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Evil

(4,189 words)

Author(s): Keller, Carl-A. | Miller, Patrick D. | Frankemölle, Hubert | Axt-Piscalar, Christine | Jüngel, Eberhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Judaism I. History of Religions From the standpoint of the study of religion, evil – which is offensive, threatens order and existence, and is therefore feared and avoided – is an aspect of hidden power that is uncontrollable and unfathomable, to which human beings feel exposed and by which the…

Müller, Julius

(348 words)

Author(s): Axt-Piscalar, Christine
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1801, Brieg, Silesia – Sep 27, 1878, Halle). Müller first studied law in Breslau and Göttingen, then theology in Breslau and Berlin; in 1834 he became assistant professor in Göttingen, 1835 professor of dogmatics in Marburg, from 1839 until his death in Halle; he was co-founder of the Zeitschrift für christliche Wissenschaft und christliches Leben [Journal of Christian scholarship and Christian life] (1848–1857, n.s. 1858–1861). He was a member of the Berlin General Synod and Consistory Council. Müller's main dogmatic work, Die christliche Lehre von der…

Biedermann, Alois Emanuel

(219 words)

Author(s): Axt-Piscalar, Christine
[German Version] (Mar 2, 1819, Bendlikon near Zürich – Jan 25, 1885, Zürich) studied theology in Basel and Berlin, influenced especially by G.W.F. Hegel, D.F. Strauβ and W. Vatke, was professor of dogmatics in Zürich from 1860. At the same time he was a local government (canton) politician, and a preacher. A forerunner of the liberal reformation in German-speaking Switzerland, Bied…

Dorner, Isaak August

(354 words)

Author(s): Axt-Piscalar, Christine
[German Version] (Jun 20, 1809, Neuhausen ob Eck, Württemberg – Jul 7, 1884, Wiesbaden) studied theology and philosophy at Tübingen. He was professor of theology at Kiel, Königsberg, Bonn, Göttingen and Berlin (1862–1883) and cofounder and coeditor of the annual, Jahrbücher für deutsche Theologie (1856–1878). He was influenced by F.D.E. Schleiermacher, G.W.F. Hegel, and I. Kant. For Dorner, faith is the foundation of theology, while theology itself is a speculative discipline that deals with the foundation of faith as objective truth. Accordingly, in his System …