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Assisi

(184 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] is an Umbrian city on the western foothills of Monte Subasio. It was a Roman municipium and the home of the poet Propertius. Since the early 4th century it has been the seat of a bishopric (city patron: the martyred bishop Rufinus). In the early Middle Ages it belonged to the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto, was under Hohenstaufen dominion from 1172/…

Barefoot Friars

(94 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Discalceates). The term for religious people who, as an expression of penitence and in reference to Jesus' missionary instructions, wear no shoes or only sandals: in the Middle Ages, these were at first the Camaldolese and especially the Franciscans, who came to be known as Barefoot Friars in Germany; in the modern period, especially the Passionists. Going barefoot is also characteristic for reform movements in some of the older orders since the 16th century (Carmelites Augustinian Hermits, Trinitarians, Mercedarians). Ulrich Köpf Bibliography E. Pacho, “Scalz…

Theology, History/Historiography of

(3,497 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. History The notion of a history of theology is a product of the modern era, but the roots of a historical perspective can be traced back to the Early Church. One is the doxography of heresy (the earliest extant being Irenaeus’s Adversus haereses), which was a foundation for the history of dogma (Dogma, History of); another was literary history (Literature, History of: V, 2.a), beginning with Jerome’s De viris illustribus (392). But it was not until the age of Protestant orthodoxy (II, 2) that scholars began to reflect on writing a history of theo…

Brendan, Saint

(169 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (483 – 577 or 583) founded several Irish monasteries and was abbot of Clonfert (County Galway). He is known to us from the legendary account of a seven-year voyage of Brendan and his companions to a paradisal island in the Atlantic ( Navigatio S. Brendani), written between the 7th and 10th centuries. The work relates more closely to the lives of the desert fathers and Old Irish seafaring literature than to Irish hagiography. It draws on classical …

Tübingen

(1,971 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. University 1. The University of Tübingen was founded in 1477 by count Eberhard the Bearded, during what is known as the “second foundation wave” of German universities. It was the university of the southern part of Württemberg, at that time divided into two. It received the papal privilege in 1476, and imperial confirmation in 1484. For the material support of the professorial chairs, the count devoted eight of the ten regular canonries, and two-thirds of the income of the Sindel…

Devotion (Concept)

(255 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] In German, especially in Protestantism, this term (from Lat. devotio) is still used today only in connection with the Roman ritual of devotio and the late medieval devotio moderna movement. In pre-Christian usage, devotio referred to the dedication of the will to the gods, humans, and laws. In Christian usage, its meaning was restricted to the dedication to God associated with obedience and humility. Thomas Aquinas treated devotion along with prayer as interior actus religionis, from which external actions proceed ( Summa Theologiae 2–2 q. 82). In modern usage,…

Bonaventura, Saint

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Giovanni Fidanza; c. 1217, Bagno-regio [south of Orvieto] – Jul 15, 1274, Lyon) I. Life – II. Work – III. Influence I. Life Most of the dates for Bonaventura's life prior to 1257 are uncertain. After studying in the Paris faculty of arts, the son of Giovanni and Ritella Fidanza joined the Franciscans around 1243, who gave him the name Bonaventura. He began studying under Alexander of Hales, earning his Baccalaureus biblicus in 1248 and lecturing on the Sentences in 1250–52. In 1253 he received the licentiate and began teachi…

Mentality, History of

(613 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The German term Mentalität has been used since the 1970s in the scientific language of German historians. It is formed from the French mentalité, adopted in the 18th century from the English “mentality,” which was derived in 17th-century philosophical language from the adjective “mental.” In France, mentalité entered common language during the 19th century. It became popular around 1900 in political language (Dreyfus affair) and in the school of the sociologist E. Durkheim. Through the historians Lucien Febvre (1878–1956) and…

Legend

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The word legend (from Middle Lat. legenda [ sc. vita or acta]) originally denoted a text to be read during worship or within a monastic community, especially at mealtime, in walkways set aside for reading, or in the chapter house. The subject matter was the life and deeds of one or more saints (Saints/Veneration ¶ of the saints: II). For the most part, the legend was regularly read in whole or in part on the festival of the particular saint. In conjunction with the functionalization of the cult of the saints, which had already begun i…

