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Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Thrasyalces

(125 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Θρασυάλκης; Thrasyálkēs). 'One of the old nature philosophers' (τῶν ἀρχαίων δὲ φυσικῶν εἷς οὗτος, Str. 17,1,5; 35 fr. 1 DK; [1. 2343; 2]) from Thasos probably in the 5th cent. BC. T. assigned the winds to either Boreas or Notus, the two main winds (Str. 1,2,21; Posidon. FGrH 87 F 74 with comm., critically explained by [1. 2343 f.]). Th. saw the cause for the Nile floods (Nile) in the summer rains of Nubia which in turn were caused by masses of clouds blown in from the north [2] (or the south(?) [4. 1377 f.]) (Str. 17,1,5; Lydus, Mens. 4,107; Posidon. FGrH 87 F 79 with comm.). …

Riddles

(1,754 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid)
[German version] I. Definition a) A riddle is an encrypted formulation, related to the figurative speech of metaphor and posing a question; its answer (= solution) requires - indeed, provokes - the memory and imagination of the person addressed; an analogical inference is generally helpful to finding the answer [1. 261]. The person who poses the riddle has superior knowledge; hence the addressee concedes expertise to that person or authority (e.g., the seer or oracle); at the same time, the guesser …

Xenagoras

(338 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Ξεναγόρας/ Xenagóras). [German version] [1] Greek historian and geographer, probably in the 3rd cent. BC Greek historian and geographer probably in the 3rd cent. BC (X. FGrH 240), mentioned by Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,72,5 after Callias [10] [1. 912 f.]. It is unclear whether he was identical to X. from Heraclea [7], the father of Nymphis [1. 913; 2. 1410 f.]. He wrote a chronicle that included Egypt (F 1) and the west, esp. Sicily (F 12; 14; 15; 17; 18), probably Italy i.e. Rome as well (if F 29 is a part of the chronicle) in at least 4 bks. (title: Χρόνοι/ Chrónoi , FGrH 240 F 1). It cove…

Epitome

(1,344 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich)
(ἐπιτομή; epitomḗ, Lat. epitoma and epitome) [German version] A. Definition Epitomḗ (from ἐπιτέμνειν; epitómnein, ‘abbreviate’, ‘cut to size’, Aristot. Soph. el. 174b 29; Theophr. Hist. pl. 6,6,6): as an ideal type, it is a form of reduced written text [10] somewhere between an excerpt and a paraphrase, generally of prose works (exception i.a. the lost Virgil epitomes [2]), and themselves written in prose (exception: Ausonius' Caesares). Extreme brevity is the declared aim of an epitome: decorative features of the original, such as speeches, or digressions, …

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Mandrobulus

(87 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Μανδρόβουλος; Mandróboulos). The theophoric name is derived from ‘Mandrus, a - deduced - god of Asia Minor. A drama by Cleophon and a dialogue by Speusippus are named after M. The proverb ἐπὶ τὰ Μανδροβούλου χωρεῖ τὸ πρᾶγμα was already no longer understood in antiquity; the ancient Paroimiographoi offered conjectures with regard to its explanation - as in Suda ε 2659, 2716 - presuming that it related to turns for the worse. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. Mandroboulos, RE 14, 1039f.

Acrostich

(733 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek ἀκροστιχίς ( akrostichís; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,62,6), ἀκροστίχιον ( akrostíchion; Or. Sib. 11, 17 and 23) and plur. τὰ ἀκρόστιχα ( tà akrósticha; as a heading: Anth. Pal. 9,385). Letters, syllables or words that start consecutive verses or especially lines of verse (ὁ στίχος, ho stíchos; verse, lines of prose), or strophes and form a meaningful connection. As a result of this feature the whole poem also came to be known as acrostich. If a vertical row of letters, highlighted i. a. by spacing, formed the acrostich, this was termed παραστιχίς ( parastichí…

Guido

(231 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] Latin author, identified as G. Pisanus ([4], a different view in [6]); c. 1119 he wrote an encyclopaedic compilation De variis historiis (‘On various historical matters’) in 6 books. For the sections Geographica and Descriptio totius maris he excerpted the  Geographus Ravennas, following him very closely. In the Geographica he copied the latter's personal reference to Ravenna as his hometown (Geographica 20,20), but apart from that, as evidence of his education, he displays his knowledge of Classical writers and historians, as …

