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Busts

(652 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] From the Renaissance, the word bust (from Italian busto) refers to a three-dimensional free-standing human image, which is restricted to head and chest ( Portrait). There is no ancient technical term, because busts were predominantly classified as portraits ( imagines). The term  bustum, on the other hand, meant gravesite, which in Italic cultures was marked by a  cippus or a stele, contouring a human head; in some instances as early as the 6th cent., but more commonly by the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, these developed int…

Hermocles

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἑρμοκλῆς; Hermoklês). [German version] [1] From Cyzicus, poet of paeans (amongst other things), c. 300 BC From Cyzicus. Around 300 BC author of  paeans on  Antigonus I and  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes [4] (lost) and an ithyphallos on the latter [1; 2] (fully extant). Addressing traditional religious poetry no longer only to gods but also to rulers was in keeping with the general common practice of the Hellenistic ruler cult [3]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Editions: 1 CollAlex 173-175 2 D. Ebener, Griech. Lyrik, 21980, 426 (Ger. trans.). Bibliography: 3 C. Habicht, Gottmensc…

Strongylion

(176 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Στρογγυλίων/ Strongylíōn). Bronze sculptor (last third of the 5th cent. to the first third of the 4th cent. BC). None of his works attested in literature survives. Parts of the base of a detailed depiction of the Trojan horse, named δούριος ( doúrios, ‘The wooden one’, Paus. 1,23,8), have been identified on the Acropolis in Athens; it can be dated to before 414 BC. As well as some devotional images, S. and Cephisodotus [4] created some statues of the Muses on Mt Helicon. Small bronzes by S. were famous among Roman collectors, such as the so-called Puer Bruti and an Amazon, o…

Mentor

(446 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέντωρ; Méntōr). [German version] [1] Father of Imbrios of Pedaion Father of Imbrius of Pedaeum (Hom. Il. 13,171). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alkimos, companion of Odysseus M. of Ithaca, son of Alcimus (Hom. Od. 22,235), companion of Odysseus, who on his departure to Troy hands over to M. the supervision of his household (ibid. 2,225ff.). In the People's Assembly M. firmly opposes the behaviour of the suitors (ibid. 2,224ff.). The goddess Athena often takes on his form in order to help Telemachus wi…

Frontality

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] The term introduced by J. Lange in 1892 as in the ‘law of frontality’ originally referred to a pre-Greek mode of portrayal, which, developed from the plane, displays all the essential individual forms paratactically in front view. Frontality was a label for an allegedly primitive form, which in evolutionary statements on style also seemed applicable to the early, pre-classical portrayal of people in Greek sculpture. In archaic statues frontality was supposedly expressed by mirror-…

Euthycrates

(240 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐθυκράτης; Euthykrátēs). [German version] [1] Olynthian, betrayed his home polis at the instigation of Philippus II E., an Olynthian, allegedly accepted bribes from  Philipus II in 348 BC to betray his home polis, thus bearing part of the guilt for its destruction. Because of this, E. was ostracized by Athens (Diod. Sic. 16,53,2; Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,56; 18,295; 19,265-267; Hyp. fr. 76 Jensen). In c. 345-343, he acted as syndikos for the Delians in their dispute with the Athenians regarding the prostasía of the Delphi sanctuary.  Demades' application to lift E.'s ostracism and…

Urn

(621 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Originally a round water container, the Latin urna denotes the sepulchral vessel in a cremation (ashes and bones). Morphologically speaking, urns are not always distinguishable from vessels of everyday life or cult. They sometimes imitated furniture and building designs. The gathered bones and ashen remains were gathered ( ossilegium) for storing in cloth or vessels inside urns of terracotta, metal or stone. Because of the prevalence of cremation in the ancient Mediterranean, the urn was the usual vessel for contain…

Silver

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Definition Silver (ἀργύριον/ argýrion, ἄργυρος/ árgyros; Latin argentum) is a precious metal, which in Antiquity was extracted primarily by smelting silver-bearing ores of lead. Four different kinds occur naturally: 1. as pure silver; 2. as silver ore; 3. as a component of galena, the only economically interesting ore of lead; 4. in alloy with gold, i.e. as electrum (Elektron), in which the gold content can amount to less than 30 %. Pure silver is rare and its surface corrodes, so that…

Xoanon

(305 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (ξόανον; xóanon). Greek term, attested from the 6th cent. BC, for gods' images (derived from ξεῖν/ xeín, 'to polish') made of wood, ivory and stone, regardless of size or artistic period. The modern archaeological usage, however, often limits the term xoanon to an ancient cult figure made of wood, which goes back to the restricted use of the term by Pausanias, who has handed down most of the information on xoana. The most famous wooden xoana were created in the 8th-7th cents. BC. In ancient literature, their sculptors (Theocles, Angelion) were considered…

Butes

(335 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βούτης; Boútēs). [German version] [1] Attic hero Attic hero about whom several traditions exist. There was an altar of B. in the  Erechtheion, in the vicinity of the altars of Poseidon, Erechtheus and Hephaestus (Paus. 1,26,5), and this establishes a clear link to the traditions of the  Eteoboutadai who were the priests for Athena Polias and Poseidon Erechtheus. B. could indeed have been the title of Poseidon Erechtheus' priest [1]. In this context, the genealogies which claim the hero to be Poseidon'…

