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Ibn ʿAbbād

(2,565 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs , vizier and man of letters of the Būyid period, known as Kāfī ’l-kufāt or more frequently al-Şāḥib , an honorific title which he may have owed to his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl Ibn al-ʿAmīd [see ibn al-ʿamīd, i], but more probably to his loyalty to the amīr Muʾayyid al-Dawla [ q.v.]. Born probably at Iṣṭak̲h̲r on 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326/14 September 938 (but the sources disagree on his date and place of birth), of a family of high officials (his father at least, known as al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-amīn, had been a kātib

Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk, Abu ’l-Faḍl Asʿad b. Muḥammad al-Ḳummī al-Balāsānī

(113 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, mustawfī or director of finances under the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Berk-yaruḳ [see barkyārūḳ ] in the early years of his reign and then vizier (490-2/1097-9), but whose death was brought about by the great military commanders in S̲h̲awwāl 492/September 1099 on an accusation of S̲h̲īʿi sympathies, and even of Ismāʿīlī ones, which he was said to have displayed during the struggle against the rival sultan Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. ¶ (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cambr. hist. of Iran, index C. L. Klausner, The Seljuk vezirate, a study of civil administration 1055-1194, Cambridge, Mass. 197…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan I

(562 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, also known to the Crusaders, like his father, under the name Sulaymān/Soliman, son of Sulaymān b. Ḳutlumus̲h̲ [ q.v.], second Sald̲j̲ūḳ prince of Asia Minor. At an early age, he was in Antioch when his father was killed in battle fighting Tutus̲h̲ [ q.v.], and he was handed over as a hostage to Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.] who conquered Syria in 1086. On the death of the latter (1092) he managed to escape, and arrived in Nicaea, his father’s former residence, where he seems without much difficulty to have had himself accepted as sovereign by the semi-auton…

Ghuzz

(4,934 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Deverdun, G. | Holt, P.M.
, form generally used by Arabic authors for the name of the Turkish Og̲h̲uz people. The origin of the Og̲h̲uz, which for long was obscure because of the diversity of the transcriptions of the names of peoples in the Chinese, Arabic, Byzantine and other sources, seems to have been clarified by J. Hamilton, Toguz Oghuz et On-Uyghur , in JA, ccl/1 (1962), 23-64. At the beginning of the 7th century A.D. there was formed, among the eastern Turkish T’ie-lo tribes, a confederation of Nine Clans = Toḳuz Og̲h̲uz (a form known to the Arabic authors), who revolted…

Ḥiṣār

(16,216 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Colin, G.S. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Et al.
, siege. The following articles deal with siegecraft and siege warfare. On fortification see burd̲j̲ , ḥiṣn , ḳalʿa and sūr . i.— General Remarks Siege warfare was one of the essential forms of warfare when it was a matter of conquest, and not merely of plundering raids, in countries in which, from ancient times, most of the large towns had been protected by walls and where, during the Middle Ages, the open countryside was to an ever increasing extent held by fortresses [see ḥiṣn and ḳalʿa ]. Although the forces available were rarely sufficient to impose a co…

al-Makīn b. al-ʿAmīd

(1,181 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Coquin, R.G.
, D̲j̲ird̲j̲is , (602-72/1205-73) Arabic-speaking Coptic historian whose History , covering the period from the creation of the world to the year 658/1260, was one of the very first mediaeval oriental chronicles to become known in Europe and consequently played a significant role in the early researches of modern Islamic scholars. The encyclopaedists, who since the 18th century have provided a biography of al-Makīn which is still reproduced by Brockelmann (I, 348) and Graf ( GCAL, i, 348), have omitted to indicate their sources; all that is known is that the history of…