Reformed Colleges in Germany

(481 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] One of the central demands of the Wittenberg and Swiss Reformation was thorough theological education of all future clergy. In Lutheran territories, Reformed theological faculties in ¶ the existing universities served this function, but initially in Reformed territories such institutions were largely lacking. Only three existing comprehensive universities intermittently offered Reformed instruction: Heidelberg from 1559 to 1578 and from 1583 to 1662, Marburg between 1605 and 1624 and again after 1653, Frank…

Middle Ages

(4,250 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. The Term – II. Assessment and Study – III. Definition – IV. Characteristics – V. Early, High, and Late Middle Ages I. The Term French moyen âge has been used for a historical period since 1572, English Middle Age(s) since 1611 and Middle Time(s) since 1612. The German word Mittelalter had already been used by the Swiss historian Aegidius Tschudi ( mittel alters) in 1538, but it did not reappear in this sense (in contrast to “middle age”) until 1786; at the beginning of the 19th century, it finally prevailed over the more common 18th-century expressions mittlere Zeit(e…

Alexander of Hales

(279 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (c. 1185, Hales, England – Aug 21, 1245, Paris). After studying the arts and theology, Alexander taught in the Parisian theological faculty from the early 1220s, but maintained close relations with home. In 1229, he moved with the striking Parisian professors and students to Angers and brought forward their demands to the Roman Curia in 1230/1231. When …

Waldo, Peter

(178 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Valdez; died c. 1205/1218). The scanty tradition concerning Waldo permits only a few safe statements about him. A baptismal name ( Petrus) is first mentioned in the second half of the 14th century. A prosperous citizen of Lyon, around 1176/1177 he appears to have been converted to an apostolic life by the legend of Alexius or biblical texts translated into the vernacular. Whether he was attracted primarily by the ideal of poverty or a desire to preach is disputed. After making provision for his wife …

Degrees, Academic

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] Academic degrees came into existence in the context of medieval education. Even before universities were established, teachers were generally given the title Magister; while the usual title in the stronghold of legal studies at Bologna was Doctor, which also was often applied to the teachers of the Early Church ( Doctores ecclesiae ). At the universities, which arose c. 1200, the master's degree was the highest degree granted by all the faculties, with a distinction between someone who was merely qualified to teach and a Magister actu regens (a professor engaged in …

Mendicant Orders

(462 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The mendicant orders are religious communities in the West in which not only do the individual members live without personal possessions, but the community itself also forgoes ownership of property and regular income (Poverty). They sustain themselves on what they get from simple work, contributions, and begging. The mendicant orders originated in the early 13th century in conjunction with the religious poverty movement: the Dominicans, a clerical order of priests engaged in preac…

Eudo of Stella

(96 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Éon d'Étoile; died after 1148), possibly of noble birth, was a charismatic hermit and itinerant preacher of little education. After several years of preaching in Brittany and Gascony, where he attracted many followers, he was arraigned before the Council of Reims in 1148 and condemned to seclusion in the monastery of St. Denis in Paris. It is unclear what led him to assert that he was God's son, the future judge of the living and dead. Ulrich Köpf Bibliography J.C. Cassard, “Eon d'Étoile, ermite et hérésiarque breton,” MSHAB 57, 1980, 171–198.

Henry the Lion

(239 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (1129/1130 – Aug 6, 1195, Braunschweig), duke of Saxony and Bavaria, son of the Guelph Henry X the Proud, and Gertrud, daughter of Emperor Lothar III, cousin of Frederick Barbarossa. His second marriage was with Mathilde, daughter of King Henry II of England. Henry the Lion was a ruler with great self-confidence and a pronounced drive toward power and possessions. Conquests in the Slavic northeast, territorial expansion, and the founding of dioceses (Oldenburg/Lübeck, Ratzeburg, S…

