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Atropates

(106 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Ἀτροπάτης; Atropátēs). Median ruler and satrap of Darius, fought at  Gaugamela and accompanied him in flight. After Darius' death he joined  Alexander [4] and received his satrapy once again. He took a vanquished Median pretender to the throne to the king in 324 BC. As a reward, his daughter was married to  Perdiccas at the weddings of Susa. He is supposed to have given Alexander 100  Amazons (Arr. Anab. 7,13). Perdiccas assigned him the satrapy of west Media in 323, where he settled himself as ruler. The land (Atropatene, today Azerbaijan) eternalized his name. Badian, E…

Caranus

(99 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κάρανος; Káranos). [German version] [1] Founded the Macedonian royal house Founded the Macedonian royal house according to Diod. Sic. 7. 15-17 as a descendant of the Heraclid Temenus (Theopompus FGrH 115 F 393) after immigrating from Argus. He replaces  Perdiccas, named as progenitor of the Macedons in Hdt. 8. 137-139. Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Alleged son of Philippus II Alleged son of  Philippus II, killed by  Alexander [4] the Great after Philippus' death (Just. Epit. 11. 2. 3). Since  Satyrus in Athenaeus (12.557) does not name him, his existence is doubtful. Bad…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius P…

Autophradates

(155 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Αὐτοφραδάτης; Autophradátēs). [German version] [1] Persian naval commander against Philippus II and Alexander the Great Identical or related to the satrap of Lydia at the time of the Satraps' Revolt. As naval commander under  Memmon and then Pharnabazus against  Philippus II and  Alexander [4], he carried out successful actions in the Aegean and supported  Agis [3] both in terms of money and ships. His fleet was disbanded after the battle of  Issus. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 188. [German version] [2] Satrap of a Caspian province; fought at Gauga…

Philotas

(583 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φιλώτας; Philṓtas). [German version] [1] Macedonian nobleman, 4th cent. BC Eldest son of Parmenion [1]; following Philippus' [I 4] II marriage to Cleopatra [II 2] P. stood by him against Alexander [4] the Great in the Pixodarus affair. After Philip’s death (336 BC) and the murder of Attalus [1] by Parmenion [1], P. was promoted to the command of the hetaíroi , whom he led in the great battles against the Persians. In autumn 330 BC his brother Nicanor [1] died. P. remained behind for the funeral while Alexander continued the march. …

Metron

(62 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μήτρων; Mḗtrōn). One of the basilikoi paides , responsible for the arsenal of Alexander [4] the Great in 330 BC. He heard of the conspiracy of Dimnus from Cebalinus, and reported it to Alexander (Curt. 6,7; Diod. 17,79,4-5). He is not to be identified with a trierarch of the Hydaspes fleet (Arr. Ind. 18,5). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Hermolaus

(158 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἑρμόλαος; Hermólaos). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Alexander the Great Son of Sopolis, page ( Basilikoi paides) of  Alexander [4], pre-empted the king in the slaying of a wild boar and was humiliatingly punished by him (327 BC). In revenge he hatched a conspiracy among the pages but it failed and was betrayed to the king. The accused, after being tortured, were sentenced to death and stoned with the consent of the army.  Callisthenes, hated by Alexander as an opponent of  proskynesis, was sus…

Peucestas

(257 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πευκέστας; Peukéstas). [German version] [1] Commander of the occupation of Egypt under Alexander the Great Son of Macartatus, he and Balacrus [2] were commanders of the garrison in Egypt under Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. An. 3,5,5, 331 BC). In the  Saqqara necropolis a decree by P. for the protection of a priestly estate has been found. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography E.G. Turner, A Commander-in-Chief's Order from Saqqâra, in: JEA 60, 1974, 239-342. [German version] [2] Trierarch of Alexander the Great's Hydaspes fleet Son of Alexander from Mieza, in 326 BC triera…

Alexander historians

(302 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Collective name for the ancient authors, who wrote about the history and biography of  Alexander [4] (the Great).  Callisthenes was his court historian and fulfilled the duties expected of him until their quarrel. Many of the later histories are based on his, which was published right away (until 330 BC?). Of the eyewitnesses, only  Ptolemaeus and  Aristoboulus [7] seem to have described all campaigns; both praised Alexander. They wrote many years later, used Callisthenes and prob…

Mazarus

(67 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μάζαρος; Mázaros). Hetaîros ( hetaîroi ) of Alexander [4] the Great. According to Arrian (Arr. Anab. 3,16,9), he was appointed fortress commander in Susa in 331/30 BC. Curtius (5,2,16) names Xenophilus instead. Since the name M. is Iranian, Arrian probably confused him with the Persian predecessor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. B. Bosworth, A Historical Commentary on Arrian's History, vol. 1, 1980, 319.

