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(362 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle) | Heim, Manfred (Munich)
[German version] [1] Symbol of the star of Caesar In Latin antiquity, L. refers primarily to the morning star (Greek φωσφόρος/ phōsphóros or ἑωσφόρος/ heōsphóros; Venus; Planets), and in a secondary sense L. also characterizes divine figures. Roman mythology interprets L. as the star of deified Caesar. In Christianity, L. loses the positive connotation: although entirely with reference to 2 Cor 4:6, 2 Petr 1:19 and Apc. 2:28, L. is compared to Christ and therefore at times used as a baptismal name, as a translation of Is. 14:12 (the fallen morning star - heōsphóros: LXX, lucifer: Vulgate)…


(356 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Roman pope 352-377 Roman pope 352-366. L.'s pontificate was burdened by the difficult dispute over Arianism. Emperor Constantius II banished L. to Beroea in 355, because he would not recant in Milan his support for the condemned bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, who was hostile to Arianism, whereupon Felix had himself appointed and ordained counter-bishop ( Felix [5] II.). The anguish of exile, reflected by the four letters of the spring of 357 recorded by Hilarius of Poitiers led…