Canachus

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάναχος; Kánachos). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Sicyon Sculptor from Sicyon, lived and worked in the late archaic period. Sources describe his style as hard and strict. His most famous work, the bronze statue of Apollo Philesios in Didyma holding a movable deer in one hand, was looted in 494 BC by the Persians. C. created a copy out of cedar wood for the temple of Apollo Ismenios in Thebes. Reliefs and coins depict the statue which was also recognized in Roman reproductions. In Sicyon, C. create…

Menodotus

(550 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μηνόδοτος; Mēnódōtos). [German version] [1] M. of Perinthus Historian, c. 200 BC In about 200 BC, he wrote a ‘Greek History ( Hellenikaì Pragmateîai) in 15 books, probably a continuation of the work of Psaon of Plataeae (FGrH 78) and dealing with events after 218/17 (Diod. Sic. 26,4). He may be identical (see [1]) with M. of Samos (which was considered a colony of Perinthus). The latter was the author of a periegesis ( periēgētḗs ) on ‘Notabilia of Samos ( Tôn katà tḕn Sámon endóxōn anagraphḗ), from which Athenaeus (15, 671-699) relates an extensive passage on the pre-Hellenic h…

Naucydes

(242 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ναυκύδης; Naukýdes). Bronze sculptor from Argos, son of Patrocles, teacher of Polyclitus and Alypus. The position of  N. in Polyclitus's family tree is a matter of dispute; two sculptors of the same name are also postulated. Daedalus [2] and Periclytus are recorded as the brothers of N., the latter also as ‘Polyclitus’. Pliny gives N.'s prime as  400-397 BC. N. created several  victor statues (after  448 BC). The most famous was a discobolus (discus thrower), which is commonly identified with the ‘discobolus at rest’ (Rom, VM), dating from c. 400 BC, which survives …

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes [2]. However, Z. owes his fame to his criticism of Homerus [1] in his work Κατὰ τῆς Ὁμήρου ποιήσεως/ Katà tês Homērou poiḗseōs ('Against Homer's verse'; 9 books; fragments in [2]) which earned him the epithet Ὁμηρομάστιξ ( Homēromástix, 'Scourge of Homer'). Motivated by the Cynic approach, Z. endeav…

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Angelion

(77 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor in archaic times who, together with  Tectaeus, is regarded as a pupil of  Dipoenus and Scyllis. Plutarch describes the wooden cult statue of Apollo on Delos with a discus in his hand on which the three Charites stood; it was produced together with Tectaeus. Later, gold wreaths were added to the Charites by queen Stratonice. The statue is shown on later Athenian coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 179-180 Overbeck, no. 334-337 (sources).

Chaereas

(228 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χαιρέας; Chairéas). [German version] [1] Strategos at Cyzicus, 410 BC Son of Archestratus (Lycomide?) of Athens. In 411/10 BC co- strategos in Samos, sent to Athens on the  Paralus, but was able to return (Thuc. 8,74,1-3; 86,3). In 410 strategos at Cyzicus (Diod. Sic. 13,49,6; 50,7; 51,3). PA 15093. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 9238 Fraser/Matthews, GPN 2, 1994, 469, no. 3 A. W. Gomme et al., Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 5, 1981, 266-268. [German version] [2] Nauarch of Ptolemy IX, 1st cent. BC Nauarch of Ptolemy IX; perhaps strategos of Cyprus; 88 BC…

Bupalus

(166 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor and architect from Chios, son of  Archermus. The anecdote about a pejorative portrait by the poet  Hipponax dates him around 550-525 BC. With his brother Athenis he created statues of  Artemis in Iasos, Delos and Athens and an Artemis mask with ‘changing facial expression’ in Chios. From the Charites, which were erected later in Pergamum under King Attalus, the base signature has possibly been preserved. The Tyche in Smyrna was apparently first represented by B. with a cr…

Euclides

(2,633 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Et al.
(Εὐκλείδης; Eukleídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian archon in 403/2 BC Athenian archon in 403/2 BC. During his year in office Athens made a new start following the Oligarchy of the Thirty (e.g., see And. 1,87-94) and, among others, officially adopted the Ionian alphabet (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 155). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Develin 199 LGPN 2, Εὐκλείδης (9). [German version] [2] of Megara Student of Socrates Student of Socrates, founder of the  Megarian School; born between 450 and 435, probably died early in the 360s. In Plato's Phaedon (59c) E. is named among those …

Cossutius

(314 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
Roman family name, attested since the 2nd cent. BC [1. 189-203]. Several artists belonged to this gens. [German version] [1] Architect mentioned by Vitruvius The  architect C., whom Vitruvius (7, praef. 15ff.) called a civis romanus, probably under  Antiochus [6] IV Epiphanes (ruled 176/5-164 BC) in  Athens ‘took over the construction of the Olympieion using a large measure according to Corinthian symmetries and proportions ’(Vitr. De arch. 7, praef. 17). The late archaic new construction of the Zeus temple, which was begun unde…

Alypus

(95 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of  Naucydes. By collaboration on the Delphic monument of the Spartans after Aegospotami (‘Lysander-anathema’, 405 BC,  Delphi), he is categorized under the so-called Polyclitus succession. Signature and base with traces of its support are preserved. Identifications of the four victors' statues by A., as seen by Pausanias in Olympia, are hypothetical. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, JDAI supplement 25, 1969, 84-85, 187-188 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs gr…