Bucephalus, Bucephalas

(115 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βουκεφάλας; Boukephálas). Thessalian warhorse, a gift to  Alexander [4] as a boy. He was allegedly the only person capable of breaking him in. He never rode any other and it is illustrated with him in heroic style on the  Alexander Mosaic and the  Alexander Sarcophagus. B. died at a great age after the battle on the Hydaspes and Alexander founded a city,  Bucephala in his honour. The life and death of B. are richly embellished in the ‘Vulgate’ ( Alexander historians) and in the  Alexander Romance. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. R. Anderson, Bucephalas an…

Gorgus

(126 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Γόργος; Górgos). In 324 BC, G. of Iasos ─ in the role of the ‘keeper of weapons’ ( hoplophýlax, ὁπλοφύλαξ) ─ interceded with  Alexander [4] the Great on behalf of the Samians expelled by the Athenians and tried to persuade Alexander to start a campaign against Athens (Ath. 12,538b). After the latter's death, G. had Iasos allow the return of Samians to Athens at the city's expense. The newly created community of Samos honoured him and his brother  Minnion for their merits by granting them citizenship among other things (Syll.3 312). The brothers had succeeded in obtai…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Thersippus

(102 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Θέρσιππος; Thérsippos). Participant in Alexander [4] the Great's campaign. Alexander sent him from Marathus to Darius [3] in 333/2 with a reply to his first offer of peace (Arr. An. 2,14,4; Curt. 4,1,14); perhaps identical with the T. who after Alexander's death is honoured in a decree by the Nesiotae [2] (OGIS 4) (see [1. vol. 1,369; vol. 2.2,376]). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography 1 G. A. Droysen, Gesch. des Hellenismus, 3 vols., 21877/8 (reprint of this ed. 1952/3, ed. by E. Bayer, 1980) 2 Berve, No. 368 3 E. Poddighe, Il decreto dell'isola di Nes…

Peithon

(377 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πείθων; Peíthōn). [German version] [1] Indo- Greek satrap In 325 BC, P., son of Agenor, was appointed by Alexander [4] the Great as the satrap for the coast of India and the banks of the Indus as far as the mouth of the Acesines. He took Musicanus prisoner and brought him before the king, manned the new fortresses on the left bank of the Indus and met up with Alexander at Pattala. When Alexander had to give up a large part of India in 323 BC, he transferred P. to Gandhara (Gandaritis), a move which was…

Pythionice

(90 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Πυθιονίκη/ Pythioníkē). Famous hetaera (Hetaerae), probably Athenian, mocked by comedians (Ath. 8,339). Called c. 329 BC by Harpalus to Babylon, where she bore him a daughter (Plut. Phocion 22,1), he showered her with plundered treasures (Diod. Sic. 17, 108,5). After her death, Harpalus had her deified as Aphrodite P. Her grave monuments in Babylon and Athens are often mentioned (mostly with indignation) (as in Ath. 13,594d-595c; Paus. 1,37,5; Plut. Phocion 22, 1-2). They allegedly cost more than 200 talents (Theopomp. apud Ath. ibid.). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge…

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Tlepolemus

(811 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Τληπόλεμος/ Tlēpólemos, Doric Τλαπόλεμος/ Tlāpólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Astyochia Son of Heracles [1] and Astyochia. After the Heraclidae retreated from the Peloponnese, T. settled in Argos along with Licymnius [1] and killed him there in the midst of an argument (Diod. 4,58,5-8; in Tiryns: Pind. Ol. 7,20-38; unintentionally: Zenon of Rhodos FGrH 523 F 1). As a result, T. fled to Rhodos, where he followed the Doric tradition and "settled three times according to phyle " (Hom. Il. 2,668), that is, he created a new political fo…

Cyn(n)ane

(85 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Κυν(ν)άνη; Kyn(n)ánē). Daughter of  Philippus II and an Illyrian, born around 357 BC. Brought up in a martial way, she is said to have participated in Philip's battles. In 338/7 C. married Amyntas [4] and bore Eurydice [3] with whom she lived in Macedonia after the death of Amyntas. In 322 C. accompanied Eurydice to Asia with an army as a bride for Arridaeus [4]. C. was murdered by Alcetas [4] and given a royal burial by  Cassander. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, no. 456.

Myllenas

(59 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μυλλένας; Myllénas). Scribe of Alexander [4] the Great, was to lead lightly armed infantry along by-ways to the summit of the Aornus [2] (Curt. 8,11,5: Mullinus). The enterprise failed. He is probably the Macedonian M., son of Asander, who was accorded the proxenía with privileges in Eretria (IG XII 9, 197). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Phthia

(341 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] [1] Kingdom of Peleus and Achilles (Φθία/ Phthía, Φθίη/ Phthíē). The kingdom of Peleus and Achilles [1], home of the Myrmidones (Hom. Il. 1,155; 2,683f.; 762-767; 19,323; Hom. Od. 11,496), extending over the valley of the Spercheius and the adjacent north shore of the Thermaios Kolpos (Str. 9,5,8). The Spercheius was regarded as the home river of Achilles (Hom. Il. 23,140-144) and Phthios as the son of Spercheus (schol. Hom. Il. 23,142). The Dolopes lived 'in the most remote part of P.' (H…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R. A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [German version] [2] Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, pupil of Isocrates (Ath. 1,18,11 A). Of his works, the following titles are known (cf. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Memorabil…

Arrianus

(958 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Heucke, Clemens (Munich)
[German version] [1] Author, 2nd cent. AD Author (probably 2nd cent. BC) of a Greek translation of  Virgil's Georgica, an epic about  Alexander [4] and numerous poems of praise of  Attalus. The works have been lost (Suda α 3867). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [2] A. of Nicomedia Greek philosopher and historian, born around AD 85-90 [German version] A. Name Inscriptions attest to the existence of L. Flavius Arrianus. ‘Flavius’ harks back to the patron whom the family owed their Roman citizenship: perhaps L. Flavius, cos. suff. in 33 BC or not until Vespasian (if A. was a younger …

Bagoas

(192 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Βαγώας; Bagṓas), Greek name for Persian eunuchs (Plin. HN 13,41). [German version] [1] Commander of Artaxerxes Ochus, 338 BC ‘An extremely impudent and sacrilegious man’ (Diod. Sic. 16,47,4) who took part in the renewed conquest of Egypt led by  Artaxerxes Ochus, became commander-in-chief of the Upper Satrapies, then  chiliarchos (‘lord of the realm’ Diod. Sic. 16,50,8). In 338 BC, he poisoned the king, in 336, he poisoned the king's son and successor  Arses, and installed a courtier on the throne, who then adopt…

Barsaentes

(69 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσαέντης; Barsaéntēs). Under  Darius satrap of Arachosia and Drangiana; commanded the Arachotes and the neighbouring Indians in the battle of Gaugamela. He murdered Darius in mid 330 BC together with  Bessus and  Nabarzanes, then fled to his satrapy and from there to India. When  Alexander [4] reached the Indus, B. was handed over to him and executed. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 205.