Conventuals

(331 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] 1. Those who belong to a convent (Lat. conventus), i.e. all the full members of a religious community at a specific location. 2. In the context of a particular monastic way of life, and especially among the mendicant orders, “conventuals” refers to that group or tendency within the order which continues to follow the “old observance” (usually in a previously mitigated form) in the midst of internal disputes over the proper observance of the rule, and which accordingly …

Gottfried of Auxerre

(184 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Gottfried of Clairvaux; c. 1114/20, Auxerre – after 1188, Hautecombe). As a student of Abelard, attracted to the Cistercians in ¶ 1140 by the Paris sermon of Bernard of Clairvaux, De conversione. He was a monk in Clairvaux, Bernard's secretary until his death in 1153, abbot of Igny from 1156 and of Clairvaux from 1162 to 1165. After his forced resignation, he was a monk in Cîteaux, abbot of Fossanova near Rome beginning in 1170 and of Hautecombe (Savoie) from 1176 to 1188. Gottfried collected Bernard's letters and material for his Vita prima, which he initiated and book…

Ambrosians

(128 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The Ambrosians are a religious community first mentioned in 1375 in a bull of Gregory XI; they are traced to three nobles from Milan. The monasteries they established lived independently according to the Augustinian rule (Augustine, Rule of) and followed the Ambrosian rite in worship; they were united by Eugene IV with other groups as the Congregatio fratrum S. Ambrosii ad nemus Mediolanensis in 1441. After varying fortunes – especially in the schism of monasteries which adopted the Roman rite, which associated in 1496 with the Apostolic Brothers as the Congregatio S. …

Bridge-building Brotherhoods

(73 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Fratres Pontis). Brotherhoods for building and maintaining bridges over rivers and the hospitals, chapels and cemeteries associated with them. Active from the 12th on into the 15th cen-turies, especially in southern France (Rhône valley); supposedly founded here by St. Bénézet (1184/ 85), to whom the bridge of Avignon is attributed. Ulrich Köpf Bibliography P. Péano, “Pontieri,” DIP VII, 1983, 85–92 idem, “Benedetto di Hermillon,” DIP I, 1974, 1359f.

Wendelin, Saint

(102 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (died c. 617 [?]) is said to have lived as a hermit in the hill country between the Hunsrück and the Palatine Forest in the time of Bishop Magnerich of Trier (died after 587). The 10th-century calendar of Stavelot Abbey is the earliest evidence of cultic veneration of his grave at the site later named Sankt Wendel; its late Gothic hall church (consecrated in 1360) was built to enshrine his relics. Wendelin has been venerated since the late Middle Ages as the patron saint of herdsmen and cattle. Ulrich Köpf Bibliography A. Selzer, St. Wendelin, 1936, 21962 (Ger.).

Theodore of Canterbury (Saint)/Theodore of Tarsus

(256 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (602, Tarsus – Sep 19, 690, Canterbury [?]). When Wighard, who had been appointed to succeed Archbishop Deusdedit of Canterbury, died in Rome in 667, Abbot Hadrian of Hiridanum Abbey near Naples suggested the learned Greek monk Theodore of Tarsus; Pope Vitalinus consecrated him as archbishop in 668. He was living at the time in a community of Cilician monks in the Roman abbey of St. Anastasius ad Aquas Salvias (later Tre Fontane) on the southern edge of the city. There is no relia…

Monastic Theology

(759 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The concept of a théologie monastique was introduced by J. Leclercq, in a monograph on Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny ( Pierre le Vénérable, 1946); he subsequently developed it in studies of the monastic literature of the High Middle Ages, especially the work of Bernard of Clairvaux ( L'amour des lettres et le désir de Dieu, 1957; ET: The Love of Learning and the Desire for God, 1961). Since then it has proved its value as a key concept for understanding the theology of Bernard and medieval theology in general. It has long since been accepte…

Wilhelmites

(290 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The Wilhelmite order goes back to a hermitage (Monasticism: III) founded in Tuscany in the mid-12th century. Its founder is said to have been a French noble named Wilhelm, a former soldier who settled near Pisa in 1145 after several pilgrimages; later he moved to the mountain valley of Malavalle, near Siena, where he lived a strictly ascetic life as a hermit with a single companion (later joined by a second). After his death on Feb 10, 1157, a hermitage grew up at his burial site;…