Zenodorus

(744 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ζηνόδωρος/ Zēnódōros). [German version] [1] Greek mathematician, probably at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Greek mathematician, probably at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC [5; 6. 604 f.]. He wrote a work 'Isoperimetric figures' (Περὶ ἰσοπεριμέτρων σχημάτων, Perì isoperimétrōn schēmátōn) in which he proved that of all figures of the same circumference the circle has the greatest area, and formulated the proposition that of all bodies of the same surface area the sphere has the greatest volume [3; 4; 7]. Substantial parts of the …

Aristocles

(543 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀριστοκλῆς; Aristoklês). [German version] [1] of Messene Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era. His main work, Περὶ φιλοσοφίας in 10 books, contained a critical summary of the teachings of all philosophical schools; extracts in Euseb. Praep. evang. 14-15. Other teachings attributed to him until recently belong to  Aristotle of Mytilene. Because of the confusion with the latter, A. was also thought to have been a teacher of Alexander of Aphrodisias…

Dontas

(78 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Sparta, active as an alleged student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis about the middle of the 6th cent. BC. The treasury of the Megarians at Olympia contained a wooden relief set in gold by him depicting Hercules and figures of the gods. According to Pausanias it was clearly older than the late 6th cent. building. The treasury's sculpture therefore cannot be attributed to D. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 215 Overbeck, no. 330-331 (sources).

Tectaeus

(134 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεκταῖος; Tektaîos). Greek sculptor of the mid-6th century BC. Like his brother Angelion, T. is supposed to have been a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and teacher of Calon [1] (Paus. 2,32,5). He and Angelion created a cult statue of Apollo on Delos; on the basis of  literary (Plut. Mor. 1136a; Paus. 9,35,3) and pictorial evidence of seals and reliefs Apollo was represented as a kouros with Charites on one hand and a Sphinx. A later account (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) of an Artemis by T. in Delos is of doubtful veracity. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibl…

Cypselus chest

(251 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Container ( kypsélē, kibōtós, lárnax) made from cedar wood decorated with ivory and gold plaques and carvings, described by Pausanias (5,17,5-19,10) as a votive gift from  Cypselus [2] or the  Cypselides in the temple of Hera in Olympia. Legend declared the chest to be the vessel in which Cypselus [2] was saved from the Bacchiadae as a child, or rather as its replica. It was probably manufactured in the mid 6th cent. BC. Because of the description provided by Pausanias, the Cypselus chest is an important source for the exploration of archaic imagery. A…

Epigonus

(319 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἐπίγονος; Epígonos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Pergamum Sculptor in Pergamum, who participated in building the victory monuments for the Attalids according to Pliny. Signatures are preserved on the following bases for Attalus I (241-197 BC): the so-called ‘Small Battle Bathron’ of the strategos Epigenes [2]; round base of the so-called ‘Great Anathema’ ( c. 228 BC; the attribution of the ‘Ludovisi Gaul’ remains in dispute); the so-called ‘Great Bathron’ ( c. 223 BC) with the ‘Dying Trumpeter’, which is documented in writing and was recognized in a copy on t…

Eucheir

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (called E. II). A sculptor in Athens, the son of  Eubulides [4], called Eubulides II. Together with his son  Eubulides [5], also called Eubulides III, he signed honorary statues and votives in Attica, Euboea and Megara during the 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC. His Hermes in Phenea, which Pausanias described, is perhaps depicted on coins. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Becatti, Attika, in: RIA 7, 1940, 14-17 H. Brunn, Gesch. der griech. Künstler, 1, 1857, 551-552 Loewy, 134, 135, 222-227 P. Moreno, Scultura ellenistica, 1994521, 554

Akrolithon

(149 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archaeological term for statues where the exposed body parts are made of marble and the robes of metal, both attached to a wooden core. The term first occurs in temple inventories in the 2nd cent. BC, later in Vitruvius for colossal statues. The technique can be traced back to the earliest cult idols with clothing and, since the classical period, is often used for cult statues. Numerous descriptions of akrolitha are contrasted by just a small number of preserved fragments, such as…

Phaedimus

(423 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Φαίδιμος/ Phaídimos, 'Radiant One'). [German version] [1] Son of Amphion and Niobe One of the sons of Amphion [1] and Niobe shot by Apollo (Apollod. 3,45; Ov. Met. 6,239; Hyg. Fab. 11; Lact. ad Stat. Theb. 3,191-193; Mythographi Vaticani 1,156). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] King of the Sidonians King of the Sidonians who hospitably received Menelaus [1] on his wanderings during his return from Troy; P. presented him with a cup made by Hephaestus (Hom. Od. 4,617-619; 15,117-119). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] One of the 50 Thebans who enticed Tydeus …

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Cult image

(3,473 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika (Heidelberg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General comments In the Near East, idols which functioned as cult images (CI) could be found in central temples, peripheral sanctuaries, private houses, and sometimes on open-air sanctuaries and cult alcoves. Their material consistency, appearance, and size varied depending on their origin and the context of their use. Berlejung, Angelika (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Egypt CI of gods already existed in earliest times. They could be anthropomorphic (anthr.), theriomorphous, or of mixed shape, and were created as in…

Eutychides

(185 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐτυχίδης; Eutychídēs) Sculptor and painter from Sicyon, pupil and son of  Lysippus. His acme was dated to 296-293 BC. His fame is based on the bronze statue ─ known in many replicas and copies ─ of Tyche of Antioch on the Orontes, which he created not long after the city's refoundation in 300 BC. It is one of the keystones for the chronology of Hellenistic sculpture, and was trendsetting in its composition in the round and its iconography of personifications of cities. E.'s work …