Archon

(211 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] [1] Macedonian officer, Satrap of Babylonia (2nd half 4th cent. BC) Macedonian officer in the army of  Alexander [4], in 326 BC one of the triarchoi of the fleet on the  Hydaspes, prior to Alexander's death satrap of Babylonia, where he stayed on after the reorganization of Babylon (Diod. Sic. 18,3,3). Soon after, however,  Perdiccas sent  Docimus as his successor. A. was killed in the fight against him (Arr. succ. FGrH 156 F 10). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 103. [German version] [2] Achaean strategos (1st half of the 2nd cent. BC) Of Aegira, br…

Hecataeus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος; Hekataîos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cardia, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of  Cardia, kept in office by  Alexander [4] although  Eumenes [1] made an effort to free the city (Plut. Eumenes 3). In the Lamian War, he supported  Antipater [1] (Diod. Sic. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Henchman of Alexander [4] the Gr., 4th cent. BC One of the  hetairoi of Alexander [4], entrusted by him in 336 BC with the removal of  Attalus [1], whom he murdered (Diod. Sic. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 292 (not identical with …

Mentor

(446 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέντωρ; Méntōr). [German version] [1] Father of Imbrios of Pedaion Father of Imbrius of Pedaeum (Hom. Il. 13,171). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alkimos, companion of Odysseus M. of Ithaca, son of Alcimus (Hom. Od. 22,235), companion of Odysseus, who on his departure to Troy hands over to M. the supervision of his household (ibid. 2,225ff.). In the People's Assembly M. firmly opposes the behaviour of the suitors (ibid. 2,224ff.). The goddess Athena often takes on his form in order to help Telemachus wi…

Lanice

(73 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Λανίκη/ Laníkē; probably a short form of Ἑλλανίκη, Hellaníkē, Curt. 8,1,21). Sister of Cleitus [6], wet-nurse of Alexander [4], who allegedly plaintively called on her after Cleitus' death (Arr. Anab. 4,9,3f.; Curt. 8,2,8f.). L.'s husband is unknown. Two of her sons fell at Miletus, one - Proteas - became famous as a drinking-companion of Alexander (Ath. 4,129a; Ael. VH 12,26). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, no. 462, cf. no. 664.

Balacrus

(208 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Βάλακρος; Bálakros). Various men with this name served as officers under Alexander [4] the Great. [German version] [1] Satrap of Cilicia, after 333 BC Son of a certain Nicanor, married Phila, daughter of  Antipater [1], who bore him a son. First   somatophýlax , after the battle of Issus, was appointed satrap of Cilicia, where he fought with great success against the mountain tribes, but fell in battle shortly before Alexander's death. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 200 Heckel 260. [German version] [2] Commander of the Greek allied infantry from 334/33 BC Son of …

Hippostratus

(186 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππόστρατος; Hippóstratos). [German version] [1] Seducer of Periboea Son of Amarynceus who seduced  Periboea, daughter of Hipponous (Apollod. 1,74; Hes. fr. 12 M-W). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) [German version] [2] Nephew of Attalus [1] Nephew of  Attalus [1], brother of  Cleopatra, after whose death he was executed by  Alexander [4] the Great (cf. Iust. 11,5,1); not to be identified with other men by the same name. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 390. [German version] [3] H. Soter Indo-Greek king in Gandhara in the 1st cent. BC One of the later I…

Aristus

(28 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] From Salamis, Late Hellenistic  Alexander historian, invented a Roman delegation to which  Alexander [4] prophesied Rome's future greatness (FGrH 143). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Olympias

(742 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀλυμπιάς; Olympiás). [German version] [1] Daughter of Neoptolemus Daughter of Neoptolemus [2], born in about 375 BC. She was not given the name O. until after the Olympic victory of Philippus II in 356 BC (cf. Plut. Mor. 401b). She married Philip in 357 as his fifth wife (Ath. 13,557b) and bore him Alexander [4] the Great (356) and Cleopatra [II 3]. The birth of a successor elevated O.'s status, but there is no evidence of any political influence. After Philip's marriage to Cleopatra [II 2] she fled to…

Laomedon

(589 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Λαομέδων; Laomédōn, ‘Ruler of the People’). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Troy Mythical king of Troy, son of Ilus [1]. Sons: Priamus, Hicetaon, Clytius [ I4], Lampus, Tithonus (Hom. Il. 20,236ff.), the illegitimate Bucolion (ibid. 6,23), and according to Ilias parva 29,4 PEG I Ganymede [1] as well. Daughters: Antigone [4], Astyoche [2], Hesione [4], etc. The main sources for his story (diverging in the details) are Homer (Il. 5,640ff.; 7,452f.; 20,145ff.; 21,441ff.), Apollodorus (2,103f.; 1…

