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Lycon

(669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Sharples, Robert (London) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Λύκων; Lýkōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, late 5th cent. BC Athenian, supported the rebellion of Pissuthnes against the Great King around 420 BC. Bribed by Tissaphernes, L. fell away from Pissuthnes and received several cities as territory under his rule in recompense (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15,53). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Socrates Prosecutor of Socrates (Pl. Ap. 23e; 36a); satirized by comedians (Eupolis fr. 61; 232; Metagenes fr. 10 PCG; schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1169) because of his poverty, foreign origin, …

Ambivius Turpio

(143 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Impresario, director and actor; leader of a troupe of actors in Rome in the 2nd cent. BC. He provided successful performances for the aediles who organized the plays, at the same time supporting authors who enjoyed his confidence:  Caecilius and esp.  Terentius. He performed the latter's Phormio to the author's entire satisfaction (Donatus on Ter. Phorm. 315). He also twice took on the role of a supportive and combative prologue: for the Heautontimoroumenos and for the 3rd performance of the Hecyra (160 BC). His advocacy of intellectual comedy and purity of diction ( pura…

Latinus

(795 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Mythical ancestor of the Latin people (Greek Λατῖνος; Latînos). Mythical eponymous ancestor of the Latini. According to the Greek version, L. and his brother Agrius are the sons of Odysseus and Circe and kings of the Tyrrheni on the Island of the Blessed (Hes. Theog. 1011ff.). Servius (Aen. 12,164), who refers to a no longer identifiable Greek author, takes up this origin of L., but identifies him as the founder of the city of Rome, which was named for Rhome, the sister of L. Accor…

Polus

(313 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πῶλος; Pôlos). [German version] [1] Sophist from Agrigentum Sophist, from Agrigentum. Sometimes mentioned as a pupil of Empedocles (31 A 19 DK), sometimes of Gorgias (82 A 2 and 4 DK; Philostr. VS 1,13). This is why Plato makes him one of Socrates' conversation partners in his Gorgias (461b-481b). The technical treatise Μουσεῖα λόγων ( Mouseîa lógōn, lit. 'Rhetorical Museum'), attributed to him in Pl. Phdr. 267b-c, may also be the one that is alluded to in Pl. Grg. 462c. The Suda (s.v. Πῶλος) gives P. as the teacher of Licymnius [2]. Rhetoric; Sophists Narcy, Michel (Paris) …

Cytheris

(167 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Descriptive artist's name (‘belonging to Aphrodite’) of a Roman mime actress ( mima) of the 1st cent. BC; bought out of slavery by Volumnius Eutrapelus, her official name was Volumnia (Cic. Phil. 2,58). Nothing is known about her stage performances, but all the more about her erotic qualities. She attained notoriety as mistress of Antonius [I 9]: before his marriage to Fulvia in 47 she accompanied him on his public appearances in an open litter (Cic. Att. 10,10,5; Plut. Antonius 9,7). Cicero …

Pylades

(340 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πυλάδης/ Pyládēs, Doric form Πυλάδας/ Pyládas, Pind. Pyth. 11,23). [German version] [1] Friend of Orestes Phocian hero, son of Strophius and Anaxabia (e.g. Eur. Or. 764 f.; other mothers: schol. Eur. Or. 33, Hyg. Fab. 117). P. and Electra [4] (Eur. Or. 1092; 1207 ff.; Eur. IT 716 among others) were the parents of Strophius and Medon [4] (Paus. 2,16,7; Hyg. Fab. 119 f.) or Medeon (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μεδεών). P. grew up together with Orestes [1] and partakes in the latter's revenge on his mother and Aegisthus. F…

Archimimus

(119 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] ( archimimus). Probably an honorific for prominent actors in the  mime, independent of their role within the ensemble, so that there might be several archimimi in one troupe [1.179-181]. As women also took part in the Mime, there were archimimae (CIL VI 10106/7). The archimimus Sorix equalled the comic actor  Roscius in popularity (Plut. Sulla 36,2). Stars bore pseudonyms: Lepos (Porph. Hor. Sat. 2,6,72), Favor (Suet. Vesp. 19,6); list of names [2.1583]. As freed persons, archimimi played for day wages ( archimimus diurnus, CIL XIV 2408) or for a fixed salary ( archimimu…

Choregos

(180 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (χορηγός; chorēgós). Literally ‘chorus leader’ (in lyric texts); in Athens the ‘sponsor of a lyric or dramatic chorus. The choregoi themselves were responsible for assembling their chorus of citizens, looking after their upkeep during the month of rehearsals, seeing to the smooth running of rehearsals, which were led by the poet or by a professional chorodidaskalos, and above all for meeting the costs. (In Plautus the choregos became a lender of costumes; in Plaut. Curc. 462-486 he makes a metatheatrical appearance.) Many ancillary services ( parachoregema) were c…

Histrio

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] I. Term Term for the Roman actor. Livy (7,2: according to Varro) reports that after a plague epidemic in 364 BC, dancers ( ludiones) with a flautist were called from Etruria in order to purify the city with a cultic ceremony. The local youth is said to have imitated their dances and added satirical verses until finally professional artists, for whom the Etruscan word histrio was used, developed this improvization further.  Livius Andronicus only had to add a fable to create the tragedy. This bold combination of Italian ludi scaenici and the Greek artistic drama contai…

