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(386 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle)
[German version] (from Hebrew satan, 'treat with hostility, be hostile';  cf. also sitna, 'hostility') in its basic sense describes an 'adversary, enemy, political opponent', and persons who by their inimical behaviour set out to prevent an undertaking. From the variant satam there is a noun mastema, 'hostility' (Hos 9,7 f.), which is the origin of Mastema, the name of a mythical S. figure in the  Book of Jubilees. A S. character proper has been documented for the first time c. 520 BC. He is part of the heavenly assembly, is subordinate to the will of God and is described …


(142 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle)
[German version] The golden seven-branched candlestick (Hebr. menôrāh, Ex 25,31-40), which adorned the second Jewish Temple, soon became the symbol of Judaism. From the time of Mattathias Antigonus [5] (40-37 BC), it appears occasionally on Jewish coins. The representation on the Arch of Titus in Rome shows how the menorah, looted from the Jerusalem Temple, was paraded triumphally through Rome together with other implements for the sacred service, thus documenting its symbolic meaning for all of Judais…


(124 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle)
[German version] (Hebrew ūrīēl, 'My Light is God') in apocryphal literature the name of one of the four archangels, beside Michael [1], Gabriel [1] and Raphael. He is recorded as an interpretative figure ( angelus interpres, 4 Esra 4:1ff.) and as the ruler of all the stars and lights (1 Hen 75:3). U. leads Henoch through the upper heavens (1 Hen 19ff.). In particular he is assigned rule over the Heavenly Host and the Underworld (Sheol) (1 Hen 20:1), whose gates he smashes in the resurrection of the dead (Or. Sib. 2,229). As one…


(362 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle) | Heim, Manfred (Munich)
[German version] [1] Symbol of the star of Caesar In Latin antiquity, L. refers primarily to the morning star (Greek φωσφόρος/ phōsphóros or ἑωσφόρος/ heōsphóros; Venus; Planets), and in a secondary sense L. also characterizes divine figures. Roman mythology interprets L. as the star of deified Caesar. In Christianity, L. loses the positive connotation: although entirely with reference to 2 Cor 4:6, 2 Petr 1:19 and Apc. 2:28, L. is compared to Christ and therefore at times used as a baptismal name, as a translation of Is. 14:12 (the fallen morning star - heōsphóros: LXX, lucifer: Vulgate)…


(346 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle)
[German version] (Hebrew beraḵā, Greek εὐλογία/ eulogía, Latin benedictio); its original OT meaning refers to a ‘power that engenders grace’. The passive bārūḵ (‘blessed’) refers to the state of possessing it, without the implication that this had to be preceded by an actual act of blessing [1. 355]. Bārūḵ can also refer to the creator of a situation of grace , who could be human or God, and who is thus praised as being endowed with the power of grace (e.g.1 Chr 29,10 and passim). For that reason, in the OT the verb beraḵ not only means ‘to bless’, but often also ‘to praise’ and ‘to gi…


(1,210 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Kundert, Lukas (Basle)
(griech. Μεσσίας; Messías, from Aramaic. mešiḥa and Hebrew. mašiaḥ, 'the Anointed'; Greek. χριστός/ christós, vgl. Jo 1,41). [German version] I. Judaism Whereas in the pre-Exile period this term was used primarily for reigning kings of the dynasty of David (before David for Saul 1 Sam. 24:7 etc., for the dynasty of David cf. the Psalms of David Ps. 2,2; 18,51; 132,10 et passim; for David: 2 Sam. 19:22, 23:1 et passim), who were enthroned by anointing (e.g. 1 Sam. 16:1-13, 1 Kgs. 1:28-40), Exile and post-Exile Israel and early Judaism linked it with the expectation…