Erigyius

(116 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Ἐρίγυιος; Erígyios). From Mytilene, resident of Amphipolis together with his brother  Laomedon, older than Alexander [4] and was banished in 337/6 BC together with others of his friends from younger days. As the only one of this group he was quickly given a command over troops, led the Greek cavalry near  Issus and  Gaugamela, and later appears as a trusted adviser of the king. He also took on special military tasks, thus e.g. against  Satibarzanes, whom he killed in single combat…

Amicitia

(392 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Amicitia and amicus include also in the Latin personal, philosophical and social-political aspects of friendship. The use of amicitia as an expression of social and political relationships between individuals or states and their introduction under Greek influence ( philia,  Friendship) occurred in philosophy through Cicero, which also allows familiaris to become an unforced designation for a ‘friend’. Amicus and amicitia express within Rome the relationship between high-ranking people of the same rank as well as the connection between the…

Antigenes

(291 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἀντιγένης; Antigénēs). [German version] [1] Dithyrambic poet Attic dithyrambic poet, presumably the author of an inscription on a tripod for the victory of the phyle  Acamantis in the dithyrambic competition in the Dionysia (FGE 11-15). The sources (Anth. Pal. 13,28) ascribe the epigram to ‘Simonides or Bacchylides’, but Hecker emphatically recognized Antigenes as the author; he calls himself the χοροδιδάσκαλος [1.149-152]; the χορηγός and αὐλητής are also mentioned. In order to put the names into verse, an unusual metre is used. The date is perhaps c. 485 BC. [2]. Robbins, Emmet (…

Sosthenes

(158 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Σωσθένης/ Sōsthénēs). Macedonian noble. After the death of Ptolemaeus [2] Ceraunus his brother Meleager [5] became king of Macedonia at the beginning of 279 BC, but was deposed just two months later. It became apparent that his successor Antipater, nephew of Cassander, was no match for the Celts and after 45 days he was expelled by S., who managed to overcome the Celtic danger. S. rejected the title of king that was then offered to him and ruled as a stratēgós . When Brennus [2] invaded, Macedonia was again plundered; but when the Celts mov…

Docimus

(102 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Δόκιμος; Dókimos). Appointed satrap of Babylon by  Perdiccas in 323 BC (Arr. Succ. 24,3-5). Condemned after Perdiccas' death, he fled to Asia Minor and supported  Alcetas [4] and  Attalus [2] against  Eumenes. Defeated along with his allies by  Antigonus Monophthalmus and imprisoned in a fortress, he betrayed them in an escape attempt and went over to Antigonus (Diod. Sic. 19,16), who quickly promoted him. In Phrygia he founded a city Dokimeion. In 302 he allied himself with Lysimachus (Diod. Sic. 20,107,3). His later history is unknown. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, …

Cleopatra

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα; Kleopátra, Lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, first wife of  Phineus. C. was rejected in favour of  Idaea [3], whom Phineus married as his second wife; her sons were blinded (Apollod. 3.200; Hyg. Fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Idas and Marpessa Daughter of  Idas and  Marpessa, wife of  Meleager. After her abduction by Apollo she was also called ‘Alcyone’ after her mother's …

Thais

(129 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Θαῖς/ Thaîs). Famous Athenian hetaíra ( Hetaírai ), eponymous heroine of comedies by Afranius [4] ([1. 229]), Hipparchus [2] and Menander [4] (PCG V 107; VI 2,122-127), all attested by quotations. Allegedly a mistress of Alexander [4] the Great, and later of Ptolemaeus [1] I, the father of her three children (Ath. 13,576d-e). According to Cleitarchus [2] at a feast she was the instigator of the burning of the Royal Buildings at Persepolis, as revenge on Xerxes (as in …

Glycera

(118 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Γλυκέρα; Glykéra). [German version] [1] Famous Athenian hetaera of the late 4th cent. BC Famous Athenian hetaera ( Hetaerae) of the late 4th cent. BC. After the death of  Pythionike, she was summoned to Tarsus by  Harpalus, who awarded her royal honours. This was met with mockery and contempt by the Greeks. However, Harpalus supported Athens with grain because she acted as an intermediary, and he acquired the citizenship there. G. appears to have accompanied him on his flight and spent the remainder of her l…

Cleitus

(556 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλειτός, Κλεῖτος, Κλῖτος; Kleitós, Kleîtos, Klîtos, ‘The Famous One’). [German version] [1] Nephew of the seer Melampus Nephew of the famous seer  Melampus, son of Mantius, father of Coeranus. He was abducted by Eos because of his beauty (Hom. Od. 15,249f.; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 115a). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Great nephew of C. [1] Great nephew of C. [1], son of Polyidus and Eurydameia. He and his brother Euchenor marched with the Epigones ( Epigoni [2]) against Thebes and then joined Agamemnon (Pherecydes ibid.). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [3] Son of…

Amyntas

(921 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἀμύντας; Amýntas). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (end of 6th cent. BC) First historically verifiable king of Macedonia, friend of the  Peisistratids. Upon Darius' appearance in Europe he became his vassal-satrap and was rewarded with an expansion of his territory and the marriage of his daughter to a member of the  Achaemenids. His son  Alexander [2] invented a novelistic history (Hdt. 5,17 ff.), in order to make this credible for the Greeks. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Borza, 98 ff. E. Badian, Herodotus on Alexander I of Macedon, in: S. Hornblower (ed.), G…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Prepelaus