Reproduction techniques

(677 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] were used in antiquity from the Geometric Period on for the serial production of art. It exists when a model created specifically for the purpose is used to manufacture a not always specified number of repetitions. The intention may be economic, aesthetic (if identical products are desired) or, in the particular case of coins, dictated by the very purpose of the objects. It is crucial to distinguish this from the subsequent repetition of an original which is itself of value, as se…

Onatas

(391 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Ὀνάτας; Onátas). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Aegina, 5th cent. BC Bronze sculptor from Aegina, son of Micon. O. was a contemporary of Hegias [1] and Ageladas and one of the most important masters of the Severe Style. None of his numerous works is extant or secured in the form of copies. His signature is found on a pedestal of a bronze horse on the Athenian Acropolis and a pedestal in Olympia, both from the early 5th cent. BC. In Olympia, O. sculpted a votive offering ( anáthēma ) for the Achaeans in around 470-460 BC with Nestor and nine Trojan h…

Tisicrates

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Τεισικράτης; Teisikrátēs). Bronze sculptor from Sicyon in the early 3rd cent. BC. There is literary evidence of portrait statues of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes, Peucestas [2] and an otherwise unknown Senex Thebanus ('elderly Theban man') and inscriptional evidence of others in Thebes, Eretria [1] and Oropus as well as a mythological group. T. and Piston created a chariot and pair (Plin. HN 34,89). None of his works survives; attempts to identify his Demetrius in copies are questionable. T.'s teacher was Euthycr…

Vulca

(132 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Etruscan terracotta sculptor from Veii. According to Plin. HN 35,157, V. made the clay cult image of Iuppiter Capitolinus in Rome commissioned by Tarquinius [11] Priscus (first half of the 6th cent. BC) for a temple which was not, however, dedicated until 509 BC. Ascribing to V. the rest of the building sculpture of this temple and that of the temple of Veii is hypothetical. A Hercules fictilis by V. in Rome (Plin. HN loc.cit.) is not more closely defined and is not identical with a statuette mentioned in Mart. 14,178. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography M. Pallottino …

Smilis

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σμῖλις/ Smîlis). Son of Euclides, a sculptor from Aegina, probably 6th cent. BC. Pausanias (5,17,1) saw S.' enthroned Horae in the temple of Hera at Olympia and gives an account of his cult image of Hera in Samos (7,4,4). A late source (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Christianis 17,4 Schoedel) ascribes to S. a cult image of Hera in Argos. Ancient tradition places him among the mythical artists of the period of Daedalus [1]; Plin. HN 36,90 ascribes architectural marvels to him. His name can be derived from  σμίλη ( smílē, ‘chisel’). Speculation on S.' technical inventions …

Polyeuctus

(609 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολύευκτος/ Polýeuktos). [German version] [1] Son of the Athenian Themistocles Third son of Themistocles and his first wife Archippe, daughter of Lysander of Alopece (who adopted the second son, Diocles); nothing is known of his life. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 6669  R. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles. A Historical Commentary, 1980, ad 32,1  Traill, PAA, 778325. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 2nd half of 4th cent. BC Son of Sostratus of the Sphettus deme, Athenian rhetor of the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC, in the circle of Demost…

Eumares

(128 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Εὐμάρης; Eumárēs). Painter in Athens. He was considered to be the inventor of the distinction between male and female figures, probably by means of the skin colour, and of a new flexibility of the bodies. If he can be correctly associated with this stage of development achieved around 600 BC, he cannot be equated with the bearer of this common artist's name who appears as the father in a signature of  Antenor and his brother and who himself placed his signature on a work on a base of the Acropolis around 520 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 295 Overbeck…

Myron

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μύρων; Mýrōn). [German version] [1] Name of several persons from Sicyon Several persons from Sicyon named M. are mentioned in literature: a) Hdt. 6,126,1: Sicyonian nobleman (7th century BC), son of Andreas, father of Aristonymus, grandfather of the ‘tyrant’ Cleisthenes [1]. b) Paus. 6,19,1f.: the ‘tyrant’ M., victor in the chariot race at Olympia (648 BC), founder of the Sicyonian treasure house (thesauros) at Olympia. c) Nicolas of Damascus, FGrH 90 F 61: one of the three tyrant brothers descended from Orthagoras (evil M., good Isodemus, cunning Cleisthenes) from the ‘ Orthagorides…

Glycon

(378 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Γλύκων; Glýkōn). [German version] [1] Poet Named by Heph. 10,2 Consbruch as the inventor of Glyconic verse ( Metre). His existence is disputed and the three verses ascribed to him (= 1029 PMG) are generally viewed as alexandrine in terms of metre: G. could hardly have lived before Sappho (late 7th cent. BC), who used this meter. Choeroboscus names G. (in his Comm. on St. In Heph. Consbruch) as a comedic poet, but probably mistook him for Leucon (PCG V 612). Anth. Pal. 10,124, a two-liner on the futil…

Theocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Θεοκλῆς; Theoklês). Son of Hegylus, sculptor from Sparta. T. was a pupil of Dipoenus and Scyllis and thus was active in the mid-6th cent. BC. A representation in cedar wood of 'Heracles with the Hesperids' in the treasury of Epidamnus in Olympia were by him and his son; at the time of Pausanias the Hesperids were in the Temple of Hera (Paus. 6,19,8). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 328 f.  P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 816  H. Marwitz, Hegylos?, in: AA 1969, 106 f.  Fuchs/Floren, 215.