Phileas

(199 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Φιλέας; Philéas). [German version] [1] Of Athens, Greek geographer, middle of the 5th cent. BC Greek geographer from Athens (cf. Marcianus, Epitome peripli Menippei 2 = GGM 1, 565; Avien. 43f.), middle of the 5th cent. BC. His 13 directly preserved fragments have not been edited (sources and contents: [1. 2134f.]). As probably the first Attic successor to the early Ionian periegesis (Periegetes), P., in his Description of the Earth (γῆς περίοδος/ gês períodos, Harpocr. 152,2), probably discussed the entire Mediterranean region, not only the coasts, as in a periplous

Marcianus

(1,758 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer from Heraclea, between AD 200 and 530, Marcianus I Greek [1] (Μαρκιανός; Markianós). Geographer from Heraclea [7] between AD 200 (he used the geographer Protagoras) and 530 (he is often quoted by Steph. Byz.), possibly after 400 (GGM 1, CXXX; [2. 272; 3. 997; 6. 156f.]) or even closer to Steph. Byz. [1. 46]. Personal information about him is not available. Only 21 quotes from his Epitome of the eleven books of the Geōgraphía by Artemidorus [3] of Ephesus have been handed down by Steph. Byz. and one as Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,859 (GGM 1,…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Araspes

(83 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀράσπας; Aráspas). Distinguished Median (βασιλέως Χαράσπου on a coin [1]), in Xenophon's Cyropaedia (5,1,1-20; 6,1,31-44; 3,14-20 ; cf. Plut. De prof. in virt. 15, Mor. 84 f.; De curios. 13, Mor. 521 et al) one of the model figures; a faithful, reliable friend of Cyrus, even if he became infatuated with Pantheia, the wife of king Abradates, when she was entrusted to him. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, s. v. A., RE 3, 381 2 W. Knauth, S. Nadjmabadi, Das altiranische Fürstenideal, 1975.

Anecdote

(403 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Today one understands an anecdote to be a short oral story, often with one punch line, also including some humorous words, and which has a claim to be factually representative of some specific aspect of personalities or political-social circumstances [3. 641]. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Antiquity Initially, ἀνέκδοτος ( anékdotos) was the technical designation for unpublished texts (Diod. Sic. 1,4,6; Cic. Att. 14,17,6; Clem. Al. Strom. 1,1,14; Synesius, Ep. 154a Garzya). Certainly Cicero (Att. …

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Zetema

(837 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(ζήτημα; zḗtēma), plur. zētḗmata (ζητήματα), 'search', 'investigation', 'research questions'. [German version] I. Definition A widespread Greek term for a philosophical-exegetical method of questioning and the subject of an investigation, as well as for the kinds of texts that deal with such questions. The verb ζητεῖν ( zēteîn, generally 'to search') and its derivatives ζήτησις ( zḗtēsis, 'search') and zḗtēma were directed either to a state of affairs (Eur. Bacch. 1218-1221: Cadmus brings the body of Pentheus, which Agave has torn apart, "after he had …

Pomponius

(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…

Timosthenes

(347 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Τιμοσθένης/ Timosthénēs). [German version] [1] Of Euboea, c. 300 BC Son of Demophanes from Carystus [1] in Euboea. After his homeland had joined the anti-Macedonian alliance, he was actively involved in fighting in the Lamian War. In 306/5 BC he was honoured in Athens for his services (Syll.3 327). A commendation of his grandson as late as the year 229/28 recalls his commitment (Syll.3 496,23-24). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodes, naval commander and geographical author, 3rd cent. BC T. from Rhodes, naval commander of Ptolemaeus [3] II, author of a wor…

Philemon

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Φιλήμων; Philḗmōn). [German version] [1] Husband of Baukis Husband of Baucis. Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] [2] Writer of the Attic New Comedy, c. 300 BC Son of Damon of Syracuse [1. test. 1, 11], became (before 307/6 BC; cf. [1. test. 15]) an Athenian citizen [1. test. 2-12. 15]. Important writer of Attic New Comedy with his stage debut several years before Menander [4] (before 328: [1. test. 2]); it is uncertain whether this somewhat earlier chronology or the different nature of his plays led to P. once being call…

Anagnostikoi

(242 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀναγνωστικοί; anagnōstikoí). Aristotle mentions (Rhet. 3,1413b 12-14) the poets  Chaeremon and  Licymnius as ἀναγνωστικοί, ‘suitable for reciting’. At Rh. 3,1413b 2-1414a 28, he allocates to the style of expression which is influenced by contention, and whose unrefined style has the most need for a histrionic presentation (ἀγωνιστικὴ δὲ ἡ ὑποκριτικωτάτη, 3,1413b 9), the judicial oration and the public speech, especially the latter with its large audience (3,1414a8-17). By contrast…
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