(129 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Πρεπέλαος/ Prepélaos). General in the service of Cassander. In 315 BC he brought Alexander [8] to their side. He and Asander [2] were sent to Asia in 303, where Polemaeus annihilated a company of 8,000 of their army. In 311 he participated in the peace negotiations (OGIS 5, l. 10 and l. 28). In 303, he lost Corinth to Demetrius [I 2]. In 302, Cassander sent him to Asia with reinforcements for Lysimachus [2], where he quickly conquered several cities (cf. Syll.3 353, Ephesus), but lost most of them just as quickly to Demetrius. Perhaps he is the P. honoured in Delphi in c. 287 (Sy…

Callisthenes

(547 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg)
(Καλλισθένης; Kallisthénēs). [German version] [1] Of Olynthus, Alexander historian, related to Aristotle Callisthenes of  Olynthus,  Alexander historian, son of a female cousin of  Aristotle [6], who raised him (Plut. Alexander 55,8) and whom he accompanied to  Assos, Macedonia and then perhaps to Athens. After the death of  Hermias [1] he wrote in praise of him (quoted by Didymus, In Demosthenem 5-6). Together with Aristotle he composed a list of Pythionikai ( Pythia) and agonothetai ( Agonothetes) of the Pythian Games for which the two were honoured in Delphi (Syll.3 275). The…

Hegesistratus

(274 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγησίστρατος; Hēgēsístratos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sigeum, around 530 BC Son of  Peisistratus and the Argive Timonassa (Hdt. 5,94; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 17,3). Installed as tyrant of Sigeum by his father around 530 BC, he defended the city as a colony of the Peisistratids against the Mytilenaeans (Hdt. loc. cit.).  Tyrannis Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 11793,VI (B) M. Stahl, Aristokraten und Tyrannen, 1987, 220f. Traill, PAA 481600. [German version] [2] Seer in the army of Mardonius, 5th cent. BC H. of Elis, son of Tellias. Fled from Spartan captivity an…

Chaeron

(334 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Χαίρων; Chaírōn). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Apollo and Thero Mythical son of Apollo and Thero (in Plut. Sulla 17: Thuro); founder of the city named after him,  Chaeronea (Hes. Cat. fr. 252 M-W = Paus. 9,40,5f.; Hellanicus FGrH 379 F3). Plutarch names a son dead in childhood after him (Consolatio ad uxorem 5 p. 609d). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spartan polemarch, late 5th cent. BC Spartan polemarch who died in 403 BC in  Pausanias' assault on Piraeus. He was buried on the Cerameicus (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33; Lys. epit. 63). His grave has been p…

Craterus

(667 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κράτερος, Κρατερός; Kráteros, Kraterós). [German version] [1] Son of Alexander of Orestis, commander under Alexander the Great Son of Alexander of Orestis. Under Alexander [4], he commanded a   táxis of the   pezétairoi at the  Granicus (334 BC), and near  Issus (333) and  Gaugamela (331), he commanded the entire regiment. C. held a leading command against the  Uxii and the Ariobarzanes [2], as he also did in the wars in  Hyrcania and Areia [1] after Darius' death [3]. He played an important role in the …

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Batis

(58 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βάτις; Bátis). Supposedly a eunuch, he was commander of Gaza under Darius. He stopped Alexander the Great at Gaza in 332 BC for two months by keeping up a courageous and hopeless resistance. After the fall of the city, he was gruesomely executed by the victor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 209.

Ariamazes

(79 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Lord of a mountain fortification in  Sogdiana, where many Sogdians fled from  Alexander [4] the Great in 327 BC. It appeared so impenetrable that A. supposedly said that only soldiers with wings could conquer it, but a small unit of skilled climbers managed to scale the peak above the fortress. Thereupon, A. surrendered unconditionally and was executed. Among the refugees who fell into Alexander's hands was  Roxane. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, No. 113.

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Alcetas

(228 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἀλκέτας; Alkétas). [German version] [1] King of Macedonia King of Macedonia, father of  Amyntas I [1]. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] I, king of the  Molossi (beginning 4th cent. BC) A. I, king of the  Molossi, had to flee to  Dionysius, who tried to lead him back. Once again king, apparently with expanded rulership, he was accepted in 375 BC by  Timotheus into the Athenian League, but subdued in 374 by Iason of Pherae. His coins depict Athena Promachos (P. R. Franke, Die antiken Münzen von Epirus, 1961). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [3] II, king of…

Perdiccas

(866 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Περδίκκας; Perdíkkas). [German version] [1] Founder of the Macedonian kingdom According to Herodotus (8,137-139), P. was the 7th-cent. BC founder of the Macedonian royal house and the Macedonian kingdom, whose beginnings lay in the region of the subsequent royal seat of Aegae [1]. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Die Entwicklung des makedonischen Reiches bis zu den Perserkriegen, in: Chiron 14, 1984, 345-348. [German version] [2] P. II Macedonian king, c. 450-413 BC Son of Alexander [2] I, king of Macedonia c. 450-413 BC, asserted himself against his brothers …

Iolaus

(547 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἰόλαος; Iólaos). [German version] [1] Nephew of Heracles Nephew of  Heracles, son of the latter's half-brother  Iphicles and the (shadowy) Automedusa. He accompanies Heracles on practically all his adventures (mainly as chariot driver), becomes the first Olympic champion (image in Olympia, Paus. 5,17,11), receives  Megara as wife from Heracles and finally kills  Eurystheus in Attica (Paus. 1,44,10, grave), for which he was specially rejuvenated for one day (Eur. Heracl. 843-863, perhaps following Aesch…