Archermus

(139 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Chios like his sons  Boupalus and Athenis. His active period falls into the middle of the 6th cent. BC. Pliny (HN 36,11-14) refers to works in Lesbos and Delos where a base with his initials was found. A winged Nike in the archaic kneeling-running ( Knielauf) pose, found nearby, was dated to 560-550 BC and justifiably connected to a note attributed to  Antigonus of Carystus (Sch. Aristoph. Av. 574), stating that A. had been the first to produce a Nike figure with wings. A later signature of A. was found on the Ac…

Pasiteles

(289 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πασιτέλης; Pasitélēs). Sculptor, from Magna Graecia, Roman citizen probably from 89 BC and according to the sources active there at the time of Cn. Pompeius Magnus in the middle of the 1st cent. BC. Of P.'s work nothing has survived apart from one signature on the base of a statue, but his significance in the artistic expression of late Republican Rome seems to have been great, not in the least because of his treatise on opera nobilia (mirabilia) totius orbis ('noble (wonderful) works of the whole world'), which is not preserved. Since P. is mentioned as t…

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Archaism [II]

(694 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] II. Archaeology The definition and application of this term, which has been transferred by modern scholars from Hellenistic literary criticism (ἀρχαισμός/ archaismós, ἀρχαίζειν/ archaízein = 'to archaize') to the fine arts, are disputed. Archaism exists where works of art from the Classical period and later (from c. 480 BC) intentionally adopt aspects of the Late Archaic period (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC). Such aspects are especially hair and beard styles, garments (zigzag folds) and motifs of gesture (splayed fingers, mo…

Sculpture

(5,548 words)

Author(s): Braun-Holzinger, Eva Andrea (Frankfurt/Main) | Blödorn, Heide (Mainz) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Stone figures and reliefs, in part large-sized, are authenticated in Palestine, Anatolia and Upper Mesopotamia as early as the Aceramic Neolithic Age (7th millennium BC), although in Mesopotamia not until the 6th millennium in the form of small idols. As the context of the finds suggests, they were part of cult buildings, and in the Levant also of a grave cult. The early Sumerian anthropomorphic stone sculpture from Uruk (late 4th millennium) and the early Elamian…

Terracottas

(1,788 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | E.K.-B.
[German version] I. Introduction Terra cotta (an Italian term meaning 'burnt clay') was the commonest material used for many kinds of ancient utensils, vessels and art objects. In archaeological terminology, it refers to artistically formed objects. As well as free moulding by hand, mass production was also usual, in the Near East (from the 3rd millennium BC) and the Mediterranean (from the 6th cent. BC). A matrix was derived from the patrix (original) to serve as a mould. If the object was made hol…

Aristion

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀριστίων; Aristíōn). [German version] [1] Epicurean philosopher, ' Tyrant' of Athens (88-86 BC) Epicurean philosopher, who, in 88 BC, became very influential in Athens with the help of  Mithridates VI (‘Tyrant’). In order to win the Greeks over to Mithridates, A. supported  Archelaus, e.g. in the battle against the proquaestor Q. Braetius Sura at  Chaeronea. In the spring of 87 BC, he retreated from  Sulla back to Athens. The city fell on 1 March 86 BC; A. managed to hold out on the Acropolis for a short w…

Myrmecides

(94 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μυρμηκίδης; Myrmēkídēs). Sculptor in marble and toreutics . His creative period is not known, it probably lay in the 6th cent. BC. Mostly named in conjunction with Callicrates [2], he had a legendary reputation for producing microscopically small works in marble, iron and ivory. There are descriptions of a quadriga small enough to fit under the wings of a fly, a ship the size of a bee and a sesame seed enscripted with Homeric verses. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 293, 2168, 2192-2201  P. Mingazzini, s.v. M., EAA 5, 1963, 313-314.

Colotes

(673 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Erler, Michael (Würzburg)
(Κωλώτης; Kōlṓtēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis Sculptor from Heraclea in Elis. C. was a pupil of  Phidias, and worked together with him, e.g. on the Zeus at Olympia. He worked principally in gold and ivory. In gold-ivory C. created an Asclepius in Kyllene and, according to Pliny (Plin. HN 35,54), an Athena in Elis, which according to Pausanias (Paus. 6,26,3), however, was attributed to Phidias; as this Athena's shield is said to have been painted by  Panaenus, a collective effort …

Damophon

(190 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Δαμοφῶν; Damophôn) Sculptor from Messene. Based on prosopographic and historic evidence, it would seem that he was active from the end of the 3rd cent. BC until 168 BC; most of his divine statues known from written records must have been produced in Arcadia prior to the earthquake in 183 BC. He worked on colossal acroliths and was entrusted with the repair of Phidias' Zeus in  Olympia. Of a group of gods in the Asclepius shrine in Messene, the head and foot of the statues of Apollo…

Leochares

(431 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Λεωχάρης; Leōchárēs). Greek sculptor; his surviving works date from the mid 4th cent. BC to 320 BC; the period of main activity given by Pliny, 372-369 BC, is therefore too early. L.'s reputation rested on idols and portraiture, and led to a corruption of the evidence. Among the literary inventions are a statue of Apollo attributed to the still young L., which Plato is said to have sent to Dionysius II (around 365 BC). In 354 BC at the latest (death of work's commissioner Timotheu…

Micciades

(99 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μικκιάδης; Mikkiádes). Father of Archermus, of Chios. Pliny (HN 36,11) places him at the head of a Chian family of sculptors, erroneously giving him as the son of one Melas [4]. However, the source which Pliny misread (and which survives), a votive epigram from Delos, dated to approx. 550 BC, does not say that M. was a sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 314 Loewy, No.1 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, Vol. 2, 1957, 75 B. S. Ridgway, The Nike of Archermos and Her Attire, in: J. Boardman (ed.), Chios, 1986, 259-274.

