Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Hoesch, Nicola" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Hoesch, Nicola" )' returned 132 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Antiphilus

(465 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀντίφιλος; Antíphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos of hoplites (323/22 BC) The Athenian A. was elected Athenian strategos of hoplites ( Hoplites) after the death of Leosthenes 323/322 BC, whose successor he became. He took over the command of the land forces of the Hellenic League in the Lamian or Hellenic War and distinguished himself through military skills and courage (Plut. Phoc. 24,1-2; Diod. Sic. 18,13,6). He lifted the siege of  Antipater at  Lamia, in 322 defeated a Macedonian army under Le…

Iphion

(80 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Greek painter from Corinth, whose name is known from two epigrams of praise from Anth. Pal. 9,757 and 13,17. His creative period, which can only be reconstructed from source criticism, is disputed, but presumably lay in the first half of the 5th cent. BC. Nothing is known of his work. Nevertheless, the Corinthian painters' school of this period enjoyed great esteem. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography L. Guerrini, s.v. I., EAA 4, 178 G. Lippold, s.v. I., RE 9, 2023.

Timanthes

(367 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Τιμάνθης/ Timánthēs). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Cythnus, 5th/4th cents. BC Greek painter from the island of Cythnos in the Cyclades, active in the late 5th and early 4th cents. BC, contemporary of Parrhasius and Zeuxis [1], against whom he competed, sometimes victoriously (Plin. HN 35,72). T. is assigned to both the Sicyonian and the Attic schools of painting. In his works, all lost, written sources [1] praise primarily his creative inventiveness ( ingenium), less his painting techniques. The original manner of presentation was also considered exemplary…

Painting

(3,601 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(ζωγραφία/ zōgraphía, Latin pictura or ars pingendi). [German version] I. Greek painting The earliest evidence of ancient painting can be found on the high-quality monumental wall frescoes (Wall paintings, Fresco) of the Cretan-Mycenaean civilisation in palaces (Palace) and houses in Crete and Thera [1]. The most recent examples are from the Byzantine period [2]. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) [German version] A. Sources and history of scholarship Original works are scarcely and poorly preserved, if at all. This is particularly detrimental for the evaluation of and …

Mnasitimus

(230 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μνασίτιμος/ Mnasítimos). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Rhodes, later 3rd cent. BC Greek painter from Rhodes (?) of the later 3rd cent. BC (?), mentioned by Plin. HN 35,146 as a rather second-rate painter. Provenance and date can only be inferred by genealogical conclusions from other artists of this name; nothing is known of his work. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography G. Lippold, s.v. Mnasitimos (1), RE 15, 2256f. [German version] [2] Various sculptors from one Rhodes family, 4th to 2nd cents. BC Various sculptors from one Rhodian family. The reconstructed famil…

Aetion

(170 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀετίων; Aetíōn) Greek painter (also a sculptor?) of the late classical period, exponent of the four-colour painting style ( Colours). There is an elaborate description of A.'s most famous painting, the wedding of Alexander with Roxane, in Lucian. Hdt. 4-6, which prompted many Renaissance and baroque painters to reinterpret the subject. Influences of this or a further wedding painting described by Plin. HN 35,78, which was meant to symbolize Alexander's unification policies, can pe…

Polygnotus

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA)
(Πολύγνωτος; Polýgnōtos). [German version] [1] Greek painter and bronze sculptor Greek painter from Thasos, also bronze sculptor (Plin. HN 34,58), of the early classical period. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) [German version] I. General His exact dates are unknown; P. worked after the Persian Wars from about 480 until c. 440 BC in Athens and other places in Greece. Because of his ability to translate historical, political and cultural achievements of the Polis into an identifiable pictorial language by means of juxtaposition of mythical and curren…

Encaustic (painting)

(304 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] From the Greek ἐγκαίειν ( enkaíein), to burn in, heat up. A painting technique with  wax as binder for the pigments. The colour emulsion was applied cold or warm or fused with the surface by heating. The process, described incompletely by Pliny (HN 35,122f.; 149) and especially valued by Greek panel painters in the 4th cent. BC, gave the paintings a brilliant quality as well as durability but it was protracted, complicated and expensive. In spite of a great deal of research, even exper…

Timomachus

(495 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Τιμόμαχος/ Timómachos). [German version] [1] From Thebes, commander in the Peloponnesian War commander of the Theban Aegidae, claimed to have supported the Spartans with his army in the conflict against Amyclae [1] and to have instructed them in the art of warfare. His bronze armour was displayed at the Hyacinthia (Hyacinthus) and T. himself was always highly honoured in Sparta (Aristot. fr. 532 Rose). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Nafissi, La nascita del kosmos, 1991, 324-326. [German version] [2] Athenian strategist from Acharnae, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategist …

Philoxenus

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Φιλόξενος; Philóxenos). [German version] [1] Name of several officers under Alexander the Great Several officers with the name P. are mentioned in the sources about Alexander  [4] the Great. They cannot always be distinguished with certainty. One P. was appointed by Alexander in 331 BC (incorrect [1]) ' to collect tribute on this side of the Taurus'(i.e. in Asia Minor) (Arr. An. 3,6,4). This cannot be correct. Arrian must, as often, have expressed himself imprecisely, as this duty had already been entrusted to somebody else. It can also hardly be th…

Monochromata

(295 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (‘monochrome paintings’, from the Greek μονόχρως/ monóchrōs or μονοχρώματος/ monochrṓmatos, ‘monochrome’). Pliny (HN 35,15; 35,56) characterises with this expression the use of colour during an early stage in the development of Greek painting which was also still practiced in his day [3]. He mentions a number of artists in this regard -- one can be dated to the mid-7th cent., based on the evidence of contemporary vase painting, another, Cimon [4], to the end of the 6th cent. Scholarly opinion of the nature and appearance of monochromata used to assume that one sin…

Pausias

(323 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Παυσίας; Pausías). Greek painter from Sicyon, belonging to the local school, student of Pamphilus [2], worked between 380 and 330 BC. Representative of light, decorative genre painting that was popular at the time and moved away from the historical-mythical themes of the classical period. With the change in subjects came a preference for predominantly small scenes in splendid Encaustic (painting). Sources (Plin. HN. 35,123ff.) emphasize graceful still lifes of flowers, whose effec…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Timagoras