Ayyūbids

(10,903 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Name of the dynasty founded by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn b. Ayyūb, which, at the end of the 6th/12th century and in the first half of the 7th/13th century, ruled Egypt, Muslim Syria-Palestine, the major part of Upper Mesopotamia, and the Yemen. The eponym of the family, Ayyūb b. S̲h̲ād̲h̲ī b. Marwān, born in the village of Ad̲j̲danaḳān near Dvin (Dabīl) in Armenia, belonged to the Rawwādī clan of the Kurdish tribe of the Had̲h̲bānī, and, at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, had been in the service of the S̲h̲addādid dynasty, likewise Kurdish,…

Kayḳubād

(812 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of three Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm. Kayḳubād i , ʿalāʾ al-dīn was the most distinguished of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm, to whom many later sovereigns would connect themselves. Removed from power by his brother and predecessor Kaykāʾūs I [ q.v.], he succeeded him in 618/1220. His foreign policy made his dynasty one of the most powerful of his time. In the south he expanded his power, from the very beginning of his reign, over a great part of the Cilician Taurus, where he settled Turkmens. He enlarged his maritime frontiers, i…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan II

(637 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, son and successor of Masʿūd I, and one of the most important sultans of Rūm (1155-92). Masʿūd had, in dealing with the Greeks, succeeded in restoring the position of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs in relation to the Dānis̲h̲mendids who were divided by quarrels over the succession. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan at first maintained this policy, and carried it to the extent of offering the Basileus Manuel Comnenus at Constantinople in 1162 a form of allegiance which, in concrete terms, cost him nothing. He was then able to make himself mast…

Čās̲h̲na-Gīr

(135 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, in Persian, ‘taster’, title of an official, generally an amīr , at the court of the Muslim sovereigns (including the Mamlūks) from the time of the Sald̲j̲ūkids. It is not always clear in what way he is connected with the overseer of the food, k̲h̲ w ānsalār ; perhaps the two are often confused. The title does not appear to be found, even in Iran, under previous dynasties, although caliphs and princes did undoubtedly have overseers for their food, and even had it tasted before they eat, as the dishes were always suspected of being poisoned. The term čās̲h̲na-gīr is also…

Futuwwa

(9,840 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Fr. Taeschner
, a term invented in about the 2nd/8th century as the counterpart of muruwwa [ q.v.], the qualities of the mature man, to signify that which is regarded as characteristic of the fatā , pl. fityān , literally “young man”; by this term it has become customary to denote various movements and organizations which until the beginning of the modern era were wide-spread throughout all the urban communities of the Muslim East. The study of these movements is made difficult by the fact that, in the course of history, t…

ʿArrāda

(245 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a mediaeval artillery engine. In general, from Europe to China, there were everywhere in existence two main types of engines of projection which were operated by more than one man. In the case of the one, the heavy type of engine, the projectile was hurled from a great distance by virtue of the centrifugal force produced by the rocking of a great arm: these were the mand̲j̲anīḳ or mangonels; in the case of the other, a lighter engine, the projectile was discharged by the impact of a shaft forcibly impelled by the release of a rope: these were the ʿarrāda . The principle of the ʿarrāda only differs…

Bayt al-Māl

(8,636 words)

Author(s): Coulson, N.J. | Cahen, Cl. | Lewis, B. | R. le tourneau
, in its concrete meaning “the House of wealth”, but particularly, in an abstract sense, the “fiscus” or “treasury” of the Muslim State. I. The Legal Doctrine. ‘Bilāl and his companions asked ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb to distribute the booty acquired in Iraq and Syria. “Divide the lands among those who conquered them”, they said, “just as the spoils of the army are divided”. But ʿUmar refused their request . . . saying: “Allāh has given a share in these lands to those who shall come after you” ’ ( Kitāb al-Ḵh̲arād̲j̲ , 24. Le Livre de l’Impot Foncier , 37). In this alleged d…