Alxenor

(47 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Naxos. He signed a grave stele from Orchomenus to be dated around 500-490 BC, which shows the deceased in a standing pose with his dog. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography LSAG, 292 pl. 55 Lippold, 114 G. Richter, Archaic Greek Art, 1949, fig. 255.

Endoeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἔνδοιος; Éndoios) Sculptor in Athens in the late 6th cent. BC. He made statues of goddesses in ivory and wood for Ephesus, Erythrae and Tegea, the latter were later brought to the forum of Augustus in Rome. His seated marble figure of Athena, the dedicatory gift of a certain Nicias on the Athenian Acropolis, is identified as the statue Athens, AM Inv. No. 625 ( c. 520 BC). The suppletion of his signature on the votive relief of a potter is plausible, but the association of a signed base with the kore Athens, AM Inv. No. 602 is uncertain. The p…

Critius

(308 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Κρίτιος; in written sources: Κριτίας). Bronze sculptor in Athens. C. is always mentioned together with Nesiotes. His prime was in 448-444 BC, Pliny's date is too late. C. was a contemporary of  Hegias [1]. In antiquity his style was considered antiquated and dry. He became famous as the master of the  Severe Style (1st third of the 5th cent. BC) with his statues of  Harmodius [1] and  Aristogeiton, the Tyrannicide group, which in 477/6 BC was set up in the Agora to replace a grou…

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Mys

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μῦς; Mỹs). [German version] [1] Karian from Euromos, around 480 BC Carian from Euromus, who visited several oracle shrines in Boeotia and Phocis in 480/479 BC on behalf of Mardonius [1]. In the Ptoion mountains the oracle replied to him in the Carian language (Hdt. 8,133-135; Paus. 9,23,6; cf. Plut. Mor. 412b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Toreutic sculptor and and fellow artist of Phidias Toreutic sculptor in metal and fellow artist of Phidias. M. executed the shield reliefs on Phidias’s ‘Athena Promachos with a representation of the fight betwe…

Euphron

(449 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὔφρων; Eúphrōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros who worked in Athens in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. Based on the evidence from extant sculpture pedestals, he created votive reliefs. The bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus is extant. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Jeffery, 363, no. 29 C. Karouzos, En feuilletant les vieilles publications, in: BCH 70, 1946, 263-270 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 298, 304. [German version] [2] Pro-Spartan Theban, succesful in a democratic coup Afte…

Eubulides

(521 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὐβουλίδης; Euboulídēs). [German version] [1] E. from Miletus Megarian of the 4th cent. BC Member of the  Megarian school. The time when E. lived (mid 4th cent. BC) is determined by his intense attacks against Aristotle, which are repeatedly mentioned in the sources. In part these are personal attacks (Euseb. Praep. evang. 15,2,5), in part criticism of certain logical theorems by Aristotle (Eubulides, SSR vol. 4, p.88). Possibly, Aristotle may in turn have discussed the teachings of E. There is evidence tha…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Sculptor

(546 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] In Graeco-Roman culture sculptors were less artists than technicians, as were, in the early period at least, architects and inventors. The ancient terms for them relate to the materials they use, e.g. lithourgós/ sculptor (for stone), chalkourgós/ aerarius (bronze), plástēs or koropláthos/ fictor (clay), ceroplastes (wax), and the social esteem of the product, e.g. lapidarius (stonecutter), agalmatopoiós and andriantopoiós (artist of pictures of people and gods) and toreutḗs (maker of small bronzes). Signatures occasionally give information about…

Cresilas

(294 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor of Cydonia. According to the evidence of inscriptions on existing socles, C. worked c. 450-420 BC in Delphi, Hermione and Athens. He created the most famous portrait of  Pericles in antiquity, ‘worthy of the epithet Olympian’ (Plin. HN 34,74). It was regarded as identical with the portrait statue of Pericles seen by Pausanias on the acropolis and which is clearly identified in copies. A statue by C. depicting a mortally wounded figure ( volneratum deficientem) was described by Pliny and is usually equated with the bronze statue depicting D…

Ammonius

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Hectoridas

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor, listed in the accounts for the sculptures of a gable of the temple of Asclepius at  Epidaurus, which was finished around 370 BC. Therefore, the fragments of an original Iliupersis are to be ascribed to him and must be considered as an independent work and not - as often presumed - as copies in the fashion of models of  Timotheus. In addition, H. provided models for the painting of lionhead gargoyles. His signature is also to be found on the base of a lost statue in Epidaurus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography A. Burford, The Greek temple builders at Epidau…

