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Monogram of Christ

(505 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
The oldest MSS tradition offers contractions of the divine names, especially ĪC̄ for Jesus (= IHCOYC) and X̄C̄ or X̄P̄C̄ for Christ (= XPICTOC). These contractions, which might be understood as ciphers for the salvation achieved in Christ (Christology), are also found to some extent in monogrammatic form (e.g., as the chrismon, or Chi-Rho) in the Middle Ages in introductions to letters and documents. From around 200 we also find the common symbol ⳨, the staurogram (Cross 3), which is made up of the superimposed letters tau (T) and rho (P) as an abbreviation for stauros / stauroō (cross …

Arianism

(1,169 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
Arianism is the teaching of the Alexandrian presbyter Arius (ca. 280–336) and his supporters. It arose originally in reaction to the Christology of the apologists. To preserve both monotheism and the deity of Christ, the apologists had adopted the philosophical idea of the Logos, and Origen (ca. 185-ca. 254), making use of ontological Platonic categories, had attributed autonomy to the Logos/Christ as a hypostasis, or ousia, subordinate to God (Ontology). Rejecting the Monarchian views of the Trinity of which he accused his bishop Alexand…

Aberglaube

(1,849 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
1. Begriff und antike-mittelalterliche Grundlegung 1.1. Die deutsche WortbildungDer Begriff A. (spätmhd.: abergloube) ist eine gelehrte und künstliche Wortschöpfung (eine Zusammensetzung aus ›aber‹ im Sinne von ›verkehrt‹ oder ›falsch‹ und ›Glaube‹), welche seit ihrem Auftreten an der Schwelle zur Nz. inhaltlichen Veränderungen unterworfen war (der bisher früheste Beleg ist eine in das 15. Jh. zu datierende Glosse der Wiener Handschrift des sog. St. Trudpert-Kommentars zum Hohelied des Alten Testaments); di…
Date: 2019-11-19

Aërius

(616 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
According to Epiphanius of Salamis ( Haer. 75; see Epiph. Anc. 6) Aërius was an ascetic in the circle around Eustathius of Sebaste. He was still alive when Epiphanius wrote the Panarion at the end of the 370s CE ( Haer. 75.1.3); Filastrius, on the other hand ( Haer. 72), appears to take his death for granted, so he must have died before 390 CE.Epiphanius places Aërius among the followers of Eustathius of Sebaste. It is not known if he could already be counted among these disciples before the Synod of Gangra (c. 340 CE), where Eustathius or rather his radical…
Date: 2021-07-15

Dedication, Council of the

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
In 338 CE a short time after the death of Emperor Constantine, the new emperor of the West, Constantine II permitted Athanasius of Alexandria to return from his exile in Trier to Alexandria (DGAS no. 41.1 introduction).Having returned from exile, Athanasius assembled a synod of 80 Egyptian bishops in Alexandria. This synod voted for Athanasius. This synod sent a circular to all bishops with many documents (Athan. Apol. sec. 3–19).The eastern bishops around Eusebius of Constantinople, who had deposed and excommunicated Athanasius at the Synod of Tyre in 335 CE, a…
Date: 2021-07-15

Continentes

(1,952 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
The heresiologists of the early church call “Continentes” (Gk ἐγκρατῖται; Lat. continentes/ encratitae; Eng. Encratites [continents]) some ascetics or groups living an ascetic life who are considered to be heretics because they demand from all Christians that they follow an ascetic way of life, particularly that they renounce marriage, the eating of certain foods (particularly meat), and the consuming of intoxicating drinks (whereby “continentes” in the Latin tradition can stand generally and in a positive …
Date: 2021-07-15

Firmilian of Caesarea

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
Firmilian (d. 268 CE), a well-known bishop of the Cappadocian metropolis Caesarea (from c. 230 CE), appears according to Eusebius of Caesarea ( Hist. eccl. 6.7) to have taken part in almost all of the significant debates in the formation of una sancta et catholica ecclesia (one holy and catholic church) and its standardized structures in the middle of the 3rd century CE as a representative of an episcopally organized church. The institution of synods and intensive epistolary communication between the churches appear to be for him a fundamental element in the structure of the ecclesia cath…
Date: 2021-07-15

Arianism

(7,347 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
In the literary tradition of late antiquity, there is only a single piece of evidence for the word Ἀρειανισμός, in Gregory of Nazianzus ( Or. 21.22). The derivative neo-Latin term “Arianism” was constructed during the early modern period and subsequently adopted in the modern European languages (Fr. Arianisme; Ital. Arianesimo; Ger. Arianismus).“Arianism,” in its proper sense, both in the history of theology and in the history of dogma, refers to the theological positions or teachings of the Alexandrian presbyter Arius (Ἄρειος), which brought hi…
Date: 2021-07-15

Symeon Stylites

(188 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] d. Ä. (um 390 im kilikischen Sis – 24.7. [1.9.] 459), ging Anfang des 5.Jh. ohne Schulbildung in ein Kloster, das er wegen seiner extremen Askese verlassen mußte; Eremit in Telanissus (ca.60 km östlich von Antiochien), seit Anfang der 20er Jahre des 5.Jh. dort als erster auf einem Hügel auf einer sukzessiv auf über 20 m erhöhten Säule (Säulenheilige); Ziel zahlloser Pilger, beriet mehrere Kaiser polit. und erschien den verfolgten Christen im Perserreich als Retter. Um seine Gebei…