Geography

(827 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. History of the Discipline – II. Church History I. History of the Discipline Geography has come a long way from its beginnings in the mythical worldview (ANE creation accounts, early Greek philosophical speculation) and in the pragmatic exploration of the world (travel reports of merchants) to its development as an exact science. In antiquity, it was understood as a comprehensive lore of the earth and its inhabitants. The earliest accounts took the form of descriptions of coasts (Periplus et al.), which were soon joined by geographic and ethnographic excu…

Lay Abbot

(106 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] A lay abbot in the narrow sense, is a layman who is entrusted with the conduct and use of a monastery without being a member of its convent or even a monk. In the Frankish Empire of the 9th and 10th centuries and its successor states, members of the nobility were particularly frequently vested with this function. In a secondary meaning, lay abbot also designates the clerical holder of a commendam, who does not have the status of a monk (frequent from the High Middle Ages to the early modern period). Ulrich Köpf Bibliography F.J. Felten, Äbte und Laienäbte im Frankenreich, 1980.

Ficino, Marsilio

(391 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Oct 19, 1433, Figline Valdarno, Italy – Oct 1, 1499, Careggi, Italy). Ficino was the son of the personal physician of Cosimo de' Medici; the latter supported Ficino and prompted him to change his course of studies from medicine to philosophy. He acquired an extremely thorough knowledge of Greek and produced annotated translations of esp. Plato (1463–1469), Plotinus (1484–1486), and a series of other neo-Platonic authors. In Florence he founded a Platonic Academy (I, 5) in which h…

Liechtenstein

(293 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The principality of Liechtenstein is a microstate (160 km2) between the Swiss cantons of Sankt Gallen and Grisons (Graubünden) to the west and the Austrian state of Vorarlberg to the east. It is a hereditary constitutional monarchy with a population of 35,300 (2007), 80% Catholic, 7.4% Protestant (1996). Rulers of Liechtenstein are first mentioned in the 12th century, with two lines possessing lands in Styria and Moravia. When the Styrian line died out in 1619, the Moravian lord of Nikols…

Controversial Theology

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] is a branch of theology that judges differences between various Christian Churches from a polemical and argumentative point of view rather than analyzing them from a historically critical perspective. The “controversy” involved relates both to the object and the method of this discipline. Theological positions are discussed when they become significant in disturbing or dividing the church community, and not so much as contributions to an open scholarly debate. I. Although the term controversial theology did not become common until the 20th century, …

Peter Cantor

(242 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (Petrus; first half of the 12th cent., Hosdenc, near Beauvais – 1197, Cistercian abbey of Longpont, near Soissons). Sometime before 1173, after studying at the cathedral school in Reims, he began teaching at the cathedral school in Paris as a canon; in 1183 he was appointed to the post of cantor. He refused his election as bishop of Paris in 1196. In 1197 he was elected dean of the cathedral chapter of Reims, but died on his journey from Paris. Numerous works, some still unpublished, bear witness to his teaching activity: glosses on the Old and New Testaments; Distinctiones or S…

Cathedral Schools

(471 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] were educational originally institutions for training clergy, administered by the episcopal curia. In the Early Church, learned bishops (preeminently Augustine) already gave instruction to their clergy. From the second Council of Toledo (527/531) onward, the Church repeatedly urged the establishment of episcopal schools; in 789, they were ¶ enjoined by Charlemagne, and in 1076 by Gregory VII. Nevertheless, down to the Reformation numerous councils deplored the educational level of the clergy – a sign of the great dispari…

Reform, Idea of

(2,727 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] In classical Latin, the verb reformare and the associated noun reformatio already denoted a transformation for the better: restoration of an earlier human condition, since lost (morality e.g. Pliny the Younger Panegyricus 53.1: “corruptos depravatosque mores . . . reformare et corrigere”; bodily health e.g. Theodorus Priscianus Euproiston 1.38: “oculorum aciem reformare”), or physical objects (e.g. Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium 40.5: “templum reformare”) or improvement without regard to the past (e.g. Sen. Ep. 58.26: “reformatio morum”; Ep. 94.5…

