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Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Hippotae

(94 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱππόται; Hippótai). Boeotian settlement (κώμη; kṓmē) between Thisbe and Coronea, probably identifiable with ancient remains near modern Koukoura on a high plateau on the eastern slope of the southern peak of Helicon, known as Paliaovouna. Thebes besieged and destroyed H. at an indeterminate time and divided the land between Thisbe and Coronea. Named in Plut. Mor. 775 A-B. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography A. R. Burn, Helikon in History, in: ABSA 44, 1949, 317f., 321 Fossey, 339 Pritchett 5, 156 A. Schachter, Reconstructing Thespiai, in: A. Hurst, A. Schachter…

Chaeronea

(522 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Χαιρώνεια, Χηρώνια; Chairṓneia, Chērṓnia). Westernmost town of  Boeotia on the border to Phocis, located in the northern foothills of the Thurion range in the Cephissus valley near the modern C. (formerly Kapraina). Sources: Paus. 9,40,5-41,7; Str. 9,2,37. A prehistoric settlement has been found to the north-east on the banks of the Cephissus [2. 382f.], a Mycenaean chamber tomb close t…

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Eleon

(130 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἐλεών , Ἑλεών; Eleṓn, Heleṓn). Boeotian town (Plin. HN 4,26), already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,500, between Thebes and Tanagra near the mod. Harma (formerly: Dritsa). The town, which was fortified anew during the Middle Ages, was settled from the Early Helladic to the Roman period. Still independent in the classical period (Paus. 1,29,6), later E. together with Harma, Mycalessus, and Pharae formed a synoecism dependent on Tanagra (…

Potniae

(129 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πότνιαι/ Pótniai, Ποτνιαί/ Potniaí). Boeotian town c. 2 km south of Thebes on the road to Plataeae (Xen. Hell. 5,4,51) at the modern Tachi, with sanctuaries of Demeter, Kore and Dionysus Aigobolos, and a spring whose waters were said to madden horses (Paus. 9,8,1; Str. 9,2,24; Verg. G. 3,266 ff.; Ael. NA 15,25). It was identified with the Hypothebae mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,505 (Str. 9,2,32). At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the population of the unfortified town, which belonge…

Hyle

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ὕλη; Hýlē). [German version] [1] Place in Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Place in Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,500; cf. Str. 9,2,26; Steph. Byz. s.v.). According to Hom. Il. 5,707ff. (with Paus. 9,38,7; Str. 9,2,27), H. is on the Copais, according to Str. 9,2,20, on the  Hylice (see also Stat. Theb. 7,267f.). Attempts by Wallace and Knauss [3. 82f.; 2. 243-278] to identify it with one of the prehistoric settlement locations between the former Copais and the modern Hylike equate H.…

Pteleum

(300 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πτελεόν; Pteleón). [German version] [1] Place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae Fortified place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae [2], not located with certainty (Plin. HN 5,117; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). As a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,390 f.; 486; 2,82) P. was at times formally independent, but in fact it was dependent on Erythrae. P. is mentioned by Thuc. (8,24,2; 8,31,2) in connexion with the naval war in the waters around Miletus [2] and Chios in the winter of 412/1 BC (Peloponnesian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Keil, P.…

Ocalea

(93 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὠκαλέη/ Ōkaléē, Ὠκαλέα/ Ōkaléa, Ὠκάλεια/ Ōkáleia). City in western Boeotia, mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,501 and Hom. H. ad Apollinem 242, located at the southern edge of the former Lake Copais; later ancient authors gave varying accounts of O.'s location; cf. Str. 9,2,26f.; Plin. HN 4,26; Dionysius Kalliphontos 99; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 314-318  S. Lauffer, Kopais, vol. 1, 1986, 63-65  E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 266f.  P.W. Wallace, Strabo's Des…

Chalia

(65 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Χαλία; Chalía). Town on the east coast of Boeotia, to be localized either north-west of Chalcis near the modern Drosia (into the 20th cent. known as τὰ Χαλία) [1. 78], or in the vicinity of Aulis [2. 215]. Involved in a territorial dispute with Chalcis: Theopompus, FGrH 115 F 211f.; dating uncertain. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey, 77-78. 2 C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862.

