartan captivity an…

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Chelcias

(33 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Χελκίας; Chelkías). Son of Onias IV; brother of Ananias (died 103). From 105-103 BC commander of the army of  Cleopatra III. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography PP 2, 2183; 8, 342a.

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Rufio

(76 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (or possibly Rufinus, cf. [1. 163 f.4]). Son of a freedman of Caesar (cf. [2. I 56]), whom the latter left behind in Alexandria [1] in 47 BC as the commander of three legions. R.'s characterization as Caesar's 'lover' ( exoletus: Suet. Iul. 76,3) is likely to be polemical. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 P. Graindor, La Guerre d'Alexandrie, 1931 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen, 1996. G. Geraci, Genesi della provincia romana d'Egitto, 1983, 26 f.

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes

Demaenetus

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Δημαίνετος; Dēmaínetos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Asclepius in Elis Epithet of  Asclepius in Elis, from the name of the cult founder (Paus. 6,21,4). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] From Parrhasia, allegedly transformed into a wolf D. from Parrhasia, a town in Arcadia. He is said to have been transformed into a wolf after he ate the flesh of a boy whom the Arcadians had sacrificed to Jupiter Lycaeus. After 10 years he became human again and was victorious in boxing at Olympia (Scopas FGrH 413 F 1; Varro in Aug. Civ. 18,17). In Paus. 6,8,2 he is called Damarchos. Bloch, René (Ber…

Menches

(128 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Greek name: Asclepiades ( ho kaì Asklēpiádēs héllēn enchṓrios tôn katoíkōn), son of Petesouchus, Greek: Ammónios ( toû kaì Ammoníou), and grandson of Asclepiades (PTebtunis I 164). He is a typical example of how double Graeco-Egyptian names could be used in Ptolemaic Egypt, according to context. M. is mentioned again in August 119 BC as kōmogrammateús of Cerceosiris. He served until 111 BC. M.'s ‘archive’ (PTebt I; IV) is the most important source for the office of kōmogrammateús in the Ptolemaic period. The necessary payments for M.'s official appointment…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Menoetius

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μενοίτιος; Menoítios). [German version] [1] Son of Actor and Aegina Son of Actor [1] and Aegina, who settled in Opus (Pind. Ol. 9,69f.); husband of Sthenele (or Periopis or Polymele), father of Patroclus and Myrto (Apollod. 3,13,8; Plut. Aristeides 20,7). In the Ilias M. is designated as hḗrōs (Hom. Il. 11,771; 18,325). When Patroclus killed Cleitonymus, son of Aphidamas, in battle, M. fled with him to Peleus in Phthia. From there, he sent his son to Troy, in support of Achilles [1] (Hom. Il. 23,83ff.; 11,765ff.). M. himself remained in Pht…

Callimedes

(25 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καλλιμήδης; Kallimḗdēs). Ptolemaic local commander, who surrendered  Aenus [1] in 200 BC to Philip V. PP 6, 15113. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Didyme

(41 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Διδύμη; Didýmē). Egyptian (Ethiopian) mistress of Ptolemy II; see in Anth. Pal. 5,210? Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography A. Cameron, Two Mistresses of Ptolemy Philadelphus, in: GRBS 31, 1990, 287 F. M. Snowden Jr., Asclepiades' D., in: GRBS 32, 1991, 239-259.

Meridarches

(236 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(μεριδάρχης, Meridárchēs). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic administrative official from at least 260 BC Ptolemaic administrative official. The Egyptian district ( nomós ) of Arsinoites was divided up into three merídes (‘parts’), which in turn consisted of tópoi. This subdivision is attested from 260/259 BC at the latest[1. 5]. A meridarches was in charge of a merís and hence of its toparchs; the title is attested from the end of the 2nd century BC (PTebtunis I 66), but the names of the merídes (Ἡρακλείδου, Θεμίστου, Πολέμωνος) may go back to the first meridarchai. The last meridarchai ar…

Aristomenes

(638 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστομένης; Aristoménēs). [German version] [1] Messenian hero and freedom fighter (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) Messenian hero and freedom fighter, seen as a descendant of the Aepytids. With the support of Arcadians and Argives, A. was the supposed leader of a Messenian revolt against Sparta which lasted for many years. Paus. 4,14,6-24,3 reports that on his defeat, after initial successes, in the so-called battle of the ‘Great Trench’ because of the treachery of the Arcadian king  Aristocrates [1], A. retreated…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…
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