(184 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Τιμαγόρας/ Timagóras). [German version] [1] Greek painter and poet from Chalcis, c. 450 BC Greek Classical period painter and poet (?) from Chalcis; known only from Plin. HN 35,58, who gives an account of a painting competition during the Pythian Games in Delphi ( c. 450-440 BC), which T. won against Panaenus. The scale and appearance of his works are unknown. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography N. J. Koch, Techné und Erfindung in der klassischen Malerei, 2000, 229 G. Lippold, s. v. T. (7), RE 6 A, 1074 P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 855. [German version] [2] From Athens, envoy t…

Nicophanes

(126 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Νικοφάνης; Nikophánēs). Painter of the second half of the 4th cent. BC, student of Pausias and therefore belonging to the Sicyonian school of painters (Plin. HN 35,111; 137). He was counted among the decorative genre painters, whose importance increased during this period; assessments of the effect of his art varied and apparently it was especially appreciated by connoisseurs. His manner was pleasing and fine despite a harsh effect of his colours due to the use of much ochre. We k…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Still lives

(965 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Representations, as realistic as possible, of selected living and non-living objects in an independent composition and a fairly small-scale pictorial arrangement. The motifs of ancient SL were taken from all areas of ancient flora and fauna but also from everyday domestic life. The depicted objects, arranged in a more or less intentional composition, included useful and decorative plants, such as vegetables, field crops, fruit and flowers, smaller mammals and birds, molluscs, crus…

Tauriscus

(252 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ταυρίσκος/ Taurískos). [German version] [1] Grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC and pup…

Book illustration

(776 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] These are hand-painted illustrations in manuscripts of cultic, lexical, geographic (and cartographic), or literary content, which explain the text through images, or supplement or ornament it. Painting techniques range from roughly-sketched pen or brush drawings using drawing ink and/or water-colour up to lavishly coloured pictures in tempera. The term ‘miniature’ for book illustrations derives from the cinnabar (Lat. minium) used in the Middle Ages to emphasize margins and initials. Grounds were raffia,  papyrus, and  parchment. From th…

Ctesidemus

(56 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Second-rate Greek painter (according to Plin. HN 35,140), who worked around and after 350 BC and was the teacher of  Antiphilus [4]. Extant works are a battle painting, the sack of Oechalia, and a portrait of Laodamia; nothing is known of their style. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography G. Lippold, s.v. Ktesidennos, RE 11, 2077.

Ismenias

(791 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἰσμηνίας; Ismēnías or Ἱσμηνίας; Ismēnías). [German version] [1] Prominent Theban politician, 5th/4th cent. BC Prominent Theban politician, famous for his wealth (Pl. Men. 90a). After the end of the Peloponnese War (431-404 BC), I., with  Androclidas, came to the fore as leaders of a Hetaeria which opposed the pro-Spartan politics of  Leontiades. The goals were to push back the Leontiades faction and to bring about a new orientation in international politics towards Athens (Hell. Oxy. 12,1f.; 13,1; Xen. Hell.…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23].…

Panaenus

(271 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Πάναινος/ Pánainos). Painter and sculptor from Athens, brother or more likely nephew (Str. 8,3,30) of the sculptor Phidias, with whom he worked, possibly in the same workshop. His active period was the second third of the 5th cent. BC. Paus. 5,11,4-6 reports that he painted the fence in the temple of Zeus in Olympia with a programmatic cycle of myths. As can be inferred from remains and dowel holes, this fence was made of individual stone slabs, which were set up between the front…

Fresco

(391 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] From Italian fresco, affresco intonaco, ‘on the fresh plaster’. Wall and ceiling paintings, in which the  pigments are applied to a damp base either in pure form or with the aid of a s…

Alexander Mosaic

(1,219 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Monumental floor mosaic (5.82 × 3.13 m) representing a battle between the Macedonians and Persians, who were led by Alexander the Great and Darius respectively. Discovered in October 1831 in the ‘Casa del Fauno’ in Pompeii (Regio VI,12; now Naples, MN). The work in opus vermiculatum ( Mosaic), preserved in part only, consists of more than 1.5 million small stones coloured with mineral dye. Large, missing sections filled with stucco, mainly on the left half, and areas patched-up with coarser stones are repairs carried out in …

Ctesicles

(245 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κτησικλῆς; Ktēsiklês). [German version] [1] Author of Chroniká in at least 3 vols. in the Hellenistic period Author of Chroniká in at least 3 vols. in the Hellenistic period, quoted only by Athenaeus (6, 272c: census in Athens under Demetrius [4] of Phalerum 317/6 BC; 10, 445c-d: death of Eumenes [2] I. in 241). wilamowitz [1] and jacoby (comm. on FGrH 245) argue for his identification with Stesicleides of Athens, author of an Anagraphḕ tōn archóntōn kai Olympioníkōn (‘Listing of officials and Olympic winners’) quoted in Diogenes Laertius (2,56). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Mummy portraits

(659 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Wooden tablets with painted heads or busts of women, men and children. As the topmost, visible layer they were integrated into the casing of a mummy (Mummies ) at the level of the face, where a gap was left for them. Many of the c. 900 known pieces, dating from the birth of Christ to the 3rd cent. AD, come from necropoleis of Fayum, an oasis south-west of Cairo, but they were also found elsewhere along the Nile. MP were discovered by chance at the end of the 19th cent. and soon became desirable objects in the international art trade, due to their special aesthetic value. Today they are found in large numbers and variety in all important collections of the world; however, because of the unsystematic way in which they had been obtained they often lack information about their archaeological context. The religious, cultural and historical significance of the images is therefore at times a matter of controversial scholarly debate. As a result of the Egyptian climate MP are generally extremely well preserved and have retained their true colours. They therefore provide rare evidence of the ‘great ’painting tradition of antiquity, which has mostly been lost, especially of Roman portraiture painting praised by Plin. HN 35,11f. and others…

Aristophon

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστοφῶν; Aristophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Member of the Athenian regime of 400 oligarchs in 411 BC. Sent by them as an emissary to Sparta, he was abducted to Samos by Athenian democrats and Argives (Thuc. 8,86,9; PA, 2102; Traill PAA, 175995. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian politician (end of the 5th-middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athens. Politician, who was honoured in 403 BC for his resistance against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) by   ateleia (ἀτέλεια) (Dem. Or. 20,148). Until his death (before 330) at an age of almost 100…