Cleander

(290 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κλέανδρος; Kléandros). [German version] [1] C. of Gela Founded tyrannis in Gela in 505 BC Son of Pantares. C. founded c. 505 BC the tyrannis in  Gela and was assassinated after governing for seven years. C. created the preconditions for the rise of Gela under his brother and successor Hippocrates [4] (Hdt. 7,154; Aristot. Pol. 1316a 37f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography D. Asheri, in: CAH 42, 1988, 758 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 137. [German version] [2] Spartan commander in Byzantium c. 400 BC Spartan commander ( harmostḗs) in Byzantium. After the Greek…

Ephippus

(265 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἔφιππος; Éphippos). [German version] [1] Author in the period of Alexander the Great of Olynthus, at the court of  Alexander [4] the Great during the final years; he later wrote an anecdotal work ‘On the life and death of Hephaestion and Alexander’. As all extant fragments (FGrH 126) derive from  Athenaeus [3], they for the most part describe banquets. We also hear that Alexander was in the habit of putting on the insignia of various gods, and like  Gorgus sought the liberation of Samos. Identification of E. with an officer of Alexander in Egypt (cf. Berve 2, no. 331) is erroneously based. Badi…

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Polyperchon

(582 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυπέρχων/ Polypérchōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Alexander the Great P. (not Polysperchon, cf. OGIS 1, p. 12 n. 14), son of Simmias (Arr. Anab. 2,12,2) from Tymphaea (Tzetz. Schol. Lycoph. 802), leader of the Tymphaean táxis of the pez(h)étairoi under Alexander [4] the Great from 333 BC; able, but never outstanding. According to Curt. 8,5,22-24, his derision (but in Arr. Anab. 4,12,12 that of Leonnatus) thwarted the introduction of the proskýnēsis . According to Curt. 8,11,1, he took Ora in the Swat Valley (in Arr. Anab. 4,27,9 i…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Nearchus

(948 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Νέαρχος; Néarchos). [German version] [1] Attic Black-Figure vase painter, c. 560 BC Attic black-figure vase painter and potter of the high Archaic Period, c. 560 BC. His name appears on eight vessels; of these one painter's and four potter's signatures are certainly his. N.'s importance is based primarily on the fragment of the great kantharos from the Acropolis with the painter's signature (Athens, NM Acr. 611 and AP 67), depicting Achilles harnessing his team of horses and the handover of weapons. By choosing the motif of harnessing - here for t…

Barsine

(79 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βαρσίνη; Barsínē). Artabazus' daughter, first married to Mentor of Rhodes, then to his brother Memmon. After the battle of Issus, B. was captured in Damascus. She became Alexander the Great's lover and gave birth to his son  Heracles (probably in 327 BC). She and her son returned to Asia Minor, probably soon after Alexander's marriage to Roxane. In 309 she was murdered in Pergamum following  Polyperchon's order. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 206.

Heracles

(3,370 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἡρακλῆς; Hēraklês). [German version] [1] Greek hero The most prominent Greek hero ( Hero cult) in myth and cult. In his myths, which have not resulted in any outstanding work of poetry that is focussed on him, he is connected especially to Thebes, Argos and the countryside around Trachis; in the cult he is honoured almost panhellenically, without any place being able to display a hero's grave. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) I. Cult and Myth [German version] A. Name His name was connected with  Hera's already in antiquity: it follows the customary formation of Greek anthropo…

Hegelochus

(247 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγέλοχος; Hēgélochos). [German version] [1] Fleet officer under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC Son of Hippostratus, officer under  Alexander [4]. Initially commander of the vanguard cavalry, he was commissioned to form a Macedonian fleet from ships collected from Greek cities in the summer of 333 BC (Arr. Anab. 2,2,3; inexact Curt. 3,1,19f.; Amphoterus was his subordinate, not his colleague). After the death of  Memnon his fleet dominated the Hellespont, where he i.a. stopped an Athenian grain fleet (Ps.-…

Philoxenus

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Φιλόξενος; Philóxenos). [German version] [1] Name of several officers under Alexander the Great Several officers with the name P. are mentioned in the sources about Alexander  [4] the Great. They cannot always be distinguished with certainty. One P. was appointed by Alexander in 331 BC (incorrect [1]) ' to collect tribute on this side of the Taurus'(i.e. in Asia Minor) (Arr. An. 3,6,4). This cannot be correct. Arrian must, as often, have expressed himself imprecisely, as this duty had already been entrusted to somebody else. It can also hardly be th…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Aboulites

(62 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Satrap of  Susa under  Darius, father of  Oxathres. In 331 BC he handed the city over to  Alexander [4] with 50,000 silver  talents and was confirmed as satrap. The subdued  Uxii were subordinated to him. During the cleansing after Alexander's losses in  Gedrosia (324), A. and his son were executed. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 5.