Symeon Stylites

(188 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] d.J. (521 Antiochien – 24.5.[3.9.?] 592), als Sohn der hl. Martha und eines aus Edessa stammenden Vaters geb., mit sechs Jahren Stylit (Säulenheilige) und Wundertäter (S. Thaumatúrgos). Seit ca.540/41 auf dem mons mirabilis nahe Antiochien, wurde S. als Stylit zum Diakon und später Presbyter ordiniert, bes. als Wunderheiliger von Pilgern aufgesucht. Er vf. asketische Werke, Hymnen, Gebete und Briefe (an Justinian I. und Justin II.). Der Pilgerbetrieb um seine Säule scheint ebenso…

Papst

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Papst, Bez. für den Bischof von Rom als Nachfolger des Petrus, Oberhaupt der (röm.) kath. Kirche und Inhaber eines universellen kirchl. Lehr- und Jurisdiktionsprimats (Primat, Papsttum). Πα´πας/pa´pas war in der griech. Kirche urspr. Bez. oder Anrede für Äbte und Bischöfe, später exklusiv für Patriarchen; seit der 2. Hälfte des 4.Jh. ist die Bez. inschriftlich auch für die röm. Bischöfe bezeugt; im lat. Bereich wurde sie seit dem 5.Jh. exklusiv für den röm. Bischof benutzt. Seit Leo I. ist die Übernahme d…

Constantius II

(508 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (Aug 7, 317 – Nov 3, 361). The Roman emperor Constantius II was the second son of Constantine and Fausta. He was made Caesar in 324; upon Constantine's death in September of 337, he became Augustus over the eastern half of the empire. Because his primary military challenge was securing the eastern border, until 350 he spent most of his time in Antioch. After the death of Constantine II in 340, the rivalry between Constantius and his younger brot…

Pope

(242 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Pope is the designation of the bishop of Rome as successor to Peter (the disciple), head of the (Roman) Catholic Church, and holder of a universal primacy of teaching and jurisdiction within the church (Papacy). In the Greek church, πάπας/ pápas ¶ was originally a title or term of address for abbots and bishops; later it was reserved exclusively to patriarchs. There is inscriptional evidence from the second half of the 4th century for its use by the Roman bishops; in the Latin church, it has been reserved exclusively to t…

Homoousios

(383 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] The Greek term ὁμοούσιος means “having the same ousia/substance/essence.” This compound adjective, which denotes the essential identity of origin and emanation, is found in Gnostic texts and also in philosophical usage after the time of Plotinus and was probably adopted from Manichaeism. It was on account of its Gnostic/Manichaeist connotation that the term homoousios was probably not employed by the exponents of a trinitarian theology of identification (Monarchianism) to describe the relationship of God and the Son/Logos. It is unc…

John of Damascus (Saint)

(449 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 650, Damascus – before 754, Mar Saba). The legendary vitae of John hardly contain any factual information. John of Damascus was born into a Christian family of the Greek Damascene upper class, which initially collaborated with the caliphs. His family enjoyed close ties to the court of the caliph, in whose service he also stood. Before the year 700, probably because the Christians were increasingly ¶ being driven out of public offices from the late 7th century on, he retired to the Mar Saba Monastery near Jerusalem. There, he officiated as pri…

Victor of Vita

(181 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] cleric in Carthage and author of a Historia persecutionis Africanae provinciae dating from 487/489, which describes the situation of the Catholic Church in Africa under the Vandals. In keeping with historiographic tradition, Victor included documents; the conclusion of the Historia (III 71) and the Passio VII monachorum (CPL 800) are secondary, but not the prologue. Hanns Christof Brennecke Bibliography Works: CPL 798 M. Zink, Bischof Victors von Vita Geschichte der Glaubensverfolgung im Lande Afrika, 1883 Storia della persecuzione vandalica in Africa, ed. S.…

Studios Monastery

(273 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] monastery in the Psamathia quarter of Constantinople, founded by Studios, who was patricius and consul in 454. Its church, a three-aisled basilica dedicated to John the Baptist, was begun in 450; it was converted into a mosque after 1453. Today it is the only pre-Justinian church ruin in Istanbul. It was among the largest and most important monasteries of the capital, with great wealth. During the iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI) in the 8th and 9th centuries, under its abbot ( hegoumenos) Theodore of Studios it became the most important intel…

Euzoios

(186 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] of Antioch (died 376) was a deacon and partisan of Arius in Alexandria. He was deposed and excommunicated by an Alexandrian synod. With Arius, he presented a creed to Constantine in 327 which subordinated the Logos but avoided extremely subordinationist statements (Christology: II, 1). Rehabilitated at the Synod of Jerusalem in 335, he was a presbyter in Alexandria under bishop Georgos. After the deposition of Meletius of Antioch, he became bishop of Antioch in 360/61 at the behest of Constantius II, whom Euzoios baptized shortly before his death, and one of ¶ the leadin…

Eustathius of Thessalonica

(173 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 1115, Constantinople[?] – c. 1195, Constantinople) was a prominent representative of Byzantine scholarship from Constantinople (?), where he obtained a classical education. He was a deacon and a teacher at the patriarchal school (grammar, rhetoric, philosophy). Initially called as metropolitan of Myra, he was transferred by the emperor to Thessalonica c. 1178…

Maximinus the Arian (Saint)

(216 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Maximinus the Arian (Saint), a Homoean. In 428/429, Maximinus belonged to the retinue of the Goth Sigisvult in Africa, where a disputation with Augustine of Hippo on the doctrine of the Trinity took place (Possidius, Vita Augustini, 17), the minutes of which are preserved in the Conlatio (CPL 699). Augustine subsequently authored Contra Maximinum ¶ Arrianum (CPL 700) against him. Invoking the Synod of Rimini (359), Maximinus argued in favor of a subordination theology with an explicit use of biblical language. A typical aspect of latt…
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