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Ausonian Culture

(296 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Ausonian Culture is used to describe the culture of the Liparian Islands and the north-east of Sicily during the Late Bronze Age and…

Pantalica

(235 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture The ancient settlement of P. lies in the hinterland of Syracusae (Sicily). The plateau of approximately 8 ha in area is naturally protected by deeply incised valleys, and is connected with the surrounding area only by a narrow saddle. It may be identical with the pre-Greek Hybla [2]. All that survives of the ancient settlement are the remains of the so-called anáktoron, considered to be the seat of the ruler of P. In addition to living spaces, this building also contained a bronze worksh…

Golasecca culture

(265 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Chronologically, the Golasecca culture (GC) encompasses the 12th to the 4th cents. BC, with the proto-GC (12th-11th cents. BC) regarded as the first stage that…

Este Culture

(241 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Este culture is applied broadly to the Iron Age population group of the Veneti in the period between 1000 und 300 BC (chronological table in  Golasecca culture), whose material legacy from the area…

Terramare culture

(182 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Bronze Age culture in the Po valley, characterised by earth mounds with dark nutrient-rich soil containing the remains of TC settlements and used in modern times as fertiliser. The range of the TC is delineated by modern Emilia and Veneto. In time, it encompassed the middle (16th-14th cents. BC) and late (13th-12th cents. BC) Bronze Age. Few settlements have been examined to date; better known find locations are Poviglio, Tabina and Castione dei Marchesi. The finds show rectangula…

Villanova Culture

(470 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The VC is among the most significant Iron Age cultural phenomena of early Italy (9th cent. until the last quarter of the 8th cent. BC). The subdivisions are not uniform across the whole area of the VC, but there is general progress from an early phase ( c. 900-820 BC), through a transitional phase ( c. 820-770) to an end phase ( c. 770-730). The core area of …

Novilara

(220 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture | Italy, languages The modern town of N. is about 7 km south of Pesaro on the Adriatic. It is likely that the site corresponds to that …

Sala Consilina

(218 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Modern town in the Vallo di Diano (province of Salerno, Lucania) whose ancient name was not transmitted. Its fame is due to the necropolis with more than 1,500 tombs from the Early Historical Period (10th to the 6th cents. BC) located to the north west and south east of the town; the location of the corresponding settlement has yet to be determined. The inventories of the tombs as well as the so-called Waffengrab suggest an elite of leading families, esp. due to the absence of princely graves with magnificent and prestigious furnishings. As was the ca…

Tolfa

(213 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The T. mountain zone lies between the modern towns of Civitavecchia and Bracciano, about 70 km to the north of Rome. On the evidence of the rich hoard finds of Coste del Marano and Monte Rovello and the settlements of Luni sul Mignone, Monte Rovello and several necropoleis it first flourished at the end of the Bronze Age (12th-10th cents. BC). By contrast, it is not until the Etruscan period (from the 7th cent. BC) that there seems to have been a further intensive phase of settlement (necropolei…

Visentium

(248 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria City in southern Etruria on the southwestern shore of Lacus Volsiniensis (Lago di Bolsena), modern Monte Bisenzio. The course of the city wall, an aqueduct, shore fortifications and wall remains interpreted as grain stores are the only memorials to Roman V. (

Hoard finds

(754 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] I. Celto-Germanic area In central Europe from the Byzantine period onwards, hoard finds (HF; storage, treasure, safekeeping, mass, hidden finds, etc.) primarily of metal objects (copper, bronze, iron, precious metals) are an important archaeological group of finds. The diversity of terms reflects the breadth of the discussion of the importance of the HF. The various contexts of the finds, e.g. solid ground, moors, rivers, special places (rocks, crevices, caves, transport routes, etc.), as well as in particular the composition of the objects ( Jewellery, weapons, tools, surplus from casting,  ingots, fragmentary materials, new or damaged pieces) - which are used to find out the reasons for the depositing of the HF - are considered to be indicators of their functions. Two areas are foregrounded in the discussion; first, ‘secular’ HF that were meant to be recovered (hoarding of valuables, household treasures, possessions of traders or artisans, raw materials etc.) and second, ‘ritual’ HF which were not meant to be recovered (votive offerings,  sacrifices, cult treasures or treasures …

Situla

(484 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Italic, Celtic and Germanic Bucket-shaped vessel, as a rule metal, for the carrying and short-term holding of liquids. The shape is generally conical, with flat shoulders and a wide opening, on which a carrying handle was often also fixed with eyelets. The bottom, body and rim were mostly fashioned separately, then riveted together. In Etruria situlae are recorded from the 9th cent. BC onwards and were widely distributed there from the Orientalising Period on. Situlae had far greater significance, however, in the eastern Hallstatt area (Hallstatt culture) and the bordering regions from southeastern Germany through Austria and Slovenia to Hungary, just as in the areas of the Golasecca and Este cultures and the eastern Po Valley. Situlae were among the most significant bearers of decoration there and were produced until the 3rd cent. BC. This 'situla art' reflects the processing of cultural influences from central and southern Italy, since, although artists modelled their work after Etruscan and Greek originals, they depicted people with clothing and objects from their own sphere. The motifs of situla art are also found on helmets, belt hooks and other objects. Aristocratic life, war activities, festival processions and symposium scenes alternate with representations of animals, primarily birds. The repertory is for the most part represented in horizontal bands…

Metallurgy

(2,957 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Metal extraction Metals are extracted from ores (smelting). Precious metals: gold, silver, elektron; base metals: copper, tin, lead, iron. The beginnings of metallurgy can be found in mineralogically favourable regions, particularly near the (copper-)ore deposits of Anatolia. Elements of pyrotechnology have been identified in aceramic neolithic settlements of the early 7th millennium BC, in particular products of metallurgy based on the smelting of …

Weapons

(2,508 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Weapons were among the earliest artefacts fashioned by humans and their ancestors. Stone arrowheads and blades were the first recognizable weapons in the ancient Near East into the Neolithic Period ( c. 10000 BC). From the 4th millennium BC, weapons were depicted on roll seals and stelae in scenes of warfare or hunting. Of maces suitable for close combat, generally only the heads (of stone or metal) survive. One exception is the deposit at the Chalcolithic find site of Naḥal Mišmār in P…