Helena

(1,535 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη; Helénē, Lat. Helena). [German version] [1] Beautiful wife of Menelaus ('Helen of Troy') Goddess who was worshipped at various cult sites in and around Sparta, especially in the Menelaion in  Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hsch. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). In  Rhodes she had a cult as H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in  Cenchreae and  Chios she is attested as a deity of springs (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). There is no completely reliable etymology for her name [2. 63-80]. For evidence of her cult i…

Paintings on historical subjects

(717 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] In Egyptian art, the illustration of historical events constitutes a rare exception; stylized motifs, such as the king slaying enemies, must be understood as timeless and are used as unchanging topoi over the centuries in various pictorial media. The insufficient material remains, art-theoretical texts and literature from ancient Greece relating to the painting of historical subjects do not permit a precise definition of ancient historical painting, in analogy to the modern term f…

Landscape painting

(971 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] A. Greece The lack of material records for ancient Greek painting also creates difficulties when attempting a definition and evaluation of this genre. However, based on today's knowledge of the monuments, it is fairly safe to assume that it cannot be equated with independent landscape painting (LP), as practised by the Dutch painters or during Romanticism, which forms the basis of the modern concept [4. 176]. Antiquity did not know a specific term for LP as we understand it [1. 190;…

Parrhasius

(506 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Παρράσιος/ Parrhásios). One of the most important Greek painters, from Ephesus, son of the sculptor (?) Evenor [1], active c. 440-380 BC. This versatile and productive (Plin. HN 35,69-72 alone records 16 paintings) contemporary of the equally famous Zeuxis lived in Athens; his spectacular and expensive works reached many areas of the Greek world and later, as booty, the Roman world. P. belonged to the second generation of artists from the 5th cent. BC, whose technical advances all…

Nealces

(147 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Νεάλκης; Neálkēs). Hellenistic representative of the Sicyonian school of painting, which has been famous since the Classical period. In the late 3rd cent. BC he was a respected and influential court painter for his friend Aratus [2]. Plin. HN 35, 141f. refers to pictures of an Aphrodite, of a snorting and foaming horse along with its tamer, as well as one of a naval battle between Persians and Egyptians on the Nile. We have no details of N.'s style, but his craftsmanship is emphasized in an anecdote which is also often told about other artists (Plin. HN 35, 103f.). Hoesch, Nic…

Cydias

(426 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κυδίας; Kydías). [German version] [1] Erotic poet Erotic poet, quotes from Pl. Chrm. 155d, mentioned by Plut. Mor. 931e. He was obviously popular in Athens as he is depicted as a komast on a red-figured dish (Munich 2614) and on a psykter (London, BM E767) from c. 500 BC [1. 12-13]. He may perhaps be identical with Cydidas of Hermione referred to by Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 967 [2. 215]. Possibly (rather improbable) he is the dithyramb poet Cedeides/Ceceides mentioned by Aristoph. Nub. 985 (with schol.) [3]. Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) Bibliography 1 K. Friis Johansen, Eine Dithyrambos-A…

Grave paintings

(733 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Interior or exterior painting of funerary architecture built from stone or carved into rock existed in antiquity and throughout the entire Mediterranean region, also images on wood and stone steles; sarcophagi rarely bore paintings. Each region and period had its own particular programmes of pictures, which are interpreted as realistic or symbolic, and referring to this or the next world depending on the state of research. Due to the perishable nature of the genre, much has been lost. However, significant new finds have also been made in recent years. Grave paintings …

Pleistaenetus

(143 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Πλεισταίνετος; Pleistaínetos). A Greek painter mentioned solely in Plut. De gloria Atheniensium 2,346; his life span can be dated to the middle of the 5th cent. BC only through chronological inference. He is said to have been a brother of the sculptor Phidias and to have created paintings of battle scenes with victorious commanders, as well as images of heroes. Several scholars believe that Pliny (Plin. HN 35, 54) had mistakenly written Panaenus instead of P., however the assumpti…

Scenography

(565 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Greek σκηνογραφία/ skēnographía, Latin scaenographia). There is controversial criticism of the development and appearance of this genre, surviving only in ancient literature and in pictorial secondary sources (cf. also Painting), and they remain unclear, despite various synopses of the results of different branches of study of the form and development of Greek theatre and its performing places. Changes in architecture and forms of staging also moulded the character of scenography. In…

Aglaophon

(141 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀγλαοφῶν; Aglaophôn) Two Greek painters of the same name. [German version] [1] the Elder From Thasos, father and teacher of  Polygnotus [1] from Thasos, father and teacher of  Polygnotus [1], probably active since the end of the 6th cent. BC. According to Quint. Inst. 12,10,3, he was appreciated for the ‘archaism’ and the plain colouring of his paintings. There is not enough evidence of their style, but it was probably rather plain according to the opinion of classicistic rhetoricians. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) [German version] [2] the Younger Possibly grandson of [1] possibly grandson…

Wall paintings

(3,970 words)

Author(s): A.NU. | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Numerous Ancient Oriental temples, palaces and private residences were painted inside, but due to the a secco-technique, only traces of the paintings still remain. Each colour has its own symbolism. Red, the colour of life and strength, was used as early as the 10th millennium BC for painting the walls and floors of houses (e.g. Ain Mallaha, Israel). Clay or lime plaster served as the base [1; 2]. The oldest and best-preserved figural wall paintings (WP) are found in the houses of…

Pauson

(193 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Παύσων; Paúsōn). Greek painter from Athens (?), whose creative period towards the end of the 5th cent. BC can only be indirectly inferred. The atrocious judgment of the content of his paintings in the written sources of the 4th cent. BC - e.g. in Aristotle and Aristophanes - has a conservative ring and evaluates them primarily from a moral point of view. It seems to have been shaped by a similar verdict on his character (or vice versa?). We can only assume that new types of themes…

Cleanthes

(515 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεάνθης; Kleánthēs). [German version] [1] Painter from Corinth One of the earliest painters from Corinth, mentioned in Plin. HN 35,15f.; his name stands for the origin of the genera ( prima pictura). C. was considered the inventor of line art, creating his work from outlines and filling them in. Stylistic comparisons with vase painting of the early 7th cent. date his work to the same period. Also only known from the literature (Str. 8,343; Athen. 8,346 BC) are his tableaus in a sanctuary near Olympia: the fall of Troy, the birth of Athena, also Poseidon handing Zeus a tuna. Hoesch, Nicola (…

