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(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…


(292 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) | Künzl, Ernst (Mainz)
(Greek στλεγγίς/ stlengís, ξύστρα/ xýstra). [German version] [1] Implement for sports and cosmetics Ancient implement for sports and cosmetics, primarily of bronze or iron, for scraping off oil, sweat and dirt after practising sport and after visiting a steam bath ( laconica or sudatoria) in the balnea or thermae. It was part of a grooming set, which for the Greeks also included a sponge and a small bottle of oil (Alabastron, Lekythos [1]), and for the Romans an ampulla (small bottle of oil) and a patera (hand-dish for pouring water on the body or for holding oil). A strigilis consisted of …


(212 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
(literally 'rod'). [German version] [1] Weaving device (κερκίς/ kerkís). In weaving (Textiles, production of), the device with which the weft thread was introduced to the opened 'compartment', and hence by which the threads of the chain were separated, was probably originally an elongated rod around which the weft thread was wound. Later, the weaving shuttle, which adopted the name, was used for this. The coil located in the shuttle was called πηνίον/ pēníon, πήνη/ pḗnē, Lat. panus (cula), panuvellium [1. vol. 1, 151 ff.; 2. 192 ff.]. Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 Blümn…


(379 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg)
[German version] (κλίνη; klínē, bed). The kline was used for sleeping, and in Greece from the 7th/6th cents. BC (later in Rome) also for dining. The kline was the most important object of luxurious interior decoration; it had its place in private houses as well as in all rooms in which people ate ( Banquet, Prytaneion, Ritual feasts). As to public rooms in which klinai were used for banquets, one must distinguish between halls designated specifically for meals, in which the furniture could stay in place, and rooms used for meals only sporadically, for which the klinai, like all other furni…


(47 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg)
[German version] (Νικονίδας; Nikonídas) from Thessaly. Whilst in the service of Mithridates [6?] VI. Eupator he was the engineer who built the ‘admirable’ war machines for the siege of Cyzicus in 73 BC (Plut. Lucullus 10,3; cf. App. Mithr. 73-75). Poliorcetics Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg)


(223 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(also pluteum). The root meaning of 'enclosure, screen or shelter made of boards or latticework' extends to several objects: [German version] [1] Breastwork As a military t.t, a special breastwork or screen used by the testudo (Vitr. De arch. 10,15,1; cf. Siegecraft). Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Wooden fence A wooden fence (Liv. 10,38,5) or even a small wooden temple (Anth. Lat. 139, 158). Groß, Walter Hatto (Hamburg) [German version] [3] Balustrade As an architectural t.t., a railing or balustrade of wood or stone (Vitr. De arch. 4,4,1; 5,1,5 et passim). Groß, Wal…


(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus, 29 A 15 DK) probably belonged to a single book, the one he read aloud to his closest circles in Athens (cf. Pl. Prm. 127c-d). In the lost dialogue Sophistes, Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]) declares Z. to have been the 'inventor' ( protos heuretes