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Ḥiṣār

(16,216 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Colin, G.S. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Et al.
, siege. The following articles deal with siegecraft and siege warfare. On fortification see burd̲j̲ , ḥiṣn , ḳalʿa and sūr . i.— General Remarks Siege warfare was one of the essential forms of warfare when it was a matter of conquest, and not merely of plundering raids, in countries in which, from ancient times, most of the large towns had been protected by walls and where, during the Middle Ages, the open countryside was to an ever increasing extent held by fortresses [see ḥiṣn and ḳalʿa ]. Although the forces available were rarely sufficient to impose a co…

Ḥisba

(8,785 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Talbi, M. | Mantran, R. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Bazmee Ansari, A.S.
, non-Ḳurʾānic term which is used to mean on the one hand the duty of every Muslim to “promote good and forbid evil” and, on the other, the function of the person who is effectively entrusted in a town with the application of this rule in the supervision of moral behaviour and more particularly of the markets; this person entrusted with the ḥisba was called the muḥtasib . There seems to exist ¶ no text which states explicitly either the reason for the choice of this term or how the meanings mentioned above have arisen from the idea of “calculation” or “sufficiency” which is expressed by the root. i.—G…

Karm

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Bolens, L. | Cahen, Cl.
(A.), the vine. Toone who knows the official attitude of Islam towards wine [see k̲h̲amr ], the vitality of the cultivation of the vine in the majority of mediaeval Muslim countries may appear paradoxical. Nevertheless, it is incontestable, and is explained by the force of tradition in some countries where the vine has long been established, by the multiple uses of the grape (fresh fruit, dried raisin, vinegar, pharmaceutical uses, the lees as fertilizer, etc.), by the survival of non-Mus…

Besni

(484 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Behesnī in the Middle Ages), from the Syriac Bet Hesnā, a crossroads settlement at a height of more than 2,900 feet on the important junction of the Malaṭya-Aleppo and (Cilicia) Marʿas̲h̲-Diyār Bakr roads. Besni was the hinge between the series of strongholds north of the great bow of the Euphrates on the one hand, which protected the upper valleys of the right bank tributaries of this river from incursion from the plateaux and high ranges of the eastern Taurus, and on the other those towards t…

Īnāl

(298 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Īnālids , name of a Turcoman chief (from the old central-Asiatic title Yi̊nal) who made himself independent at Āmid (Diyār Bakr [ q.v.]) at the end of the 5th/11th century during the struggles among the successors of Maliks̲h̲āh, and name of the dynasty, which remained in power until the end of the 6th/12th century. Although they are mentioned in a few inscriptions, the historians have written little on the Īnālids. Masters of a place which was commercially and strategically important, they nevertheless held at Diyār Bakr a secondary place compared with the Artuḳ…

Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲

(405 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a small and ancient town situated on the north-eastern bank of Lake Van, which in the Middle Ages was still called the Lake of Ard̲j̲īs̲h̲. Its existence seems to be vouched for since the Urartaean period, and more expressly by the Graeco-Roman geographers. It was occupied for a time by the Arabs during the time of ʿUt̲h̲mān, but remained an integral part of the Armenian principalities up to the 8th century A.D.; from 772 onwards, it was incorporated into the Ḳaysite emirate of Ak̲h̲lāṭ [ q.v.]. In the 10th century A.D., it belonged to the Marwānids, but about 1025 it was taken…

K̲h̲arād̲j̲

(31,524 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Orhonlu, Cengiz | Subhan, Abdus
, a word derived, via Syriac, from Greek χορηϒία, but attached by the Arabs to the native root k̲h̲ . r. d̲j̲ . Contrary to its original meaning, the word seems, in the current usage of the Near East, to have denoted “tax” in general, and is in fact found with reference to various specific taxes, thus causing considerable confusion [see d̲j̲izya ]. Arabic technical and legal literature uses it more specifically, at least in the period before the formation of Turkish states, in the sense of land tax, and it is this sense which is exclusively discussed in the present article. For other taxes, see bayt…

Amīn

(315 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ar. pl. umanā ), "trustworthy, in whom one can place one’s trust", whence al-Amīn, with the article, as an epithet of Muḥammad in his youth. As a noun, it means "he to whom something is entrusted, overseer, administrator": e.g. Amīn al-Waḥy , "he who is entrusted with the revelation", i.e. the angel Gabriel. The word also frequently occurs in titles, e.g. Amīn al-Dawla (e.g. Ibn al-Tilmīd̲h̲ others), Amīn al-Dīn (e.g. Yāḳūt), Amīn al-Mulk, Amīn al-Salṭana. In addition to these general and undefined uses of the word amīn , there are other more technical uses,…

ʿAṭāʾ

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, "gift", the term most commonly employed to denote, in the early days of Islam, the pension of Muslims, and, later, the pay of the troops. It is impossible to give here the history of the system of pay throughout the Muslim world, and this article will be confined to a general outline. The traditional starting-point is the organisation of the pensions by ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb. The first Muslims had derived no material advantage except their share of the booty from successful expeditions. The flow of taxes into the coffers of the nascent caliphate …

al-Makīn b. al-ʿAmīd

(1,181 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Coquin, R.G.
, D̲j̲ird̲j̲is , (602-72/1205-73) Arabic-speaking Coptic historian whose History , covering the period from the creation of the world to the year 658/1260, was one of the very first mediaeval oriental chronicles to become known in Europe and consequently played a significant role in the early researches of modern Islamic scholars. The encyclopaedists, who since the 18th century have provided a biography of al-Makīn which is still reproduced by Brockelmann (I, 348) and Graf ( GCAL, i, 348), have omitted to indicate their sources; all that is known is that the history of…