Tritagonistes

(160 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (τριταγωνιστής; tritagōnistḗs). The third actor in a tragedic tetralogy, introduced by Sophocles [1]. In the competition for  best performer (at the Dionysia from 449 BC onwards) only the prōtagōnistḗs would take part. He would take the main role and possibly also powerful single-actor scenes, the two lesser actors (particularly the tritagonistes) would master a large number of different male and female roles; this would require linguistic and performing expression of great variety. In Soph.  OC two performers (Oedipus and Antigo…

Competitions, artistic

(3,335 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Paulsen, Thomas (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] I. Stage competitions Competitions, which included the   skēnḗ (the stage and the podium in front of it for the actor's appearance) in Greek theatre, that is dramatic performances. Originally, the skēnḗ was away from the orchḗstra ( Theatre I) and was used only for changing costumes and masks; it probably was not moved into the audience's view and integrated into the play until 458 BC with the ‘Orestia’ of  Aeschylus [1]. Nevertheless, early dramatic competitions are also thought to have been staged. Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) A. Greece [German version] 1. Developm…

Roscius

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian nomen gentile, with many bearers in Ameria (CIL XI 4507-16) and Lanuvium (CIL XIV 3225-7). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R., L. Roman envoy killed in 438 BC by the Fidenati A Roman envoy killed in 438 BC together with his three colleagues by the Fidenati (Fidenae); because of this all three were honoured with statues on the Rostra (Cic. Phil. 9,4; Liv. 4,17,2-6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R., Sex. Father and son; the latter was defended by Cicero in 80 BC against the accusation of patricide and embezzlement From Ameria; so…

Echeia

(173 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (ἠχεῖα; ēcheîa). Instruments/objects producing or amplifying sound (echo). Vitruvius refers to echia as bronze vessels with a wide opening, which were used for resonance reinforcement in the theatre (Vitr. De arch. 1,1,9; 5,5). Tuned to various keys, they were supposedly installed under the rows of seats according to mathematical calculations. They did not exist in Rome, but L. Mummius is said to have brought pieces of loot of this type back from Corinth. However, nothing in the theatre of C…

Protagonistes

(354 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (πρωταγωνιστής/ prōtagōnistḗs, 'first in competition', esp. 'first actor, chief presenter'). As a t.t., rare and attested only late; since the derived verb πρωταγωνιστεῖν/ prōtagōnisteîn was used in a metaphorical sense ('stand in the foreground') as early as Aristotle (Aristot. Poet. 1449a 18 and Pol. 1338b 30), however, the word prōtagōnistḗs may have its origin in the 5th cent. BC. In dramatic competitions much depended on the abilities of the prōtagōnistḗs. Aeschylus [1] personally undertook the leading parts in his tragedies, while Sophocles […

Maeson

(233 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (Μαίσων; Maísōn). In the catalogue of masks of Iulius [IV 17] Pollux (4,148; 150), M. is listed among the slave characters of the New Comedy as a man with a red fringe of hair around his bald head [1]. Athenaeus (14,659a) specifies the mask type as a local cook (in contrast to Tettix who comes from a foreign country) and names as his source Aristophanes of Byzantium (fr. 363 Slater). The latter derives M. from an actor of the same name from Megara (it has been debated since antiqui…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Theatre

(6,286 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Isler, Hans-Peter (Zürich)
[German version] I. Concept Greek θέατρον ( théatron: 'Place where one looks'); Lat. theatrum. The Greek word can denote any arrangement of rows of seats or raised stands ( íkria) as a gathering place for festive, cultic or athletic events, as in Sparta for the Gymnopaidia festival in 491 BC (Hdt. 6,67,3), in the sanctuary of Olympia (Xen. Hell. 7,4,31) or the altar steps in the Amphiareion of Oropus (IG VII 4255,29 f.). The stands for the games in honour of Patroclus [1] depicted by the vase painter Sophilus ( c. 570 BC) may be seen as a theatre as well [1]. As a technical term in …

Bronteion

(146 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (βροντεῖον; bronteîon). Device for producing thunder in the theatre. Behind the scenes a leather sack filled with pebbles was made to collide with a bronze metal plate or stones were shaken in iron vessels (Poll. 4,130; Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 292), but late witnesses certainly are not reporting from their own experience. In tragedy, thunder provided a background for the appearance of gods or catastrophes sent by the gods, and the authors did not differentiate between rumbling in the…

Ekkyklema

(226 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (ἐκκύκλημα; ekkýklēma). Theatre machine, through which ‘interior scenes’ could be made visible: a platform which ‘rolled out’ of the fly tower. Since the word ekkyklema is not documented prior to Poll. 4,128 (Aristophanes, however, uses the related verbs) and since clear archaeological indications are lacking, the existence of such a device in the theatre of the 5th cent. was called into question despite better knowledge of the texts [1; 2]. The tragedians removed bloody acts of violence from the audienc…

Satyrus

(1,465 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros). [German version] [1] S. I King of the regnum Bosporanum from 433/2 to 389/8 BC. Son of Spartocus I. S.' co-regent may have been (until 393/2) his brother Seleucus [1]. S. directed his attention at the Asiatic coast of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus [2]). He restored the Sindian King Hecataeus following a revolt, and allied with him through a dynastic marriage. S.'s divorced wife then sent the King of the Ixomates against him (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). S. died during the siege of Theodosia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Da…
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