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Paphus

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Writing | Christianity | Zenobia | Kypros | Diadochi and Epigoni | Natural catastrophes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Πάφος; Páphos). [German version] I. Old Paphus In antiquity two cities on the southern coast of Cyprus bore the name P.; from the Roman Imperial period, they were differentiated as New P. (Νέα Πάφος/ Néa Páphos, near modern Kato P.) and Old P. (Παλαίπαφος/ Palaípaphos, near modern Kouklia). (Old) P. is first mentioned on the Prism of Asarhaddon (673/2 B…

Crete

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Κρήτη, Krētē, Latin Creta). [German version] A. Settlement geography C. is the largest Greek island, with an east-west extension of 250 km and a north-south extension of max. 60 km. The narrowest part is the Isthmus of Hierapytna in the east. The island's topography is shaped by its mountains. Three large mountain ranges dominate: in the west the ‘White Mountains’ (  Leúka órē , 2,482 m), in the centre the  Ida Mountains (Piloritis, 2,456 m) and in the east the  Dicte Range (highest elevation 2,147 m) with the Lassithi Plateau (moun…

Chios

(447 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Ionic | Colonization | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Χίος; Chíos). [German version] A. Introduction Large (856 km2) island, c. 8 km from the mainland. The ancient settlements were on the east coast, where the main city of the same name is today (few traces, an earthquake in 1881 having destroyed nearly all buildings on the island). Highest point is the Pelinaion (1297 m). The east and south-east …

Peloponnesus

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ἡ Πελοπόννησος/ hē Pelopónnēsos, Doric Πελοπόννασος/ Pelopónnasos). [German version] I. Geography Peninsula in southern Greece (21,439 km²), connected to the mainland (Attica, Boeotia) by the Isthmus of Corinth. It is predominantly mountainous (cf. Cyllene [1], Erymanthus [1], Lycaeum, western Messenian massif with Ithome [1], Taygetus, Parnon) and highly fragmented (cf. the numerous small rivers, particularly in Achaea, e.g. Alpheus [1], Pamisus, Eurotas, Inachus [2]; also the many small coastal plains a…

Eleusis

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Linear B | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Attica | Attica | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ἐλευσίς; Eleusís, mod. Elefsina). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] A. Location Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis with urban character, 11 (?) bouleutai, c. 21 km west of  Athens [1] on a low coastal hill range west of Thriasia, whose north-western summit with Hellenistic fortress and…

Philippopolis

(822 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Coloniae | Alexander | Moesi, Moesia | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Φιλιππόπολις/ Philippópolis, Φιλιπούπολις/ Philipoúpolis). [German version] I. Location and history up to conquest by the Goti City in Thrace (Thraci), founded by Philip (Philippus [4]) II in the immediate vicinity of a fortified settlement of the Bessi on the right bank of the Hebrus in 341 BC. An important road and river transport junction between the Ister [2], the Black Sea, …

Scupi

(504 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia | Rome (Σκοῦποι/ Skoûpoi, Lat. Scupi). [German version] I. Location, Roman Period City of the Illyrian Dardani [4] on the Axius, on the road from Stobi to Naissus (Ptol. 3,9,6; 8,11,5; Scunis, Tab. Peut. 7,4; Hierocles, Synecdemos 655,8), 5 km northwest of present-day Skopje. S. was a Roman colonia beginning in the Flavian Period (AD 69-96; ILS 2461), fortified under Hadrianus (ILS 3860). As evidenced by veteran inscriptions, S.…

Greece

(12,206 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nicosia ) | Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Chronology and Delineation (CT) 'Greece' (G.) can be understood in a dual sense: on the one hand, the term is used to refer to the modern Greek state since its foundation (1830); however, 'G.' can also – without immediate reference to questions of statehood - describe the territories of the former Byzantine empire in which the Greek-speaking culture found expression after 1204 or 1453, whether in the context of the Ottoman Empire (OE) or within…