Ayyūbids

(10,903 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Name of the dynasty founded by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn b. Ayyūb, which, at the end of the 6th/12th century and in the first half of the 7th/13th century, ruled Egypt, Muslim Syria-Palestine, the major part of Upper Mesopotamia, and the Yemen. The eponym of the family, Ayyūb b. S̲h̲ād̲h̲ī b. Marwān, born in the village of Ad̲j̲danaḳān near Dvin (Dabīl) in Armenia, belonged to the Rawwādī clan of the Kurdish tribe of the Had̲h̲bānī, and, at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, had been in the service of the S̲h̲addādid dynasty, likewise Kurdish,…

Kayḳubād

(812 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of three Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm. Kayḳubād i , ʿalāʾ al-dīn was the most distinguished of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm, to whom many later sovereigns would connect themselves. Removed from power by his brother and predecessor Kaykāʾūs I [ q.v.], he succeeded him in 618/1220. His foreign policy made his dynasty one of the most powerful of his time. In the south he expanded his power, from the very beginning of his reign, over a great part of the Cilician Taurus, where he settled Turkmens. He enlarged his maritime frontiers, i…

Konya

(3,077 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Goodwin, G.
(Arabic and Turkish orthography, Ḳūniya), known in antiquity as Iconium, an important town lying on the edge of the Anatolian plateau, on a diagonal line connecting the Dardanelles with the Taurus passes leading into Syria. 1. History. Konya was, during the centuries of Arab invasion, a Byzantine military base which the attackers seem for this reason to have more or less deliberately avoided and circumvented, in preference either for Tarsus [see ṭarsūs ] to the south or especially for Cappadocia by the northern routes; this would seem to explai…

Bak̲h̲tiyār

(420 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, prince, son; heir apparet (344/955) and successor (356/967) of Muʾizz al-Dawla in ʿIrāḳ, with the laḳab of ʿIzz al-Dawla. He appears to have had little talent for government, which, unlike his father, he entrusted to wazīrs (chosen without any great discernment) so as to be free to amuse himself, though he still impeded the conduct of affaire by his impetuous verbal or active intervention. At the beginning of his reign he continued his father’s policy of hostility to the Ḥamdānid Abū Tag̲h̲lib of Mawṣil and to the autonomous chieftain ¶ of the Baṭīḥa, ʿImrān b. S̲h̲āhīn. Furthermor…

Balak

(763 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, nūr al-dawla balak b. bahrām b. artuḳ , one of the first Artuḳids, known chiefly as a tough warrior. He appears in history in 489/1096 as commander of Sarud̲j̲ on the Middle Euphrates. This locality being taken from him by the Crusaders in the following year, and his uncle Ilg̲h̲āzī having been appointed governor of ʿIrāḳ by Sulṭān Muḥammad, he accompanied him, and is found in the following years struggling vainly for the little towns of ʿĀna and Ḥadīt̲h̲a, against Arabs, or prot…

Ḳalāwd̲h̲iya

(226 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Claudias, a locality of ancient origin (the Claudiopolis of Pliny? cf. Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.), the exact site of which has not been determined but which almost certainly commanded the entrance to the Euphrates gorges below Malaṭya/Melitene, between the eastern Taurus and the K̲h̲anzit [ q.v.]. One of the fortified places on the frontier that were captured and re-captured by the Arabs and the Byzantines, it was restored by al-Mansūr, but again fell into Byzantine hands, together with the province of Melitene, in the middle of the 4th/10th …

Ḍayʿa

(982 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, plu. ḍiyāʿ , estate. The word can mean generally a rural property of a certain size, but is understood in a more precise sense in fiscal contexts. It is known that at the time of the Conquests the local people were left in possession of their lands, subject to their paying the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ ; it was later understood that the conversion of the landowner would not change the fiscal status of the land. In contradistinction to the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ lands there were the original properties of the Arabs, especially in Arabia, and the grants made in favour of notables or their depende…

D̲j̲arād

(1,372 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L. | Cahen, Cl.
, locusts. The word is a collective noun, the nom. unit, being d̲j̲arāda , which is applied to the male and the female alike. No cognate synonym seems to exist in the other Semitic languages. For the different stages of the locust’s development the Arabic language possesses special names (such as sirwa , dabā , g̲h̲awghāʾ , k̲h̲ayfān , etc.) which, however, are variously defined by different authorities. Being found in abundance in the homeland of the Arabs, locusts were often mentioned and described in ancient Arabic poetry and proverbs. In the Ḳurʾān they figu…

Māʾ

(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…

Diyār Muḍar

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl.
, a name formed in the same way as Diyār Bakr [ q.v.], is the province of the Ḏj̲azīra whose territory is watered by the Euphrates and its tributary the Balīk̲h̲ as well as by the lower reaches of the K̲h̲ābūr. It extends on both banks of the Euphrates from Sumaysāṭ (Samosata) in the north to ʿAnā (ʿĀnāt) in the south. The principal town of the Diyār Muḍar was al-Raḳḳa on the left bank of the Euphrates; other major towns were Ḥarrān on the Balīk̲h̲, Edessa (al-Ruhā, Urfa), capital of Osrhoene, and Sarūd̲j̲ …
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