Apelles

(821 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀπελλῆς; Apellês). [German version] [1] Macedonian Politician, died 218 BC Macedonian, influential confidant of  Antigonus [3] Doson, from 222 BC guardian of  Philippus V. In 219/8, as ‘ traditionalist’, he criticized the Adriatic policy of the king and his pro-Achaean leanings under the influence of  Aratus, against whom he intrigued together with  Leontius and  Megaleas (Pol. 4,76; 82-87). In 218 their plot against Philip V was discovered and A. was executed in Corinth (Pol. 5,2,8; 16; 26-28; Plut. Arat. 48) [1. 167-170]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Mace…

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Zeuxis

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Ζεῦξις/ Zeûxis). [German version] [1] Greek painter and sculptor, c. 435/25-390 BC Greek painter and sculptor, active between c. 435/25 and 390 BC. He was one of the pioneers of the great era of Greek painting which would retain its high standards for over a century. 'Heraclea', which Plin. HN 35,61 gives as his place of origin, seems more likely to be the Sicilian Heraclea [9] Minoa ([1. 382]; but [2]: Heraclea [7] Pontica?) than Heraclea [10] in Lucania [3. 60], since Z. was the pupil of an otherwise unknown ma…

Asclepiodorus

(156 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Greek painter from Athens, mid 4th cent. BC, celebrated by Plut. as an important representative of the Attic school of painters (Mor. 345f-346a). According to Plin. HN 35,80, his colleagues admired the particular strength and balance of composition in his paintings, achieved by proportionate spatial arrangement of motifs in two dimensions, in order to create the impression of spatial perspective. A. wrote a theoretical text on a compositional method perhaps relying on grids. The h…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Skiagraphia

(527 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (σκιαγραφία/ skiagraphía). Ancient painting technique, first developed in the last quarter of the 5th cent. BC by Greek artists and used with increasing perfection in the course of the following century. A sophisticated selection of hues and tints and their precise placement allowed a three-dimensional modelling of the images and, as a result, their spatial effect on the image area. In the history of styles, this new use of colours (Pigments) was a breakthrough in the development o…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Pigments

(682 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] The notion of a 'marble-white Antiquity' which became fashionable during the Renaissance, reached its zenith with J.J. Winckelmann's aesthetics during the period of Classicism, and slowly began to change only in the first half of the 19th cent., e.g. through works such as the architect J. Hittorf's 1830 De l'Architecture polychrome chez les grecs (discovery of architectural polychromy). This notion, along with the poor survival of pigmentary remains on sculptures and architecture and the almost complete absence of original Greek pai…

Theon

(2,323 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Θέων; Théōn). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Samos, 300 BC and after T. of Samos was a Greek painter of the Hellenistic Period, who was active around and after 300 BC. His skill as a creator of images and the successful way in which his paintings were composed were praised in handbooks of rhetoric (e.g. Quint. Inst. 12,10,6) as examples to be followed. The viewer's creative imagination and intuitive understanding were meant to be stimulated at the same time by means of the artistic phantasía (Lat. ingenium, 'image creation'; Phantasia), so that the viewer might imagine e…

Melanthios

(540 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος). [English version] [1] treuloser Ziegenhirt des Odysseus (auch Μελανθεύς). Sohn des Dolios [2], Bruder der Melantho [2], treuloser Ziegenhirt des Odysseus; negatives Gegenbild zu den Hirten Eumaios und Philoitios (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Genf) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [English version] [2] Athenischer Stratege, 499/8 v.Chr. Athen. Stratege, der 499/8 das Hilfskorps zur Unterstützung der aufständischen Ionier leitete (Hdt. 5,97). Ionischer Aufstand Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köl…

Nikomachos

(1,580 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος). [English version] [1] Heilheros s. Gorgasos und Nikomachos Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] athenischer Amtsträger, 410-404 v.Chr. Angeblich Sohn eines Staatssklaven und erst spät in die athenische Bürgerschaft aufgenommen, war N. 410-404 v.Chr. führend in der Kommission zur Aufzeichnung der Gesetze ( anagrapheís tōn nómōn) tätig. Unter den Dreißig ( triákonta ) vertrieben, kehrte er 403 zurück und wurde erneut anagrapheús. 399/8 warf man N. in einer Anklage vor, er habe Gesetze manipuliert, so zur Verurteilung des Demagogen…

Pauson

(145 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] (Παύσων). Griech. Maler aus Athen (?), Schaffenszeit gegen E. des 5. Jh.v.Chr. nur indirekt zu erschließen. Das konservativ anmutende, v.a. moralisch wertende, miserable Urteil der Schriftquellen des 4. Jh. v.Chr. über seine Bildinhalte - z.B. bei Aristoteles und Aristophanes - scheint durch eine ebensolche Einschätzung seiner Person geprägt worden zu sein (oder umgekehrt?). Man kann nur vermuten, daß neuartige Thematik oder Darstellungsweise radikal unzeitgemäß gegen die hehren …

Alexandermosaik

(978 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] Monumentales Fußbodenmosaik (5,82 × 3,13 m), das eine Schlacht zwischen Makedonen und Persern, angeführt von Alexander d. Gr. und Dareios, darstellt. Im Oktober 1831 in der “Casa del Fauno” in Pompeji entdeckt (Regio VI,12; jetzt Neapel, NM). Das unvollständig erh. Werk in opus vermiculatum (Mosaik) besteht aus über 1,5 Mio. mineralisch gefärbten Steinchen. Große, mit Stuck gefüllte Fehlstellen v. a. der l. Hälfte und Ausbesserungen mit gröberen Steinchen sind ant. Reparaturen nach dem Erdbeben von 62 n. Chr.; außerdem kl…

Zeuxis

(1,114 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola | Mehl, Andreas | Touwaide, Alain; Ü:M.KRA.
(Ζεῦξις). [English version] [1] griech. Maler und Tonbildner, ca. 435/25-390 v. Chr. Griech. Maler und Tonbildner, wirkte etwa zw. 435/25 und 390 v. Chr. Er war einer der Wegbereiter der großen griech. Malerei, die mehr als ein Jh. ihr hohes Niveau bewahren sollte. Die bei Plin. nat. 35,61 erwähnte Herkunft aus Herakleia paßt eher auf das sizilische Herakleia [9] Minoa ([1. 382]; anders [2]: Herakleia [7] am Pontos?) als auf Herakleia [10] in Lukanien [3. 60], da Z. Schüler eines ansonsten unbekannten Meist…

