Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)" )' returned 154 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Libys

(110 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates who, together with them abducts Dionysius who is disguised as a drunken boy. As a punishment all pirates are transformed into dolphins by the wine god, except the helmsman Acoetes ( Acoetes [1]) who wants to keep them from the outrage (Ov. Met. 3,605-691; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Brother of Lysander, Spartan nauarch 403 BC Brother of Lysander, as Spartan nauarch he blockaded Piraeus in 403 BC in order to combat the revolt of Thrasybulus and his suppo…

Antalcidas

(491 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀντιαλκίδας; Antalkídas in IG V 1,93 ll. 15 and 212). At some time in the spring of 392 BC or the preceding winter A., through the mediation of the satrap  Tiribazus and abandoning the Greeks of Asia Minor, was to make peace with the Persian king [3; 7], the victory of  Conon at Cnidus having left Sparta in a precarious situation. As Sparta no longer controlled the poleis of Asia Minor, the attempt was a failure, although A. did receive a secret subsidy from Tiribazus for the expansion of the Spartan fleet (Xen. Hell. 4,8,12 ff.; Plut. Ages. 23,2). In the summer of 388 as   nauarch…

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…

Cratesiclea

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρατησίκλεια). Wife of Leonidas II, mother of  Cleomenes [6] III, who was strongly in favour of his reform plans. Following her son's flight to Ptolemy III, she went to Egypt as a hostage and was executed there in 219 BC after the failure of Cleomenes' coup (Plut. Cleomenes 6,2; 7,1; 22,3-10; 38,2-12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Polytropus

(77 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πολύτροπος/ Polýtropos). Commander of a detachment of mercenaries recruited in Corinth, which fought for Sparta in 370/369 BC against the newly founded koinón of the Arcadians (see also Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; [1. 80 ff.]) and occupied the polis of Orchomenus [3] because it did not wish to join the Arcadians' League. P. fell in action against Mantinean troops (Xen. Hell. 6,5,11-14; cf. Diod. Sic. 15,62,1-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Beck, Polis und Koinon, 1997.

Sperthias

(126 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Hdt. 7,134,2: Σπερθίης/ Sperthíēs; Plut. Mor. 235f: Σπέρτις/ Spértis; 815e: Σπέρχις/ Spérchis). A high-ranking Spartan (Spartiatae) who is supposed to have offered himself and the Spartan Boulis in Susa as atonement for the ambassadors of Darius [1] I who had allegedly been killed in Sparta in 491 BC, but refused to prostrate himself before Xerxes who nevertheless set him free (Hdt. 7,134,2-136). Whether Persian ambassadors had appeared in Sparta in 491 BC, however, remains questionable [1.…

Cnemus

(84 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κνῆμος; Knêmos). Spartan nauarchos (fleet commander) in 430/29 BC, destroyed Zacynthus in 430, conducted operations in Acarnania in 429 and was defeated at Oeniadae (Thuc. 2,66; 80-82; Diod. Sic. 12,47,4f.). C.'s formations suffered heavy losses in 429 at Stratus and Naupactus against the Athenians under Phormion. In the late autumn of 429 an assault that C. and his ‘adviser’  Brasidas had planned against Piraeus was called off; Salamis was laid waste instead (Thuc. 2,83-94; Diod. Sic. 12,49). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Philocharidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Φιλοχαρίδας/ Philocharídas). Spartiate, son of Euryxilaidas, co-signatory of the truce between Sparta and Athens in 423 BC (Thuc. 4,119,2) and the Peace of Nicias in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2). With Ischagoras and Menas [1] he was supposed to instruct Clearidas to hand over Amphipolis by treaty to Athens but the latter opposed this (Thuc. 5,21). In the same year, P. took oaths to the symmachía of Sparta with Athens (Thuc. 5,24,1) and in 420 was a member of a Spartan delegation that was snubbed in Athens through intrigues on the pa…

King's peace

(132 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Term given to the ‘General Peace’ ( koinḕ eirḗnē ) that the Persian Great King Artaxerxes [2] II in effect dictated to the Greeks (Isoc. Or. 4,175f.) in 387/6 BC; also known as the Peace of Antalcidas. The Persian demands that were conveyed to the Greeks in Sardes in the autumn of 387 (Stv II 242) contained a claim to all the poleis in west Asia Minor, Clazomenae and Cyprus. Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros were to belong to Athens ‘as before’; all other Greek states were to b…

Mindarus

(165 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μίνδαρος; Míndaros). A Spartan, naúarchos (fleet commander) in 411/410 BC. In September 411, he set out from Miletus for the Thracian Chersonesus, in order to strike at the most important Athenian supply route, but was defeated soon afterwards at Cynossema by a smaller Athenian fleet under Thrasybulus [3] (Thuc. 8,99-107), as well as in a second battle at Abydus [1] (Oct./Nov. 411), after Alcibiades [3] unexpectedly led reinforcements to the Athenian forces (Xen. Hell. 1,1,2-7; Diod.…

