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Macrina

(101 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born around AD 327, sister of Basilius [1] the Great, Petrus of Sebaste and Gregorius [2] of Nyssa. Daughter of the rhetor Basilius and Emmelia, granddaughter of M. the Elder ( c. 270- c. 340). After the death of her bridegroom, M. lived an ascetic life on a family estate on the Iris in Pontus; died around 380. Her brother Gregorius wrote a biography of M. ( Vita M. iunioris; Greg. Nyss. Opera ascetica 8,1, p. 370-414) and had her answer his theological questions as a teacher in his work De anima et resurrectione (PG 46, 12-160). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Mittendarii

(141 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Officials on the staff of the comes sacrarum largitionum and the comes rerum privatarum ( comes ), therefore belonging to the palatini . Their principal task was to act as messengers in the provinces. They are first attested under Theodosius I, who stipulated their conditions of rank and salaries (Cod. Theod. 6,30,2; table in [1. 124]), but they probably existed before that. The advancement rota consisted initially of two years and in the 5th cent. AD of one year. A schola mittendariorum of the praefectus praetorio Africae existed in the 6th cent (Cod. Iust. 1,2…

Vacantes

(57 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman titular officials (like honorarii), i.e. they bore an official title without holding or having held the corresponding office. They usually received the title when retiring from active service and were entitled to wear the sash ( cingulum), which was not granted to  honorarii. They ranked after the actual holders of the office. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Vir clarissimus

(273 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or clarissimus vir = c.v., literally approximately a 'highly regarded man'; Greek lamprótatos, attested from c. AD 160; until the 3rd cent. AD also krátistos). In the (late) Republican Period a general senatorial honorary attribute; in the Imperial Period VC developed into a title of rank for members of the senatorial class (Senatus). Up to the early 2nd cent. AD it became a fixed title for senators (until the 4th cent. it was c.v.) which from the 2nd cent. was also transferred to their relatives ( clarissima femina, c. iuvenis, c. puer, c. puella). As a rule women lost …

Mercurinus

(117 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (better known as Auxentius of Durostorum in Moesia). Student of the Gothic bishop Ulfila, perhaps a Goth himself. M. had to give up his bishopric in AD 380 after the edict of Theodosius I with regard to the return of the churches to the Orthodox. Shortly afterwards he was consecrated as Arian bishop of Milan ( Arianism). He was an opponent of Ambrosius; he exerted great influence on the court of Valentinian II. His ‘On the Life and Death of Ulfila ( De vita et obitu Ulfilae). (PL Suppl. 1, 703-707) has come down to us. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography K. G…

Montius Magnus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Came from Africa, proconsul of Constantinople around AD 350, quaestor sacri palatii of Constantius [5] Gallus AD 351-353; while seeking to gain influence with the life guards during Gallus' struggle with the praef. praet. Domitianus [3], he was murdered by soldiers incited by Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,7,12-14; 9,4; 11,17; Philostorgius 3,28; PLRE 1, 535-536, 11; 1, 608). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Nicentius

(135 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Official under Hermogenes, AD 358 In AD 358, after occupying other, unknown offices, he became consularis Syriae. He was fined and dismissed by the praef. praet. Hermogenes [10] for failings in the supply of the army in Callinicum. He may have received a new office in 360 from the comes Orientis Modestus [2]. N. was highly regarded by Libanius (Lib. Ep. 122; 193). PLRE 1, 628 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, 4th cent. AD Tribunus et notarius, lived in Mediolanum/Milan, where he was said to be miraculously he…

Moderator

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Late antique collective term for those provincial governors who held the title of v ir clarissimus (Cod. Theod. 1,10,8 et passim), similar to rector or iudex. It was Justinian who in AD 535 first used moderator as a genuine official title for the governors of particular provinces with the rank of spectabilis (Court titles; Moderator Iustinianus Helenoponti, Nov. 28, Phoniciae ad Libanum, Edict. 4, Arabiae, Nov. 102). This last had civil and military authority. Occasionally moderator is also found as the title of officials who were not governors, includin…

Pinianus

(224 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387 Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387, P. was sent as a legate to emperor Valentinianus II by the senate in 395 with Postumianus to seek assistance with regard to a rise in prices. The choice of another legate, Paulinus, proved contentious. Probably the father or uncle of P. [2]. PLRE 1, 702 (P. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Christian ascetic 4th/5th cent. Nephew or son of P. [1], in AD 396 AD at the age of 16 or 17  the younger Melania [2], who after the death of their two chil…

Cleodamus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Κλεόδαμος; Kleódamos). C. of Byzantium, commissioned by  Gallienus with strengthening the fortifications of the cities near the mouth of the Danube against the  Heruli in AD 267 (SHA Gall. 13,6). In the same year (not later under Claudius II) C. drove the Heruli from Athens, which they had conquered (Zon. 12,26, p. 151 Dindorf III). PIR2 C 1144. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Remigius