Timagoras

(172 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola | Schmitz, Winfried
(Τιμαγόρας). [English version] [1] griech. Maler und Dichter aus Chalkis, um 450 v. Chr. Griech. Maler und Dichter (?) der Klassik aus Chalkis; nur aus Plin. nat. 35,58 bekannt, der von einem von T. gewonnenen Malwettbewerb gegen Panainos anläßlich der pythischen Spiele in Delphi (ca. 450-440 v. Chr.) berichtet. Ausmaß und Aussehen des Œuvres sind unbekannt. Hoesch, Nicola Bibliography N. J. Koch, Techné und Erfindung in der klass. Malerei, 2000, 229  G. Lippold, s. v. T. (7), RE 6 A, 1074  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 855. [English version] [2] aus Athen, Gesandter zu Arta…

Grabmalerei

(648 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[English version] Innere oder äußere Bemalung einer aus Stein gebauten oder aus dem Fels gehöhlten Grabarchitektur gab es in der Ant. im ganzen Mittelmeerraum, dazu Darstellungen auf Holz- oder Steinstelen; selten wurden Sarkophage selbst zum Träger von Malerei. Allen Landschaften und Epochen sind spezielle Bildprogramme eigen, die je nach Forschungsstand gegenständlich oder symbolisch, diesseits- oder jenseitsbezogen interpretiert wurden. Wegen der Vergänglichkeit der Gattung ist vieles bereits v…

Malerei

(3,144 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
(ζωγραφία/ zōgraphía, lat. pictura bzw. ars pingendi). [English version] I. Griechische Malerei Die frühesten Zeugnisse ant. M. finden sich auf den qualitätvollen monumentalen Wandfresken (Wandmalerei, Freskotechnik) des kret.- myk. Kulturkreises in Palästen und Häusern auf Kreta und Thera [1]. Die spätesten Beispiele stammen aus byz. Zeit [2]. Hoesch, Nicola (München) [English version] A. Quellenlage und Forschungsgeschichte Bes. nachteilig für die Beurteilung und Erforschung gerade der “großen” griech. M. ist die spärliche und, wenn überhaupt, meis…

Timanthes

(320 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola
(Τιμάνθης). [English version] [1] griech. Maler von Kythnos, 5./4. Jh. v. Chr. Griech. Maler von der Kykladeninsel Kythnos, wirkte im späten 5. und frühen 4. Jh. v. Chr., Zeitgenosse von Parrhasios und Zeuxis, mit denen er, teilweise siegreich, Wettbewerbe bestritt (Plin. nat. 35,72). T. wird sowohl der sikyonischen als auch der attischen Malerschule zugeteilt. Die Schriftquellen [1] rühmen an seinen allesamt verlorenen Werken v. a. die schöpferischen Bilderfindungen ( ingenium), weniger die Maltechniken. Die originelle Darstellungsweise galt auch als beispie…

Mikon

(340 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] (Μίκων). Griech. Maler und Bildhauer (Plin. nat. 34,88) aus Athen, tätig zw. 475 und 440 v.Chr. Er gehörte mit Polygnotos zur ersten bedeutenden Generation der attischen Malschule der Frühklassik, die wegweisend für die Entwicklung der großen griech. Malerei wurde. Keines der für ihn aus zahlreichen Schriftquellen verschiedener Epochen überl. Wandgemälde in Athen ist erh., doch läßt ihre häufige Erwähnung auf seine große Bed. schließen. Sein Hauptauftraggeber war Kimon [2] von At…

Protogenes

(369 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] (Πρωτογένης). Hell. Maler und Bronzebildner von Athleten- und Kriegerstatuen (Plin. nat. 34,91; 35,101-106) aus Kaunos, zusammen mit anderen führenden Meistern der Alexanderzeit als Vollender der Malerei gerühmt (Cic. Brut. 18,70). Seine Schaffensperiode, etwa zw. 330 und 290 v. Chr., ist nur durch Kombination histor. Daten und Personen aus oft anekdotisch gefärbten Schriftquellen (z. B. Plut. Demetrios 22) erschließbar. Angeblich kam er erst im fortgeschrittenen Alter zur Tafelm…

Ekphantos

(306 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Ἔκφαντος). [English version] [1] griech. Maler aus Korinth, wohl M. 7. Jh. v. Chr. Griech. Maler aus Korinth, vermutlich Mitte des 7. Jh.v.Chr. tätig, nach Plinius (nat. 35,16) Begründer der secunda pictura, einer sich durch flächenfüllende Verwendung der Farbe auszeichnenden Malweise, wie sie auf Holztafeln aus Pitsa überliefert ist. Bei Plinius damit zusammen erwähnte monochromata beziehen sich vielleicht auf die verwendeten ungebrochenen, wertvollen mineralischen Pigmente. Hoesch, Nicola (München) Bibliography N.J. Koch, De picturae initiis, Diss. Bochum 1995,…

Pamphilos

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Köln) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος). [English version] [1] Athen. Militär, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Athenischer hípparchos und stratēgós, errichtete 389 v.Chr. auf Aigina eine feste Stellung und belagerte die Insel, mußte aber nach fünf Monaten, selbst durch den Spartaner Gorgopas belagert, entsetzt werden. In Athen wegen Unterschlagung zu einer hohen Geldstrafe verurteilt, schuldete P. nach Verkauf seiner Güter bei seinem Tod dem Staat noch fünf Talente (Lys. 15,5; Xen. hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Demosth. or. 39,2; 40,20 und 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Köln) Bib…

Nikias

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας). [English version] [1] bed. Feldherr im Peloponnesischen Krieg, ca. 470-413 v.Chr. Sohn des Nikeratos aus Athen, geb. ca. 470 v.Chr., gest. 413, einer der bedeutendsten Feldherren im Peloponnesischen Krieg. Nach dem Tode des Perikles konkurrierte N. mit Kleon [1] um Einfluß bei der Volksversammlung und die Zuweisung mil. Kommandos. Seine Politik zielte auf Beendigung der aggressiven athen. Expansionspolitik und Ausgleich mit Sparta ab. Seit 427 wurde N. regelmäßig zum stratēgós gewählt. Er leitete Expeditionen gegen das der Küste vo…