Archidamus

(680 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρχίδαμος; Archídamos). [German version] [1] II. Spartan king (ca. 475-427 BC) II., Spartan king, Eurypontid, grandson and successor of Leotychidas II, who went into exile in Tegea after a failed campaign in Thessaly (476/75 BC?) and died there in 469 (Paus. 3,7,10). It remains uncertain if A. already became king in 476/75 or only in 469. After the great earthquake of 464 he forcefully defended Sparta against an attack by the  Helots (Diod. Sic. 11,63,4-641; Plut. Cimon 16) and apparently proved himself i…

Chilon

(452 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Χίλων; Chílōn). [German version] [1] Spartan politician, 6th cent. BC From Sparta; son of Damagetus; owing to his leading role in the politics of Sparta (ephor c. 556 BC), in the middle of the 6th cent. he became first ephor (Sosicrates FHG IV 502 [1]); also ascribed to him was the strengthening of the ephorate in relation to the kings (Diog. Laert. 1,68). Owing to his elegiac poetry and his wisdom he was counted among the ‘Seven Sages’ of archaic Greece (Pl. Prt. 343a; Diog. Laert. 1,68-73). Rylands papyrus 18 (= FGrH …

Pedaritus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πεδάριτος; Pedáritos). A Spartan, harmost in 412/1 BC (Harmostai[1]) in Chios, which had seceded from Athens and which he defended against Athenian attacks. Having brutally eliminated Athenian supporters in the process, he had an action brought against him by the Chians in Sparta (Thuc. 8,28,3; 32-33; 38-40; cf. Isocr. Or. 6,53; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 8). He fell in an attack on Athenian siege troops (Thuc. 8,55,3). His successor will presumably have been his father Leon [3]. Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylippus

(285 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γύλιππος; Gýlippos). Spartiate, son of Cleandridas. His education (  agōgḗ ) was perhaps (at times?) made possible by an affluent Spartan, as Aelianus (Var. 12,43) calls him mothax (‘Bastard’) [1. 434]. When Syracuse asked Sparta for help against the Athenians, he was sent to Sicily (Thuc. 6,93; 104), reached Himera in the summer of 414 BC with a small force, reinforced his army there considerably, broke through to Syracuse, organized the resistance and prevented the encircling of the city (Thuc. 7,1-7). A…

Xenias

(214 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ξενίας; Xenías). [German version] [1] Arcadian from Parrhasia, mercenary leader of Cyrus [3] the Younger, c. 400 BC Arcadian from Parrhasia; as a mercenary leader in 405/4 BC he accompanied Cyrus [3] the Younger to the court of the Persian king and later took a large number of mercenaries to him in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,1,2; 2,1-3), but, together with Pasion [1] from Megara, left Cyrus' army in Syria without taking his family, which Cyrus sent after him (Xen. An. 1,4,6-8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Elis, pro-Spartan oligarch, c. 400 BC Rich Elean (Elis [2]), próx…

Phylarchos

(247 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(φύλαρχος/ phýlarchos, 'chief' of a phylḗ [1]). [German version] [1] Greek office In many Greek poleis the phýlarchoi were leaders of phylaí with high advisory or magisterial functions: in Epidamnus phyle leaders also formed the advisory board of the leading official ( árchōn) and were replaced in the 5th century BC in this function by a council with a broader basis (Aristot. Pol. 1301b 22f.); in Cyzicus phýlarchoi acted as a college and together with the highest civil and military officials ( stratēgoí) there carried out high magisterial functions [1. no. 59 with comm.]; the…

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Callibius

(55 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλλίβιος; Kallíbios). Spartan, was sent as harmost to Athens in 404/3 BC at the request of the Thirty and after the intervention of Lysander. He was courted by the rulers there and attempted to support their regime (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13f.; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 37,2; 38,2; Diod. Sic. 14,4,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Areus

(225 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρεύς; Areús). [German version] [1] Spartan king 309 - approx. 265 BC Spartan king 309 -- approx. 265 BC, Agiad, son of  Acrotatus [1], attempted in 281 to exploit the defeat of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas by  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus to liberate Hellas from Macedonian rule in alliance with the Peloponnesian communities, but was defeated by the Aetolians, who were allied with Antigonus (Just. Epit. 24,1,5 f.). Returning from battles in Crete in 272, he saved Sparta in alliance with Antigonus from the attack of  Pyrr…

Hyparchia

(208 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ὑπαρχία; hyparchía). Hellenistic term for ‘sub-district’ of a satrapy, predominantly in the  Seleucid kingdom. In the hyparchia of Eriza (Asia Minor), as attested by OGIS 1,238, the ‘governor’ ( hýparchos, ὕπαρχος) was directly subordinate to the satrap of Caria (OGIS 1,224); in this way there was no intermediate authority here between the two functionaries [1. 176]. The reference may, however, also originate from the Attalid era, though in this case conclusions could be drawn about the Seleucid administration, in which a hýparchos (OGIS 1,225) as administra…
▲   Back to top   ▲