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Fortifications

(2,871 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Miller, Martin (Berlin) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg)
[German version] I. Greece After the massive Mycenaean fortified palaces had been abandoned, several centuries passed before larger fortifications were again built in Greece. During the Geometric Period fortification construction in the motherland remained modest. Simple structures were built that left few if any remains, and the ruins of Mycenaean fortifications sufficed for protection requirements. However, citadels (acropoleis), peninsulas, and other topographically suitable locations were fortif…

Cancho Roano

(145 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] The almost quadratic complex near Zalamea de la Serena (Badajoz Province) consists of a building containing an enfilade of small chambers above an embanked terrace and a ditch; in the east, a reinforced gateway provided access to the inner courtyard. The monument, destroyed by fire in c. 400 BC, had two predecessors (beginning from the 6th cent. BC), to which two altars -- now under the pillar of the central room -- correspond. Finds indicate that the building functioned as a  palace (residence, sanctuary, craft workshops, de…

Baza

(105 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] In the vicinity of the Spanish city B. lies the Cerro Cepro, a hill with settlements dating back to the 5th cent. BC (the Ibero-Roman Basti?) as well as the Iberian necropolis Cerro del Santuario. In grave 155, the ‘Dama de B.’ was found, an enthroned female limestone statue which had served as an urn ( c. 400-350 BC).  Iberian peninsula Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography F. J. Presedo Velo, La necrópolis de Baza, 1982 R. Olmos et al., La dama de Baza, in: El Puteal de LaMoncloa, Coloquio 1987, 183-209 N. Marín Díaz et al., La ciudad ibero-romana de Basti, in: Flore…

Azaila

(156 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] Cabezo de Alcalá, an oppidum of the Sedetani including the lower part of the town and a fortified acropolis (houses built on Italian lines, paved streets, sacellum in antis and the remains of large bronzes) is situated close to the modern location of A. The Iberian-Republican city is built on top of an earlier settlement (started c. 650 BC, destroyed in c. 200 BC); the new city seems to have been abandoned after it was conquered in about 80/70 BC, during the time of the Sertorian wars (siege ramp, catapult). Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography J. A. Asensio Estebán, La ciud…

Falcata

(103 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] Modern technical term derived from falcatus (‘sickle-shaped’) that describes the cutting and stabbing weapon of the Iberian foot soldier that was about 60 cm long and had a slightly crooked back, an s-shaped curved blade and a pommel bent downwards with bird or horse head ends. The distribution of the falcata, which goes back directly to the Italian cutting swords and is attested from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. at the latest to the 1st cent. BC, is concentrated in the Hispanic south-east ( Contestani(a),  Bastetani).  Sword Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography F. Oue…

Pyrenean peninsula

(3,781 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] I. Preliminary note A number of cultures, distinguishable from one another by their language, among other things, can be discerned on the PP in the 1st millennium BC (late Bronze and Iron Ages). Of these cultures, those of the central highlands and the northwest may be considered among the prehistoric cultures until they were integrated into the Roman empire. By contrast, the southwest (Tartessus) and the Mediterranean coasts with their hinterland c. 200 km in depth - the seat of the Iberian cultures - were closely connected with the high cultures of the Mediterranean. Ble…

Carambolo, El

(69 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] On the C., a hilltop west of Seville above the plains of the Guadalquivir, there had once been a late Bronze Age to early Iron Age settlement, known as the finding-place of an orientalizing gold treasure.  Tartessus Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography J.d. M. Carriazo, Tartesos y el Carambolo, 1973 G. Nicolini, Techniques des ors antigues, 1990 M. E. Aubet-Semmler, Maluquer y el Carambolo, in: Tabona 8, 1993/94, 329-349.

Despeñaperros

(127 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] Ravine in the Sierra Morena, linking New Castilia (Oretania) with Andalusia (Baetica). On the ancient road above the gorge in the Collado de los Jardines there is a grotto sanctuary above which is a fortified Iberian settlement. Stratigraphically the shrine goes back to the 4th cent. BC, and the earliest types of statuettes even to the 6th cent. BC. A total of 3,000 bronze figurines were found in front of it, c. a quarter of all Iberian statuettes (among these anatomical ex votos). Blech, Michael (Madrid) Bibliography G. Nicolini, Les bronzes figurés des sanctuaires…

Weapons

(2,508 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Weapons were among the earliest artefacts fashioned by humans and their ancestors. Stone arrowheads and blades were the first recognizable weapons in the ancient Near East into the Neolithic Period ( c. 10000 BC). From the 4th millennium BC, weapons were depicted on roll seals and stelae in scenes of warfare or hunting. Of maces suitable for close combat, generally only the heads (of stone or metal) survive. One exception is the deposit at the Chalcolithic find site of Naḥal Mišmār in P…

Tartessus

(712 words)

Author(s): Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] (Τάρτησσος; Tártēssos). According to classical tradition, T. was a city or kingdom in Southern Spain. The culture of the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the early Iron Age of Southern Spain with a core domain (Lower Guadalquivir Valley and the region surrounding Huelva) and a peripheral zone between Cap de la Nao in the east and Rio Guadiana in the west is called Tartessian culture. Its development is stamped by eastern Mediterranean influences: in the 9th cent. BC by Ph…

Castulo

(287 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian settlement 7 km south of Linares (possibly the modern Cazlona, province of Jaén) above the right bank of the Guadalimar. Lead and silver mines, communication links with the Iberian east coast and the Atlantic ( via Augusta and Guadalquivir) and the fertile surrounding countryside governed the history of C. The first settlement (La Muela) is i.a. verified by a metallurgical workshop (8th cent. BC), as well as a sanctuary, which was later built on top. Nec…