Clipeus

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] [1] Bust on a round shield ( clipeata imago). The bust on a round shield, in antiquity usually designated as clipeus et imago or εἰκὼν ἐν ὅπλῳ, is to be distinguished from relief medallions in the art of miniatures. Clipei painted on terracotta come from tombs (Centuripe); the earliest marble clipei attached to buildings come from Delos (Mithridates monument, c. 100 BC). The clipeus became widespread from the 1st cent. BC in Rome. Written sources on their invention suggest an origin in ancestor worship and military honours, though reports on Punic clipei of Hasdrubal ar…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] A. Life The main biographical facts can be gathered from L.'s speeches (esp. or. 12), from which the later vitae (Dion. Hal. de Lysia; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 835c ff.) and Byzantine learning (Phot. Bibl. 262; Suda s.v. L.) drew partly. Born probably around 445, L. left Athens at the age of 15 and together with his older brother Polemarchus settled in the Panhellenic colony o…

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Eudemus

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Εὔδημος; Eúdemos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Miletus, 1st half of the 6th cent. BC Sculptor in Miletus. He signed a male seated statue of the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, one of the earliest  Branchidae of Didyma. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 373-375 Loewy, No. 3 K. Tuchelt, Die archaischen Skulpturen von Didyma, 1970, 77-78, 121. [German version] [2] of Cyprus Friend of Aristotle A friend of  Aristotle of about the same age, participated, as a follower of Dion [I 1], in the overthrow of Dionysius II and was killed in the fight…

Anaxagoras

(670 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz)
[German version] [1] Bronze sculptor of Aegina, 5th cent. BC Bronze sculptor of Aegina. After the victory of Plataeae (479 BC), he created a 4.5 m high statue of Zeus in Olympia. Of a further votive gift, ordered by Praxagoras, only the inscription survived (Anth. Gr. VI 139). Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography F. Adler, Topographie und Gesch. von Olympia, 1897, 86 F. Eckstein, Ἀναθήματα, 1969, 23-26 Overbeck, no. 433-436 (sources). [German version] [2] Natural philosopher, 5th cent. BC Born in 500 BC in Clazomenae, A. lived in Athens from about 461 BC, where he, in…

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Praxias

(141 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πραξίας/ Praxías). Son of Lysimachus, sculptor from Athens, pupil of Calamis. His pediment groups on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, which are described by Pausanias (10,19,4), survive. They were completed by Androsthenes from 335-327 BC, after P.'s death. Signatures of P. from the period 368-338 BC survive from Oropus and Athens; others in Delos and Thasos are from his son of the same name. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 857, 860  Lippold, 193, 243  J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, vol. 2, 1957, 109-113  EAA 6, s. v. P. …

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Tauriscus

(252 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ταυρίσκος/ Taurískos). [German version] [1] Grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC and pupil of Crates [5] from Mallus, to whom his definition of philological scholarship (κριτικὴ τέχνη, kritikḕ téchnē) can be traced [1. 56]. According to Sext. Emp. adv. math. 248-249, T. distinguished three sub-disciplines: grammar (λογικόν, logikón), dialectology and stylistic criticism (τριβικόν, tribikón) and commentary (ἱστορικόν, historikón) on content needing explanation. For T.' position within the classification of the grammatical discourse o…

Cantharus

(417 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάνθαρος; Kántharos. Cp. Kantharos) [German version] [1] Main harbour of Piraeus The main harbour of Piraeus (Plut. Phocion 28,3; Aristoph. Pax 145 with schol.; Hesch. s.v. Κάνθαρος; Anecd. Bekk. 1,271,8), otherwise referred to simply as mégas or mégistos limḗn ('large' or 'largest harbour'; Plut. Themistocles 32,4; Paus. 1,1,2; IG II2 1035,45f.) [1. 61f.; 2. 9], modern Kentrikos limen. Named after an otherwise unknown heros [1] C. (Philochorus, FGrH 328 F 203) or after the pottery shape Kantharos [1] (cf. [3]). Moles narrowed the entry into the C. which, as limḕn kleistós ('close…

Herodotus

(3,277 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἡρόδοτος; Heródotos). [German version] [1] The historian Herodotus, approx. 485-424 BC The historian Herodotus. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] A. Life Sources on the life of H., the ‘father of history’ (Cic. Leg. 1,1,5), c. 485-424 BC (fundamental for all of the following: [1]) are, apart from the information he provided himself in particular, the Suda s.v. H. or s.v. Panyassis. H. came from Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) in the south-west of Asia Minor. The names of his father, Lyxes, and his uncle, Panyassis, a famou…

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…

Gitiades

(186 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Sparta, where he created the temple and cult image of Athena Polioúchos kaì Chalkíoikos as well as extensive mythological scenes in bronze reliefs (Paus. 3,17,2). The latter were presumably displayed on the walls of the temple, and according to later coin reproductions, the gown of the Athena statue was also provided with reliefs. G. had also written a hymn to Athena. Also on view in Amyclae were two bronze tripods by him with Aphrodite and Artemis as supporting figures that …

Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Amphion

(378 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀμφίων; Amphíōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and of Antiope Son of Zeus and of Antiope, daughter of Asopus, twin brother of Zethus (Hom. Od. 11,260-265). He built a wall around Thebes, by enchanting the stones with his lyre-playing (Hes. fr. 182 M-W). A. married Niobe, daughter of Tantalus (Hes. fr. 183). After the death of their children A. attacked the temple of Apollo and was killed by Apollo's arrows (Hyg. Fab. 9). Ovid (Met. 6,271 f.) has him commit suicide, according to Lucian (Salt. 41) he go…