Reformgedanke

(2,448 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . Bereits im antiken Latein bez. das Verb reformare und das zugehörige Subst. reformatio eine positiv gewertete Umgestaltung: sowohl die Wiederherstellung eines früheren, inzw. verlorengegangenen Zustandes von Menschen (moralisch z.B. Plinius d.J., Panegyricus 53,1: corruptos depravatosque mores […] reformare et corrigere; körperlich z.B. Theodorus Priscianus, Euporiston 1,38: oculorum aciem reformare) oder von Dingen (z.B. Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, 40,5: templum r…

Roger Bacon

(399 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] (ca.1214/1220 England – ca.1292). Nach dem Studium der artes in Oxford und vielleicht in Paris (ca.1236/1240 M.A.) lehrte R. bis etwa 1247 an der Pariser Artistenfakultät. Es ist unsicher, ob er dann nach England zurückkehrte und wo er (wohl vor 1256) in den Franziskanerorden eintrat. Nach theol. Studien (in Oxford?) war er um 1257 wieder in Paris. Hier gewann er um 1263 in Kardinal Gui Foucois (Guy de Foulques u. ä.), dem späteren Papst Clemens IV. (1265–1268), einen Gönner, dem…

Robert

(163 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] von Arbrissel (um 1145 Arbrissel bei Rennes – 25.2.1116 Priorat Orsan-en-Berry). Der Sohn eines Erbpfarrers von Arbrissel trat nach Studien in Paris als Kleriker in den Dienst Bf. Silvesters von Rennes. Nach erneuten Studien in Angers (seit 1078) erlebte er die Bekehrung zu asketischem Leben, zog sich als Einsiedler in den Wald von Craon (Anjou) zurück und gründete hier 1095 ein Kollegiatstift, verließ es aber wieder, um (seit 1096 mit Erlaubnis Papst Urbans II.) als Bußprediger d…

Suburbikarische Bistümer

(158 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] heißen heute sieben im Umkreis (suburbium) Roms liegende Diözesen, die meist eine wechselvolle Gesch. hatten: Albano, Frascati (an Stelle von Tusculum, das als Nachfolger von Labicum 1058–1197 faktisch und bis 1537 nominell Bischofssitz war), Ostia, Palestrina, Porto (durch Calixtus II. mit Santa Rufina [Silva Candida] vereinigt), Sabina (durch Eingliederung des Bistums Nomentum in das Bistum Forum Novum entstanden, 1925 mit Poggio Mirteto vereinigt), Velletri (1150 mit Ostia ver…

Wilhelm von Newburgh

(122 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] (Guilelmus Parvus; um 1136 Bridlington, Yorkshire – 1198 Newburgh, ebd.). Als Kanoniker des 1145 gegründeten Augustiner-Chorherrenstifts Newburgh (Augustiner-Chorherren) vf. W. neben Predigten eine mariologische Hhld-Auslegung (Explanatio Sacri Epithalamii in Matrem Sponsi, hg. von J.C. Gorman, 1960) und eine engl. Gesch. (Historia Rerum Anglicarum, hg. von R. Howlett, 2 Bde., 1884/85), die nüchtern, genau und ausgewogen die Zeit von 1066–1198 (d.h. die Regierungszeit Heinrichs II. und Richards I. Löwenherz von England) darstellt. Ulrich Köpf Bib…

Wilhelmina

(298 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] von Böhmen (von Mailand; gest.1278/1281 Mailand). Einzige Quelle sind die Akten des 1300 postum gegen W. und ihre Anhänger geführten Inquisitionsprozesses, aus denen ihre hochadlige Herkunft aus Böhmen hervorzugehen scheint. Ihr Leben vor ihrer Ankunft in Mailand (zw. 1260 und 1270) ist unbekannt; doch soll sie einen Sohn gehabt haben. In Mailand, das nicht nur durch Streit mit anderen oberital. Städten und interne Parteikämpfe, sondern auch durch jahrelange Konflikte mit der röm.…