(68 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Mogontiacum (Mainz), rationarius of the mag. militum Silvanus in Gaul in AD 355, mag. officiorum of Valentinianus I c. 365-371; in this period he covered up the machinations of his brother-in-law Romanus in Africa. This and the usurpation of the Moor Firmus [3] led to his dismissal. In 373, when his misdeeds were discovered, R. hanged himself. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Mascezel

(87 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Christian son of the Moorish king Nubel; in AD 374 he supported the unsuccessful attempt at usurpation by his brother Firmus [3] against Valentinian I. In 397 he fled to Italy to escape his other brother Gildo, who had tried to kill him and had had his sons killed. In 398, under Stilicho's command, he fought against Gildo and won (allegedly through a miracle) despite numerical inferiority. He is said to have been drowned by Stilicho shortly afterwards.PLRE 1, 566. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Lampadius

(144 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] From 398 AD praefectus urbis Romae Praef. urbis Romae for around two months early in AD 398; his task was to enforce the conscription of slaves as recruits for the conflict with Gildo (Symmachus, Ep. 6,64; 8,63; 65); after the expulsion of Symmachus, L. restored order in Rome. Perhaps identical to L. [2]. PLRE 2, 654f. (L. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Senator, early 5th cent. AD Senator, protested in AD 408 against the agreement concluded by Stilicho with Alaricus [2], whereby the latter would receive 4,0…

Mariades

(73 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Μαριάδης; Mariádes). Citizen and councillor of Antioch on the Orontes. M. was excluded from the boulḗ for embezzlement of public funds. He fled to the Persian Empire and betrayed the city when it was invaded by Sapor c. AD 260. Sapor had him executed shortly afterwards. Or. Sib. 13, 89-102; SHA Tyr. Trig. 2,2-3; Amm. Marc. 23,5,3; Zos. 1,27; 3,32,5; Ioh. Mal. 12,295-296. PIR2 M 273. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Nannienus

(142 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Comes rei militaris of Valentinianus I, fought the Saxons in 370 AD. In 378, together with the comes domesticorum Mallobaudes in the service of Gratianus [2], he defeated the Alamanni (Lentienses) at Argentaria (near Colmar; Amm. Marc. 31,10,6f.). Because he was of the same rank ( pari potestate) as Mallobaudes, he may have been comes utriusque Germaniae. He is probably identical with the magister militum Nanninus who in 388, together with Quintinus, as Magnus Maximus's [7] general took over the guardianship of the latter's son Victor, defeated the Franks in the silva …

Laeta

(149 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Second wife of the emperor Gratianus [2] from AD 383 on Second wife of the emperor Gratianus [2], whom she married in AD 383. Following his death shortly afterwards, L. lived on as a widow at Rome, where she used her own funds to help alleviate the famine during Alaricus' [2] siege in 409 (Zos. 5,39,4). PLRE 1,492 (L. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Clarissima femina, addressee of Jerome's epist. 107 Clarissima femina, daughter of one Albinus, wife of Toxotius, daughter-in-law of the elder Paula, sister-in-law of E…

Quintinus

(66 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] was magister equitum per Gallias under Magnus Maximus [7], who entrusted his son Victor to him in AD 387. Q. was killed in 388 during an advance east of the Rhine near Neuss against the advice of Nannienus. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography PLRE 1, 760  P. Richardot, Un désastre romain peu connu sur le Rhin, in: Riv. storica dell' antichità 25, 1995, 111-130.

Perfectissimus

(259 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir perfectissimus, Greek διασημότατος/ diasēmótatos). From no later than the time of Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) onward honorary predicate and title of rank for equites above the rank of egregius ( vir egregius ), but under eminentissimus . Initially it was conferred on a person without relation to any particular office. Before Diocletianus (284-305) the title is recorded for e.g. praefectus [3] vigilum, praefectus [12] annonae and praefectus Aegypti , procuratores a rationibus ( procurator ) and praesides ( praeses ). In the beginn…

Primicerius

(152 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Literally 'the first' ( primus) on the 'wax tablet' ( cera) of a roster, primicerius describes the head of an office ( officium) or section in military and civil Roman departments (Chancellery). There were primicerii, for example, for the domestici et protectores ( domesticus ), the duces ( dux ), the scholae and fabricae of the magister officiorum , among the offices at court [C], and in the central administration and the schola notariorum. The rank of a primicerius depended on his activities. The primicerius sacri cubiculi, who was subordinate to the praepositus sacri …

Invictus

(171 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (‘the undefeated’, ‘invincible’). Epithet of Roman emperors since  Commodus. Already in the Republican period, this epithet was occasionally bestowed on victorious military leaders (e.g.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio), It is known that  Traianus [1] bore the Greek epithet ἀνίκητος/ aníkētos (of the same meaning). Commodus was the first to turn it into a permanent imperial epithet; this must be understood in the context of his veneration of  Hercules. Only with the Severans ( Severan dynasty) did Invictus lose this connotation and referred to the triumphancy …
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