Hypatodorus

(211 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ὑπατόδωρος; Hypatódōros). Bronze sculptor from Thebes, worked in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. In Delphi, H., together with Aristogiton, created the ‘Seven Against Thebes’, as well as, according to an extant signature, the votive for a Boeotian. The former was erected by the Argives as a victory votive after the battle of Oenoe (around 460 BC) (Paus. 10,10,3-4). Its base was identified at the beginning of the Sacred Way. H.'s bronze statue of Athena in Aliphera in Arcadia, the b…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Periclytus

(113 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Περίκλυτος; Períklytos). Sculptor, pupil of  Polyclitus [2]. P. is named as the teacher of an Antiphanes active in Delphi in 359 BC. Pausanias (2,22,7) mentions a brother of Naucydes, but the name is given variously in MSS as P. or Polyclitus. Hence P. plays a part in the reconstruction of the family tree of Polyclitus [2] and [3], whereas of his work nothing is known. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 985, 995  D. Arnold, Die Polykletnachfolge, 1969, 6; 12-14  A. Linfert, Die Schule des Polyklet, in: H. Beck (ed.), Polyklet. Der Bildhauer der gri…

Polychromy

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Koch, Nadia Justine (Tübingen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] I. Introduction Polychromy is a term of modern art theory for the phenomenon of colour composition in sculpture, relief, architecture and pots and tablets of clay, stone, etc. It is the opposite of monochromy (Monochromata, Ornaments, Painting, Pigments). The Greek adjectives polýchroos (πολύχροος) and polychrṓmatos (πολυχρώματος), which denote material (Emp. fr. B23 DK) or surface (Aristot. Gen. an. 785b 19) polymorphy, are not terms of ancient art terminology [5. 38, 129 ff.]. Rather the procedures of coloration are named…

Athanadorus

(210 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Son of Agesander; sculptor from Rhodes. Worked with  Agesander and  Polydorus; his marble copies of Hellenistic bronze groups were celebrated even in antiquity. The workshop's creative period was at first set in the mid 1st cent. BC, on the basis of Rhodian inscriptions, but after the discovery of the extensive sculpture complex of Sperlonga, most probably going back to the time of Tiberius, it can be fixed in the early Imperial period. The Scylla group is signed. Also by him are …

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Alcamenes

(438 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀλκαμένης; Alkaménēs). [German version] [1] of Abydus Greek physician Greek physician of the 5th and 4th cents. BC. According to Aristotle or his student Meno, A. blamed illnesses on the residue of undigested food: presumably, it rises to the head where it accumulates only to be distributed throughout the body as a harmful substance (Anon. Londiniensis 7,42). A. assumed a position contrary to the opinions of Euryphon of Cnidus, who ascertained that the head is less involved in the origin of illnesses. It is not certain whether A. was his student.  Anonymus Londiniensis Nutton, Vivian (…

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Kolossos

(310 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (κολοσσός, kolossós; lat. colossus). Statues of remarkable size were called kollossoi, originally in Greek literature with regard to their function as immovable representatives. Since the kolossos of Rhodes (293 BC), kolossos became a technical term for statues with a measurement of 100 feet (29 m) to as little as 10 feet. Modern scholars consider a kolossos to be at least twice life-sized. Marble kolossoi first appear in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC ( kouroi in Samos, Delos, Naxos), influenced by large Egyptian sculpture. In the 5th cent. BC, kolossoi were produced…

Pyrilampus

(92 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Πυρίλαμπος; Pyrílampos). Bronze sculptor, son of Agias from Messene. A preserved Exedra base with signature of P. was dated in the 2nd or 1st century BC. It is uncertain whether this refers to the same P. of whom Pausanias (6,3,13; 6,15,1; 6,16,5) saw three victory statues in Olympia. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 1565-1567  Loewy, no. 274  Lippold, 380  EAA 6, s. v. Pyrilampus, 1965, 572-573  G. Maddoli, Pyrilampes, dimenticato scultore di Sicione, e la cronologia di Pyrilampes di Messene, in: Dialoghi di archeologia 7, 2, 1989, 65-69.

Callicles

(471 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Καλλικλῆς; Kalliklês). [German version] [1] Collocutor in Plato's Gorgias Collocutor in Plato's ‘ Gorgias; taking it as his premise that nature ranks above the law, he advocates the right of the stronger (Pl. Grg. 483 c-d). This is the lesson of the  Gorgias (Gorg. Encomium Helenae 6), understood by Aristotle (Aristot. Soph. el. 12,173a 8-16) as the conflict between truth and the opinion of the majority. C. is, however, no Sophist: on the contrary, he distances himself from them (Pl. Grg. 520a). From his So…

Timarchides

(227 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
(Τιμαρχίδης/ Timarchídēs). [German version] [1] Name in an Attic family of sculptors, 2nd cent. BC Frequently occurring name in a 2nd-cent. BC Attic family of sculptors. A T. created an Apollo Kitharoidus in Rome in c. 179 BC, of which copies exist. After 156 BC in Elatea [1], a younger T. and Timocles, sons of Polycles [3], worked on cult images of Asclepius and Athena, of which fragments survive, and a victor statue at Olympia. After 130 BC the same T. and Dionysius [48] created a surviving portrait statue of Ofellius Ferus in …
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