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(2,407 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading) | Volpi, Franco (Vicenza)
(θεωρία; theōría). [German version] [1] Legation from Greek cities to shrines Designation for one of the best-documented forms of pilgrimage [1], whereby the Greek póleis sent official legations to non-local shrines. The official sent on such a mission was called theoros (θεωρός; theōrós). It is assumed that the term comes from the fact that the theōroí 'looked upon' with their own eyes ( horân; on the word's disputed etymology see [1.433f.]) the sacrifices and celebrations in those sanctuaries, or beheld a 'god' ( theós), in contrast to all those who remained at home or consu…


(247 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading)
[German version] (Σαλαμινία; Salaminía). One of the two Athenian ambassadorial ships ( theōrídes) used by festival ambassadors ( theōroí), recorded in the Classical period; the other was the Paralus [1; 2. 153 ff.]. The S. was replaced by the Ammonia in the 4th century AD, shortly before the writing of the ps.-Aristotelian Athenaíōn Politeía; the change presumably shows the significance of the Zeus-Ammon oracle  in this period. Later Athenian ambassadorial ships were the Demetrias, the Antigonis and the Ptolemais (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 61,7; [2. 160, 163 f.]). The S. and the other theōr…


(2,830 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading) | Merkt, Andreas (Mainz) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Classical antiquity Pilgrimage, defined here as a journey of considerable length to a sacred place, undertaken for religious reasons, was a common practice in all of antiquity, not solely a Christian phenomenon. Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading) [German version] A. Greek world The best-documented form is the state pilgrimage ( theōría ), in which the Greek city-states sent out envoys ( theōroí) to attend religious festivals, announce their own festivals or consult oracles. However, festivals drew not only official theōríai but also private pilgrims; in general…


(441 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading)
[German version] (προσόδιον/ prosódion, Doric ποθόδιον/ pothódion sc. μέλος/ mélos). The prosódion, a category of lyric poetry, esp. choral, is generally understood as a 'processional song' [2. 30 f.]. Etymologically speaking, prosódion could equally well mean 'contributory'. A form προσῴδιον/ prosṓidion ('accompanying song'?) attested in the late lexicographers may date from the 3rd cent. BC (IG XI 120,49). The procession the prosodion accompanied could lead to (Procl. in Phot. Bibl. 320a 18) or from (schol. Dion. Thrax 451,17 Hilgard) an altar or temple…


(240 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Ian C. (Reading)
[German version] (Πάμφως; Pámphōs). Early Greek poet, author of various hymns to deities, perhaps mythical, mentioned in Pausanias: P. is supposed to be earlier than Homer (Paus. 8,37,9) and Narcissus (ibid. 9,31,9), but later than Olen (ibid. 9,27,2). Pausanias connects P. with Attica (ibid. 7,21,9; 9,29,8) and Eleusis, for which he cites a hymn by P. to Demeter (ibid. 1,39,1; 9,29,8; [4. 74f.]). The tradition that P. was the inventor of the lamp could also be Eleusinian (Plut. fr. 61 Sandbach; [6…