Lucillus

(175 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz)
[English version] [1] röm. Wandmaler, E. 4. Jh. Röm. Wandmaler der Spätant. vom E. des 4. Jh. n.Chr. Er dekorierte das Haus des aristokratischen Redners und Philosophen Q. Aurelius Symmachus, was dieser in verschiedenen Briefen lobend erwähnte (Symm. epist. 2,2; 8,21; 9,50b). Art und Aussehen dieser Malerei mag derjenigen zeitgenössischer Katakomben oder Mosaiken aus späten Kaiservillen geähnelt haben. Hoesch, Nicola (München) Bibliography L. Guerrini, s.v. L., EAA 4, 721  S. Roda, Commento Storico al Libro 9 dell'Epistolario di Q. Aurelio Simmaco, 1981, 178f. …

Freskotechnik

(331 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] Von ital. fresco, affresco intonaco, “auf den frischen Putz”. Wand- und Deckenmalerei, bei der die Farben rein oder mithilfe eines speziellen Bindemittels, z.B. Leimwasser, Kasein oder Marmormehl, auf einen feuchten Untergrund aufgetragen werden. Die Beschaffenheit des Bewurfs kann variieren; meist handelt es sich jedoch um Kalkmörtel mit verschiedenen Beischlägen, nacheinander in mehreren Schichten aufgetragen. Im Prinzip besteht die F. darin, daß während des Trockenprozesses des Ve…

Protogenes

(423 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Πρωτογένης; Prōtogénēs). Hellenistic painter and sculptor of bronze statues of athletes and warriors (Plin. HN 34,91; 35,101-106) from Caunus, famous together with other leading masters of the Alexander period as consummate painters (Cic. Brut. 18,70). His creative period, about 330‒290 BC, can only be inferred by combining historical dates and persons from written sources that are often coloured by anecdote ( e.g. Plut. Demetrius 22). Reportedly he only turned to panel painting in advanced age and hence produced only a small oeuvre, havin…

Hermogenes

(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the companion of  Socrates. Together with the eponymous character, H. is the dialogue partner of Socrates in Plato's Cratylus. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 SSR VI B 71-77 2 Davies, 269-270. [German version] [2] From Aspendus, assistant commander of Antiocus I H. from Aspendus. In the struggle of Antiochus [2] I (died in 261 BC) to regain territories in Asia Minor…

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús). Son of Dolius [2], brother of Melantho [2], treacherous goatherd of Odysseus, negative counterpart to the swineherd Eumaeus and the cowherd Philoetius (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos, 499/8 BC Athenian strategos who led the troops sent in support of the Ionians when they revolted in 499/8 (Hdt. 5,97). Ionian Revolt Stein-Hö…

Ecphantus

(364 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Ἔκφαντος; Ékphantos). [German version] [1] Greek painter from Corinth, active probably in the mid 7th cent. BC Greek painter from Corinth, active probably in the mid 7th cent. BC. According to Pliny (HN 35,16), he was the founder of the secunda pictura, a style of painting which completely covered all surfaces with paint; an example of this style are the wooden plates handed down from Pitsa. The monochromata mentioned by Pliny in this context may refer to the unbroken and precious mineral pigments that were used. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography N. J. Koch, De picturae initiis, P…

Lucillus

(404 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] [2] Roman wall painter, late 4th cent. AD Roman wall painter of late antiquity from the end of the 4th cent. AD. He decorated the house of the aristocratic orator and philosopher Q. Aurelius Symmachus, which the latter mentioned with praise in various letters (Symmachus, Ep. 2,2; 8,21; 9,50b). The nature and appearance of this painting may have resembled that of contemporary catacombs or mosaics from late Imperial villas. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography L. Guerrini, s.v. L., EAA 4, 721 S. Roda, Commento Storico al Libro 9 dell'Epistolario di Q. Aurelio Si…

Micon

(368 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (Μίκων/ Míkōn). Greek painter and sculptor (Plin. HN 34,88) from Athens, active between 475 and 440 BC. He and Polygnotus belonged to the first important generation of the Attic painting school in the early classical period, which broke ground for the development of the great Greek painting. None of the wall paintings in Athens known from numerous written sources of various periods survives, but frequent mention does allow us to infer his great significance. His main patron was Cim…

Triumphal paintings

(513 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] A typically Roman genre, common from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC until the Imperial period, today entirely lost and recorded only in written sources. During the triumphal procession (Triumph) of a victorious general, panel paintings or canvas banners were carried past the crowds and were afterwards publicly exhibited (e.g. Plin. HN 35,22-28; Pol. 6,15,8; Jos. BI 7,3-7; other sources in [4]). Rudiments of the content, appearance and intended effect of such pictures can be recons…

Cimon

(972 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κίμων; Kímōn). [German version] [1] Known as Koálemos, born c. 585 BC, achieved three Olympic victories C., known as Koálemos (‘the Stupid’), son of Stesagoras of Athens, born about 585 BC, had to leave Athens during the tyranny of  Peisistratus. During his exile he achieved two Olympic victories with the four-horse chariot (536 and 532 BC). Since C. had the 2nd victory proclaimed for Peisistratus, he was permitted to return. C.'s high prestige after his third Olympic victory (528) resulted in a conflict between …

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Agatharchus

(254 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] Greek painter from Samos, worked in Athens in the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC. Ancient sources link A. with chronologically divergent historical events. Vitr. De arch. 7 praef. 11 describes A. in connection with  stage painting as the ‘inventor’ of  perspective in painting and mentions a theoretical work about this. The negative judgement of his contemporary  Zeuxis regarding his hasty painting methods (Plut. Pericles 13), the information that  Alcibiades [2] locked A. in his hou…

Compendiariae

(234 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] (from Lat. pictura compendiaria, an advantageously short way of painting; ‘abbreviated’ painting). Ancient technical term, often translated as ‘quick painting’. The manner, the application and the influence of this Greek painting technique of the late 4th cent. BC is still debated due to the lack of detailed explanations in the sources (esp. in Plin. HN 35, 110; Petron. Sat. 2). The debate includes a number of methods: impressionist ‘paint spot painting’; the use of a kind of sketchi…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Marble, paintings on

(499 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] In Greek and Roman painting, stone, and especially marble, was a popular surface for paintings, as it lent itself to representations with varied functions. Images for the funerary cult, which are mostly badly preserved, existed on marble tombstones in many regions of the Mediterranean area from archaic times into the Hellenistic period. Like the relief stelae which were also painted with colours ( Polychromy), they were erected in necropoleis. Reliefs and painting were also combin…

Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος/ Nikómachos). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws ( anagrapheîs tôn nómōn). Exiled under the Thirty ( triákonta ), he returned in 403 and again became anagrapheús. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his …

Triumphalgemälde

(449 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola
[English version] Eine typisch röm. Gattung, seit der Mitte des 3. Jh. v. Chr. bis in die Kaiserzeit gebräuchlich, h. sämtlich verloren und nur in Schriftquellen belegt. Während des Triumphzuges (Triumph) eines siegreichen Feldherrn wurden Tafelbilder oder Leinwandbanner am Publikum vorbeigetragen und danach öffentlich ausgestellt (z. B. Plin. nat. 35,22-28; Pol. 6,15,8; Ios. bell. Iud. 7,3-7; weitere Quellen bei [4]). Inhalt, Aussehen und beabsichtigte Wirkung solcher Bilder lassen sich aus den l…

Agatharchos

(234 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] Griech. Maler aus Samos, wirkte in Athen in der 2. H. des 5. Jh. v. Chr. Ant. Quellen verbinden A. mit chronologisch divergierenden hist. Ereignissen. Vitr. 7 praef. 11 bezeichnet A. im Zusammenhang mit der Bühnenmalerei als den “Erfinder” der Perspektive in der Malerei und erwähnt eine theoretische Schrift darüber. Das negative Urteil des Zeitgenossen Zeuxis über seine rasche Malweise (Plut. Perikles 13), die Nachricht, Alkibiades [2] habe A. zur Ausmalung seines Hauses dort ein…

Landschaftsmalerei

(828 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] A. Griechenland Die schlechte materielle Überlieferungslage für die ant. griech. Malerei erschwert eine eindeutige Definition und Beurteilung auch dieser Gattung. Doch läßt sich nach heutiger Denkmälerkenntnis eine Gleichsetzung mit der eigenständigen L. beispielsweise der Niederländer oder der Romantik, auf der die neuzeitliche Vorstellung beruht, mit ziemlicher Sicherheit ausschließen [4. 176]. Die Ant. kannte keinen eigenen L.-Begriff in unserem Sinn [1. 190; 5. 80], und die Dic…

Compendiariae

(182 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] (von lat. pictura compendiaria, vorteilhaft kurze Malweise; “abgekürzte” Malerei). Ant. t.t., oft mit “Schnellmalerei” übersetzt. Art, Einsatz und Wirkung dieser griech. Maltechnik des späten 4. Jh.v.Chr. ist wegen des Fehlens genauerer Erklärungen in den Quellen (bes. bei Plin. nat. 35, 110; Petron. 2) umstritten. Mehrere Verfahren werden diskutiert: impressionistische “Farbfleckenmalerei”; eher skizzenhafte Bildausführung; durch Überschneidung und ausschnitthafte Komposition bloße…

Dorotheos

(799 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος). [English version] [1] Bronzebildner aus Argos, M. 5. Jh. v. Chr. Bronzebildner aus Argos. Bekannt durch zwei Signaturen aus der Mitte des 5. Jh.v.Chr. auf Basen in Delphi und in Hermione (Kreta), mit Einlaßspuren für Pferd oder Reiterstatue. Neudecker, Richard (Rom) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, Nr. 30-31  P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [English version] [2] Maler, M. 1. Jh. n. Chr. Maler des mittleren 1. Jh.n.Chr. Von Nero beauftragt, das schadha…

Sokrates

(6,632 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard | Döring, Klaus | Hoesch, Nicola | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz | Harmon, Roger | Et al.
(Σωκράτης). [English version] [1] Bildhauer aus Theben, um 470 v. Chr. Bildhauer aus Theben. Er schuf eine Kultstatue der Meter Dindymene für Pindaros [2] in Theben (Paus. 9,25,3), war demnach im “Strengen Stil” um 470 v. Chr. tätig. Ein Charitenrelief und ein Hermes Propylaios auf der Athener Akropolis werden von Paus. 1,22,8 dem Philosophen S. [2] als angeblichem Bildhauer zugewiesen. Das Charitenrelief wird als Vorbild eines später häufig kopierten Typus identifiziert, ist aber aufgrund der Datier. um 4…

Panainos

(226 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] (Πάναινος). Maler und Bildhauer aus Athen, Bruder oder eher Neffe (Strab. 8,3,30) des Bildhauers Pheidias, mit dem er, möglicherweise in Ateliergemeinschaft, zusammenarbeitete. Seine Wirkungszeit lag im zweiten Drittel des 5. Jh.v.Chr. Paus. 5,11,4-6 berichtet, daß er die Umschrankung im Zeustempel zu Olympia mit einem programmatischen Mythenzyklus bemalte. Die Begrenzung, aus Resten und Dübellöchern zu erschließen, bestand aus einzelnen Steinplatten, die in den vorderen Interkol…

Kallikles

(455 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Καλλικλῆς). [English version] [1] Gesprächspartner in Platons Gorgias Gesprächspartner in Platons ‘Gorgias, der dort, ausgehend vom Vorrang der Natur vor dem Gesetz, das Recht des Stärkeren vertritt (Plat. Gorg. 483 c-d). Dies ist die Lehre des Gorgias (Gorg. Encomium Helenae 6), die Aristoteles (Aristot. soph. el. 12,173a 8-16) als den Gegensatz zw. der Wahrheit und der Meinung der Mehrheit versteht. K. ist jedoch kein Sophist, vielmehr distanziert er sich von ihnen (Plat. Gorg. 520a). Aus der sophist…

Marmorbilder

(417 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] In der griech. und röm. Malerei war Stein, bes. Marmor, ein beliebter Malgrund, geeignet für Darstellungen unterschiedlicher Zweckbestimmung. Bilder für den Totenkult, h. meist nur noch rudimentär erh., gab es seit archa. Zeit bis in den Hell. in vielen Gebieten des Mittelmeerraumes auf marmornen Grabplatten. Sie standen, wie die ebenfalls farbig gefaßten Reliefstelen (Polychromie), in den Nekropolen. Man kombinierte auch Relief und Malerei, indem entweder Details und Attribute a…

Wandmalerei

(3,512 words)