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Ada

(124 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Younger daughter of  Hecatomnus, ruled  Caria with her brother and husband  Idrieus, after his death (344/3 BC) alone under Persian suzerainty. Deposed by her brother  Pixodarus, withdrew to the fortress Alinda, where she remained unmolested. When  Alexander [4] reached Caria (324), she handed Alinda over to him and adopted him, which secured for him the sympathies of the Carian cities and put him in view of succession. She was recognized as the Queen of Caria and she commanded Ca…

Cleitarchus

(457 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κλείταρχος; Kleítarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria 343/42-341 BC Tyrant of Eretria. Even as a banned exile C. unsuccessfully attempted in 349/8 BC to seize Eretria, e.g., with the help of Philip II against an Athenian army under Phocion (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with Schol. [1. 318, n. 2]). Philip's intervention in Euboea in 343 and 342 [1. 502f., 545-549] brought C. to power (Dem. Or. 8,36; 9,57f.; 18,71; 19,87). Phocion expelled him in 341 (Philochorus FGrH 328 F 160; Diod. Sic. 16,74,1).  Tyrannis Cobet, Justus (Essen) Bibliography 1 N. G. L. Hammond, G. T. Griffith,…

Philocles

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Thessalonica

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Θεσσαλονίκη/ Thessaloníkē). [German version] [1] City in Thessalia This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Latin Thessalonica, -nice; today also T.) Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] I. Location, Classical Period City on the Thermaic Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) with a favourable natural harbour and best connections with the hin…

Dionysodorus

(550 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Διονυσόδωρος; Dionysódōros). [German version] [1] Taxiarch to Theramenes c. 400 BC Taxiarch to Theramenes, betrayed to the Thirty by Agoratus (Lys. or. 13,30; 39-42). The latter was taken to court in 399/98 BC by D.'s brother and brother-in-law, Dionysius, the speaker of the 13th oration written by Lysias. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Theban and Olympic winner, envoy and participant in the battle of Issus Theban and Olympic winner. Sent as an ambassador to  Darius [3] and taken prisoner together with other Greek ambassadors by Parmenion in …

Arrhidaeus

(510 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Ἀρριδαῖος; Arrhidaîos) [German version] [1] Ruler of Upper-Macedonian Elimea (5th cent. AD) Son or son-in-law of Macedonian king  Amyntas [1] I and ruler of the Upper Macedonian region of Elimea (schol. Thuc. 1,57,3). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography F. Geyer, Makedonien bis zur Thronbesteigung Philipps II., 1930, 78f. HM, Vol. 2, 18f. [German version] [2] Father of King Amyntas [3] III (2nd half 5th cent. AD) Son of Amyntas, grandson of the Macedonian king Alexander [2] I and father of King Amyntas [3] III (Syll.3 135, 157; Diod. Sic. 15.60.3). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography…

Moerocles

(117 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μοιροκλῆς/ Moiroklês, Harpocr. s.v. M.), from the dḗmos of Salaminii. Athenian politician, indicted for dishonest administration around 350 BC by Eubulus [1]. M. was one of the men whose extradition Alexander [4] the Great demanded in 335, but did not subsequently insist upon (Arr. Anab. 1,10,4; Plut. Demosthenes 23,4). In a comedy of 324, he was placed on a list of those bribed by Harpalus (Athen. 8,341f.), but he was not on the list of accused as presented by the Areopagus following an investigation. In the same year, as a member of the Eleven ( héndeka

Teutamus

(229 words)

Author(s): Krebs, Christopher | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Τεύταμος/ Teútamos). [German version] [1] Assyrian king, ally of Priamus (also Tautanes: Aug. Civ. 18,19). According to Diod. Sic. 2,22,2, he is the twentieth Assyrian king after Ninyas [1], who at Priamus' request sends auxiliary troops during the Trojan War. Krebs, Christopher [German version] [2] Son of Dorus (also Τέκταμος/ Téktamos). The son of Dorus, he is the leader of a group of settlers who migrate from Thessaly to Crete (Diod. Sic. 4,60,2). His son Asterion [1] by a Cretan princess is Europe's [2] mortal husband. Krebs, Christopher [German version] [3] Macedonian officer, …

Harpalus

(332 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Ἅρπαλος; Hárpalos). Son of Machatas, nephew of  Derdas [3] and  Phila from the dynasty of  Elimea (Ath. 13,557c), in his youth a friend of  Alexander [4] the Great and, in 337 BC, banned by  Philippus II together with the others. Physically unfit for active service, he became Alexander's treasurer (Arr. Anab. 3,6,6). At the end of 334, he fled to Megara for reasons unknown, but he was given back his old post by Alexander in the spring of 331. In 330, he remained in  Ecbatana for g…

Lysimachus

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Λυσίμαχος; Lysímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Aristides [1], born around 480 BC, is a dialogue partner in Plato's Láchēs (178ff.), where he is represented as the prototype of the unsuccessful son of a celebrated father. A decree mentioned by Demosthenes (20,115; cf. Plut. Aristides 27), according to which L. is said to have been granted support from the state because he was penniless after the death of his father, is probably a construction from the 4th cent. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 1695 III-IV. [German version] [2] G…

Lyciscus

(327 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυκίσκος; Lykískos). [German version] [1] Governor of Epirus, late 4th cent. BC Appointed governor of Epirus by Cassander in 316 BC after the Epirotes had banished their king Aeacides [2] and joined Cassander there. After the synoecism of the eastern Acarnanians, he was ordered to protect them against the Aetolians. Aeacides returned and caused Epirus to rebel against Cassander, whose brother Philipus vanquished and killed him. When Alcetas [3] continued Aeacides' policy, L. defeated him after ferociou…

Langarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Λάγγαρος; Lángaros). King of the Agrianes, already a friend of Alexander [4] during the lifetime of Philip II. In 335 BC, L. attacked the Autariatae as Philip's ally to plunder their land and cover Alexander's rear in his campaign against Cleitus [8] and Glaucias [2]. Alexander rewarded him generously and offered him his half-sister Cyn(n)ane as wife, but L. died before the wedding (Arr. Anab. 1,5,1-5). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Nicanor