Nauplia

(433 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ναυπλία/ Nauplía, Byzantine τὸ Ναύπλιον/ tò Naúplion or τὸ Ἀνάπλι/ tò Anápli, present-day Nafplio). [German version] I. Position Port on a rocky peninsula near the Kolpos Argolikos (Str. 8,2,2; Scyl. 49; 6,11; Ptol. 3,16,11) on the northern slope of the town’s mountain, Akronafplia (formerly Iç Kale, 85m high). Greater parts of the Hellenistic acropolis wall lie under the later Byzantine- Venetian- Turkish fort. It lies to the north-west of the Palamidi (215 m high) which is surmounted by a fortress built by the Venetians in 1711-1714. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stutt…

Serdica

(587 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Daci, Dacia | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pilgrimage | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Σερδική/ Serdikḗ, modern Sofia). [German version] I. Early history until the Roman Period Settlement of the Thracian Serdi on the Oescus [1] between the Scombrus and Haemus mountain ranges, a nodal point of roads (It. Ant. 135,4; Tab. Peut 7,5; Ptol. 3,11,8); modern Sofia. Settled since the 8th/7th centuries BC, in the 5th/4th centuries BC S. developed under the kings of t…

Messana, Messene

(2,692 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Town in northeastern Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Μεσσάνα/ Messána, Ionian Μεσσήνη/ Messḗnē, Lat. Messana). Town in northeastern Sicily, modern Messina. The original name Zancle (Ζάγκλη/ Zánklē = Siculan: ‘sickle’) is derived from the topographically suggestive shape of the natural harbour (Thuc. 6,4,5). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Foundation The site was settled at an early time because of its o…

Megara

(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…

Italia [I-II]

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. The name and its development The name I. acquired its modern meaning during the Augustan period; it originally described the kingdom of the Oenotrian ruler Italus, comprising the Bruttian peninsula from Sila to Scylletium (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 5; according to Hecat. FGrH 1 F 41,51-53, Medma, Locris, Caulonia, and Krotalla were in I.). Hellanicus links I. with the term vitulus (‘calf’) and the legend of the calf of  Geryoneus which had run away from Hercules (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35); Timaeus associates the name wit…

Thraci, Thracia

(5,334 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Boroffka, Nikolaus | Z.H.A.
(Θρᾷκες/ Thrâikes, Θρῇκες/ Thrêikes; Θρᾴκη/ Thrâikē, Θρῄκη/ Thrêikē): the 'Thracians' and the country 'Thrace' settled by them; Lat. Thraci, Thracia. [German version] I. Name Thraci (Th.) is a Greek collective term, based on linguistic and cultural homogeneity, for the population of the northern Balkan Peninsula from the north coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea, also called the 'Thracian Sea': Str. 1,2,20) to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]; ancient authors often include the territory as far as the northern Carpathians), an…

Panormus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Πάνορμος; Pánormos). [German version] [1] Harbour on the coast of Karia Harbour on the coast of Karia (Stadiasmus maris magni 285; 287; 294 with contradictory details) between Miletus [2] and Myndus, located at a distance of 80 stadia (14.8 km) from them, therefore near (Aşağı) Gölköy, which is the location also assumed for Caryanda, near the natural harbour of the Türkbükü bay or further to the west at the Ağaçbaşı-Limanı bay (Paşa Limanı). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. P. (1), RE 18,3, 654  G.E. Bean, J.M. Cook, The Halicarnassus Peninsula, in: ABSA 50,…

Byzantium

(4,987 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Effenberger, Arne (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | Wine | Xenophon | | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Colonization | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Βυζάντιον; Byzántion). [German version] I. Topography and history Greek city on the southern shore of the  Bosporus [1] on a peninsula bordering on the Chrysokeras in the north and on the Propontis …

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Asia Minor

(16,327 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich (Tübingen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Name Strabo was the first to refer to the peninsula of Asia Minor (AM) west of the  Taurus (Str. 2,5,24; 12,1,3; cf. Plin. HN 5,27f.; Ptol. 5,2) as a single unit by the name of Asia in the narrower sense, as opposed to the continent of Asia. The term of Asia minor in this sense is first used in Oros. 1,2,26 (early 5th cent. AD). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Geography AM is the westernmost part of the Asian continent between 36° and 42° northern latitude, and 26° and 44° eastern longitude, stretching from the Aegean to the Euphrates ( c. 1,200 km), and fro…
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