Author(s): A.NU. | Hiesel, Gerhard | Prayon, Friedhelm | Hoesch, Nicola
[English version] I. Alter Orient Zahlreiche altorientalische Tempel, Paläste und Privathäuser waren innen bemalt, doch sind wegen der a secco-Technik meist nur Spuren davon erh. Sämtliche Farben besitzen ihre eigene Symbolik. Mit Rot, der Farbe für Leben und Kraft, wurden schon im 10. Jt. v. Chr. Hauswände und -böden bestrichen (z. B. Ain Mallaha, Israel). Der Malgrund war Lehm oder Kalkputz [1; 2]. Die ältesten und am besten erh. figürlichen W. stammen aus den Häusern von Çatalhüyük (7. Jt.): Neben Jagdszenen m…

Apollodoros

(2,959 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος). Politisch tätige Personen [English version] [1] Athen. Politiker (4. Jh. v. Chr.) Sohn des Pasion aus Acharnai, athenischer Rhetor und Anhänger des Demosthenes (394/93, † nach 343 v. Chr.). A. gehörte nach 370 zu den reichsten Bürgern Athens, leistete aufwendige Trierarchie-Leiturgien (vgl. IG II2 1609,83 und 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Demosth. or. 50,4-10; 40 und 58) und errang 352/51 einen Sieg als Choregos (IG II2 3039,2). Dennoch gelang es ihm nur begrenzt, eine seinem Vermögen entsprechende polit. Stellung zu erringen. Zw. 370 und 350 v. Chr.…

Kydias

(391 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κυδίας). [English version] [1] erotischer Dichter Erotischer Dichter, zitiert von Plat. Charm. 155d, erwähnt von Plut. mor. 931e. Er war in Athen offensichtlich beliebt, da er als Komast auf einer rf. Schale (München 2614) sowie auf einem Psykter (London, BM E767) von ca. 500 v.Chr. [1. 12-13] abgebildet ist. Vielleicht ist er identisch mit Kydidas von Hermione, den schol. Aristoph. Nub. 967 [2. 215] nennt. Möglicherweise (eher unwahrscheinlich) handelt es sich um den Dithyrambendichter Kedeides/Kekeides, den Aristoph. Nub. 985 (mit schol.) erwähnt [3]. Robbins, Emmet (Toro…

Timomachos

(435 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa | Beck, Hans | Meister, Klaus | Hoesch, Nicola
(Τιμόμαχος). [English version] [1] aus Theben, Befehlshaber im Peloponnesischen Krieg Anführer der thebanischen Aigeidai, soll mit diesen die Spartaner im Konflikt gegen Amyklai [1] unterstützt und in der Kriegskunst unterwiesen haben. Sein Br.-Panzer wurde bei den Hyakinthia (Hyakinthos [1]) ausgestellt, T. selbst in Sparta stets hoch geehrt (Aristot. fr. 532 Rose). Meier, Mischa Bibliography M. Nafissi, La nascita del kosmos, 1991, 324-326. [English version] [2] athen. Stratege aus Acharnai, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Athen. Stratege aus Acharnai; ließ Epameinondas 366 v. Chr…

Nikophanes

(109 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] (Νικοφάνης). Maler der 2. H. des 4. Jh. v.Chr., Schüler des Pausias und damit zur sikyonischen Malschule gehörig (Plin. nat. 35,111; 137). Er zählte zu den dekorativen Genremalern, deren Bed. in dieser Zeit zunahm; die Wirkung seiner Kunst wurde unterschiedlich beurteilt und war offenbar v.a. dem Kenner einsichtig. Seine Manier war gefällig und fein, wenn auch - wegen der Verwendung von viel Ocker - von harter Farbwirkung. Überl. ist das Bild einer Hetäre in Sikyons Bildergalerie (Athen. 13,567b), außerdem malte er erotische oder pornographische Szenen. Hoesch,…

Kleanthes

(517 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεάνθης). [English version] [1] Maler aus Korinth, wohl 7. Jh. v. Chr. Einer der frühesten, bei Plin. nat. 35,15f. überl. Maler aus Korinth; sein Name steht für den Beginn der Gattung ( prima pictura). K. galt als Erfinder der Linienkunst, er gestaltete seine Werke mit Hilfe von Umriß- und Binnenzeichnung. Stilistische Vergleiche mit Vasenbildern des frühen 7. Jh.v.Chr. datieren sein Wirken in die gleiche Zeit. Ebenfalls nur lit. bekannt (Strab. 8,343; Athen. 8,346 BC) sind seine Tafelbilder in einem Heiligtum nahe Olympias: …

Stilleben

(829 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola
[English version] Möglichst naturgetreue Darstellung ausgewählter belebter und unbelebter Gegenstände in einem kompositorisch abgeschlossenen, eher kleinformatigen Bildarrangement. Die Motive antiker S. entstammten einerseits allen Bereichen der ant. Flora und Fauna, andererseits dem häuslichen Alltagsleben. Nutz- und Zierpflanzen wie Gemüse, Feldfrüchte, Obst oder Blumen, kleinere Säugetiere sowie Vögel, Mollusken, Krustentiere und Fische wurden naturgetreu im Rohzustand oder aber als Speise zube…

Nealkes

(121 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (München)
[English version] (Νεάλκης). Hell. Vertreter der seit klass. Zeit berühmten Sikyonischen Malschule, wirkte im späteren 3. Jh.v.Chr. als angesehener und einflußreicher Hofkünstler seines Freundes Aratos [2]. Plin. nat. 35, 141f. überl. Bilder einer Aphrodite, eines schnaubenden Pferdes samt Bändiger sowie einer Schiffsschlacht zw. Persern und Ägyptern auf dem Nil. Über den Stil des N. wissen wir nichts Näheres, doch wird seine Kunstfertigkeit durch eine mehrfach auch auf andere Maler angewandte Anekdote betont (Plin. nat. 35, 103f.). Hoesch, Nicola (München) Bibliography EA…

Helene

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη, Helena). [English version] [1] schöne Gattin des Menelaos Göttin, die an verschiedenen Kultplätzen in und um Sparta verehrt wurde, vor allem im Menelaion in Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hesych. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). Auf Rhodos hatte sie einen Kult als H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in Kenchreai und auf Chios ist sie als Quellgottheit belegt (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). Für ihren Namen gibt es keine vollständig gesicherte Etym. [2. 63-80]. Zu den Zeugnissen über ihren Kult in histor. …
▲   Back to top   ▲