(1,649 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Νικάνωρ; Nikánōr). [German version] [1] Military official under Alexander the Great, died 330 BC Second son of Parmenion. Under Alexander [4] the Great he led the hypaspistaí of the hetaîroi in the major battles. During the pursuit of Darius [3], Alexander commanded him to pursue the Persian king with a group of riders who had given up their horses and the Agrianes under Attalus [2] as fast as possible (Arr. Anab. 3,21,7-8). He died soon after (330 BC). His brother Philotas stayed behind with an escort for his funeral. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 554. …

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Coenus

(180 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κοῖνος; Koînos). [German version] [1] Son of Polemocrates, took part in all of Alexander's battles Son of Polemocrates, brother of  Cleander [3], probably from  Elimea, whose platoon of  pezetairoi he commanded; he was granted land by  Philippus II.. In 335/4 BC, C. married a daughter of  Parmenion. C. took part in all of Alexander's [4] battles from Europe to the  Hydaspes and was badly wounded at  Gaugamela. In eastern Iran, C. also acted independently, i.a. in the decisive battle against  Spitamenes. Durin…

Derdas

(184 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Δέρδας; Dérdas). A common name in the royal family of Elimea. [German version] [1] Son of a princess of Elimea, 5th cent. BC Son of  Arrhidaeus [1] and a princess of  Elimea, who in alliance with Philippus, son of  Alexander [2], and with Athenian support, attacked Athens' confederate  Perdiccas (Thuc. 1,57). In a later Athenian treaty with Perdiccas (IG I3 no. 89), he, along with other Macedonian princes, swore the oath (l. 69). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography E. Badian, From Plataea to Potidaea, 1993, 172-4 S. Hornblower, Greek Historiography, 1994, 127-30 HM 2, 18, 122f. …

Hieron

(898 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἱέρων; Hiérōn). [German version] [1] H. I. Tyrant of Syracuse around 500 BC from Gela,  Deinomenid, brother of Gelon [1], born c. 540/530 BC. Married first a daughter of Nicocles of Syracuse (before 485), then of Anaxilaus of Rhegium ( c. 480) and finally of Xenocrates, a brother of Theron of Acragas ( c. 475). He was many times a victor in horse and chariot races in Delphi (482, 478, 470) and Olympia (476, 472, 468) [1. 208ff.]. Entrusted with the rulership of Gela by Gelon in 485, he succeeded the latter in 478 as tyrant of Syracuse. H. operat…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Polydamas

(428 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυδάμας/ Polydámas, in Homer with metrical lengthening Πουλυδάμας/ Poulydámas). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of Panthous. On the basis of his experience P. possesses an understanding of the past and the future. As an astute and level-headed counsellor he represents the pessimistic alter ego of Hector, the town’s defender, who was born on the same day as P. Nevertheless, at the decisive moment P.’ sensible advice (retreat into the town) is not taken heed of. At this occasion, his character is (n…

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograph…

Pausippus

(43 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Παύσιππος; Paúsippos). Spartan, member of a delegation to Darius [3] that Alexander [4] the Great captured either in 333/2 BC near Damascus (thus Curt. 3,13,15) or in 330 after Darius' death (thus Arr. Anab. 3,24,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Stasanor

(147 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Στασάνωρ/ Stasánōr). A Greek from Soli, hetairos ( hetaíroi ) of Alexander [4] (Arr. Anab. 3,29,5; Str. 14,6,3). In 329 BC he was entrusted with taking the Satrap of Areia into custody, whom he brought to the king, and with becoming his successor (Arr. Anab. 3,29,5; 4,7,1). In the winter of 328/7, Alexander also conferred Drangiana on him (Arr. Anab. 4,18,3; Curt. 8,3,17). After Alexander's losses in Gedrosia, S. brought him camels and pack animals and then returned to …

Marsyas

(971 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας; Marsýas). [German version] [1] Phrygian rivergod and Celaenae's god of protection Phrygian river god and Celaenae's god of protection, represented as satyr or silenus. The name is derived from a toponym that can be found repeatedly throughout Asia Minor and Syria; the river, at the source of which Celaenae lies, also carries this name (M. [5]). M. was considered the discoverer of flute playing ( aulós), the inventor of the bandage used for flute playing ( phorbeiá) and of songs for the worship of the goddess Cybele. According to the myth, the possibility to pla…

Aristonous

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ἀριστόνους; Aristónous). [German version] [1] Founder of Acragas about 580 BC A. of Gela, one of the founders of Acragas about 580 BC (Thuc. 6,4,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Brother-in-law of the tyrant  Gelon of Syracuse (1st half of 5th cent. BC) Brother-in-law of the tyrant  Gelon of Syracuse and one of the guardians of his son Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 21). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [3] Macedonian officer (died 315 BC) Served as a   somatophylax (after 328 BC?) under  Alexander [4] and was  trierarch of the Hydaspes f…

Thoas

(739 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θόας/ Thóas). [German version] [1] Mythical ruler of Lemnos Mythical ruler of Lemnos (Hom. Il. 14,230; 23,745), son of Dionysus and Ariadne, brother of Oenopion and Staphylus [1] (Apollod. Epit. 1,9). Through his daughter Hypsipyle (Ov. Ep. 6,114), T. is connected with the legend of the Argonauts, because she saved him from the murder of the men by the Lemnian women (Apollod. 1,114 f.); nevertheless, he was killed later (ibid. 3,65) or, according to another version, escaped to Oinoie (= Sicinos) or Chio…
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