Bursuḳ

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Eastern Turkish = “badger”), one of the chief officers of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs, whose descendants also played a notable rôle at the beginning of the 6th/12th century. Bursuḳ, ¶ although youthful, entered history as one of the principal amīrs in the service of Ṭug̲h̲ril-Beg, who after restoring control in Bag̲h̲dād following the tragedies of the years 450-51/1058-59, made Bursuḳ his first s̲h̲iḥna (military commander) in Bag̲h̲dād. However, under the pacified Sald̲j̲ūḳid organisation, the essential power belonged to the ʿamīd , the civil administrator…

Ḳānūn

(6,513 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y. | Cahen, Cl. | İnalcık, Halil | Ed.
, pl. ḳawānīn , Arabic derivative from Greek κανών, which meant firstly “any straight rod”, later “a measure or rule”, and finally (in the papyri of the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.) “assessment for taxation”, “imperial taxes”, “tariff” (Liddell and Scott, revised ed., London 1940; for its meanings in religious literature, see G. W. H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek lexicon , Oxford 1961). The word was adopted into Arabic presumably with the continuation, after the Muslim conquest of Egypt and Syria, of the pre-Islamic tax system (C. H. Becker, Islamstudien , Leipzig 1924, 218-62; F. Løkkegaard, I…

ʿAmīd

(359 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ar.), title of high officials of the Sāmānid-G̲h̲aznawid administration, which the Sald̲j̲ūḳids, the inheritors of their institutions and personnel, extended throughout their empire. The word, properly speaking, does not denote a function, but the rank of the class of officials from whom the civil governors, ʿāmil (as opposed to the military governors, sallār , s̲h̲iḥna ), were recruited; thus Sibṭ Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī, Mirʾāt al-Zamān , MS Paris 1503, 193v: "one of the ʿumadā " is appointed governor; the same author, supplemented by Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, …

Alp Takīn

(443 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Cahen, Cl.
(alp tigin), the founder of the G̲h̲aznawid power. Like the majority of the praetorians of his time, he was a Turkish slave, purchased and enrolled in the Sāmānid body guard, who progressively rose to the rank of ḥād̲j̲ib al-ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb (commander-in-chief of the guard). In this capacity he wielded the real power during the reign of the young Sāmānid ʿAbd al-Malik I; the vizier Abū ʿAlī al-Balʿamī owed his appointment to him, and did not dare to take any action "without the knowledge and advice" of Alp Takīn. …

ʿArīf

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Ali, Saleh A. el- | Cahen, Cl.
, "one who knows", a term applied to the holders of certain military or civil offices, based on competence in customary matters, ʿurf , as opposed to knowledge of the law, which characterizes the ʿālim . There may have existed in some cases de facto ʿurafāʾ in Arabia already prior to and at the time of Muḥammad (al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Umm , iv, 81) who is said to have condemned them (Ibn Ḥanbal, iv, 133; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Nihāya , iii, 86; al-Sarak̲h̲sī, S̲h̲arḥ al-Siyar al-Kabīr , i, 98; al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Kabīr , ii, 341). But such traditions are obviously influenced by later conditions. Duri…

Itāwa

(64 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(from atā , apparently a doublet of ʿaṭā ) literally “gift”, a general term met with, especially in pre- and proto-Islamic times, meaning a vague tribu te or lump payment madt, for example, to or by a tribe or other group; later the words describes, sometimes in a denigrating way, a tip or bribe. (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography F. Løkkegaard, Islamic Taxation, index, s.v.

Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ

(720 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the son, probably the elder son, of the ancestor and eponym of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid dynasties, Sald̲j̲ūḳ. His history is merged in that of the first contacts between the Og̲h̲uz led by his family and the Muslim states of Central Asia. His personal name was Isrāʾīl (cf. his brothers Mīk̲h̲āʾīl and Mūsā, fore-names in which it is possible to see Jewish Ḵh̲azar or Nestorian Central-Asian influence), with Arslan as a totemic name (cf. his famous nephews Ṭug̲h̲ril Muḥammad and Čag̲h̲rī Dāʾūd). The begin…
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