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Pay and Reward

(2,609 words)

Author(s): Birmelé, André | Oechsler, Walter A.
[German Version] I. Dogmatics That human beings should receive payment as agreed remuneration for labor is in line, according to Old Testament law, with the will of God (Gen 29:15; Deut 24:14f.; Zech 8:10). The New Testament knows that laborers are worthy of their hire (1 Tim 5:18; cf. Luke 10:7; Matt 20:8). When the rich withhold or delay payment, this is a sin crying out before God (Jer 22:13; Jas 5:4). The NT recognizes “payment for unrighteousness” as punishment for an act of betrayal (Acts 1:18), or for dishonest and grasping money-making (2 Pet 2:13, 15). In a figurative sense, paymen…


(305 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter A.
[German Version] Management is the administration of sociotechnical systems on both the personal and task-oriented level with the aid of professional methods. With the growth of industry, the emergence of corporations as legal persons, and the resulting increased separation of ownership and business administration, the administration of (large) enterprises was entrusted increasingly to trained managers. In the years that followed, the task of these managers in large corporations with extensive division of labor was to ensure the coordination of corporate decisions. The term ma…


(3,029 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter A.
[German Version] I. Economic History – II. Business Economics – III. Social Ethics I. Economic History 1. Antiquity and Middle Ages. From the viewpoint of economic history, different forms of business are predominant in different periods, depending on the prevailing social and economic order. We therefore begin with a general definition of business: a business is an economic operation unit …


(707 words)

Author(s): Horyna, Břetislav | Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Rationalization is a relatively recent umbrella term with a variety of meanings; it denotes the replacement of traditional and fortuitous processes by planned, structured, and repeatable methods, according to criteria of functionality, effectiveness, and controllability. Since the effect of such methods is in principle always open to improvement, rationalization remains a never-ending process. In religious studies, rationality characterizes the epistemological “t…

Business Administration

(350 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] means the overall management and control of economic units in economic systems (Economy) organized in accordance with the market economy. In these tasks of management and control, the management functions of planning, control, organization and leadership are applied to economic units in which processes of production and its exploitation occur. The starting-point for business planning is strategic planning of the positioning of the company (Corporation) in the market. This leading decision, the …


(457 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] In general, the term “corporation” refers to activities regardless of type or purpose that involve a potential danger for those undertaking them. Thus, a risk is always associated with a corporation (synonyms: “company,” “enterprise”). From a commercial viewpoint, corporations are commercial units in a market-oriented economic system (Market economy) whose objective is the production and utilization of goods and services (Service sector). …


(238 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] are persons who, as (majority) owners, lead corporations that represent economic entities in a market-oriented economic system (Economy). Because of their strong personal involvement, entrepreneurs primarily act as sole proprietors or personal corporations (Person: III), characterized by ownership (Property: IV, 6) of the means of producti…