Peteon

(108 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πετεών; Peteṓn). Boeotian city mentioned in the Homeric Catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,500; after this, all later mentions compiled in [1. 1128; 3. 265]); a settlement belonging to Thebes from the Classical period onwards, situated on the road from Thebes to Anthedon (Str. 9,2,26); its location has been pinpointed as being on the western slope of Messapium near modern Muriki [1. 1129f.] or somewhat further north near Platanakia [2. 233f.] or near Skala Paralimnis on the south-eastern bank of Lake Paralimni [4. 107]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Kirs…

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…

Asopus

(479 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἀσωπός; Asōpós). [German version] [1] Small river, flowing to the north out of the Oete range Small river, flowing to the north out of the  Oete range. Before flowing into the plains of Heraclea and Trachis, it forms a deep gorge, passable only in summer ( c. 2.5 km in length, up to 200 m deep, with a width of 6 m at the entrance, and about 30 m at the exit). At the time of the Persian Wars, the A. still had its own delta into the sea (Hdt. 7,200), today it flows under the name of Karvunarja into the  Spercheus. In 480 BC, the Persians by…

Acyphas

(89 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀκύφας; Akýphas). Town of the Dorian  Metropolis, also called  Pindus, on the Pindus river above  Erineus, possibly about 5 km west of Kastelli, c. 3 km south of Oinochori near Ano Kastelli on the upper reaches of the Kananitis, where numerous traces of ancient settlements still exist (partly used as building material in a Frankish fortress), especially dating from the Hellenistic period (Str. 9,4,10. 5,10; Steph. Byz. s. v.; SEG 27,123,12. 39,476).  Doris Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography D. Rousset, Les Doriens de la Métropole, in: BCH 113, 1989, 199-239.

Cnopus

(105 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κνῶπος; Knôpos). River in Boeotia; according to Nic. Ther. 889 it flowed into Lake Copais; schol. Nic. Ther. 889 also mentions an otherwise unknown polis C. that lay on the river  Ismenus (=C.?); it is from an area named Cnopia near Thebes (Str. 9,2,10: ἐκ τῆς Κνωπίας Θηβαϊκῆς) that the sanctuary of  Amphiaraus is said to have been transplanted to Oropus. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 200 T. K. Hubbard, Remaking Myth and Rewriting History: Cult Tradition in Pindar's Ninth Nemean, in: HSPh 94, 1992, 102-107 Schachter, …

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Erineus

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἐρινεός, Ἐρινεόν; Erineós, Erineón). Apart from Boium, Cytenium and Acyphas/Pindus, one of the towns, reportedly founded by  Dorus, of the middle Greek Doris. Reference passages: Tyrateus fr. 2 West; Hdt. 8,43; Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; schol. Aristoph. Plut. 385; schol. Lycoph. Alex. 980). As the only historical event, a raid by …

Harma

(167 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἅρμα; Hárma). Boeotian settlement on the Thebae - Chalcis [1] road between Teumessus and Mycalessus, already listed in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,499; Str. 9,2,26); mentioned in connection with the disappearance of  Amphiaraus or the rescue of  Adrastus [1] (Str. 9,2,11; Paus. 1,34,2; 9,19,4). For some time, H. together with Eleon, Mycalessus and Pharae formed an association of villages subordinate to Tanagra; i…

Acraephia

(608 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀκραίφια, Ἀκραιφία, Ἀκραιφίαι, Ἀκραίφιον, Ἀκραίφνιον, Ἀκραίφνια; Akraíphia, Akraiphía, Akraiphíai, Akraíphion, Akraíphnion, Akraíphnia. On the name: [5. 125]). Boeotian town on the eastern edge of the former Lake Copais on the western foothills of Mount  Ptoon, north of a deep bay, which, from about the 6th cent. BC to the 1st cent. AD, was separated from the lake by a frequently renewed dam a…
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