Robert Kilwardby

(206 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] (gest.10.9.1279 in Viterbo). Erstes sicheres Datum aus seinem Leben ist seine Wahl zum Provinzialmagister der engl. Dominikaner im September 1261. Von hier aus lassen sich frühere Daten erschließen: in den 30er Jahren Studium an der Pariser Artistenfakultät, ca.1237 M.A., Lehrtätigkeit in Paris bis Mitte der 40er Jahre, dann Rückkehr nach England und Eintritt in den Predigerorden, Studium der Theol. in Oxford (ca.1252–1254 Sentenzenvorlesung), 1254 Magister regens der Theol. Seit…

Quaestio

(363 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . Die echte, nicht »rhetorische«, sondern auf eine problemlösende Antwort abzielende Frage (griech. ζη´τημα/zē´tēma, προ´βλημα/pro´blēma, α᾿πορι´α/apori´a, lat. quaestio) ist ein elementares Mittel rationaler Argumentation. Sie begegnet schon in vorchristl. Zeit bei den Griechen (seit dem sokratischen Fragen des platonischen Dialogs) wie im rabb. Judentum (im Gespräch zw. Lehrer und Schüler). Das Formulieren von Fragen wurde schon früh in der altkirchl. Theol. üblich (erster Höhepunkt bei Au…

Subiaco

(178 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] Subiaco, Ort in Latium, im Anienetal östlich von Rom. Hier soll sich Benedikt von Nursia zunächst als Eremit in einer Höhle (Sacro Speco), dann mit Gefährten in Räumen einer ehem. Villa Kaiser Neros (Kloster San Clemente) niedergelassen haben. In der Folgezeit soll er zehn weitere Klöster gegründet haben, bevor er sich um 529 nach Monte Cassino begab. Heute bestehen noch zwei von ihnen: San Benedetto (Sacro Speco) und – tiefer gelegen – Santa Scholastica (urspr. San Silvestro), d…

Reformierte Hohe Schulen in Deutschland

(441 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] . Zu den zentralen Forderungen der Wittenberger wie der Schweizer Reformation gehörte eine gründliche theol. Ausbildung aller künftigen Geistlichen. Während in luth. Territorien die reformierten theol. Fakultäten an vorhandenen Universitäten dieser Aufgabe dienten, fehlten in ref. Gebieten solche Einrichtungen zunächst weitgehend. Nur drei bestehende Volluniversitäten hatten zeitweise ref. Charakter: Heidelberg 1559–1578 und 1583–1622, Marburg 1605–1624 und wieder seit 1653, Fran…

Reformation

(6,474 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Unter R. (von lat. reformatio) verstehen wir heute ausschließlich die durch M. Luther, U. Zwingli u.a. Reformatoren ausgelösten Vorgänge, die im Laufe des 16.Jh. zu einer bis heute fortdauernden Aufspaltung der abendländischen Christenheit führten. Bis ins 19.Jh. hinein hatte der Begriff dagegen noch die urspr., weite Bedeutung von Reform (Reformgedanke), unter die aber immer auch das Geschehen der R. subsumiert war. Erst das Aufkommen des franz. Wortes réforme im 17…

Physis/Natura

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Hornauer, Holger | Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich 1. griech. Φυ´σις/Phy´sis (Ph.) als Abstraktpersonifikation und wirkende göttliche Kraft, ohne speziellen Zuständigkeitsbereich, ohne eigenen Kult und bes. Ikonographie (zwei Ausnahmen: Votivrelief des Archelaos von Priene [sog. »Apotheose des Homer«; um 130–120 v.Chr.] und Mosaik von Merida [2.Jh. n.Chr.]: »N.« (N.) zw. Himmel, Meer, Euphrat, Nil, Tellus u.a.). 2. In der vorsokratischen Naturphilosophie (s.a. Natur) kann Ph. personifiziert und als göttliche Macht gedacht werden (vgl. Heraklit [DK 22 B…

Siegel

(878 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, Christoph | Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Archäologisch S. sind im AO seit dem präkeramischen Neolithikum (um 7000 v.Chr.) bezeugt, zuerst als einfache, runde oder ovale Platten oder als Tierfigur gestaltete Stempel, ab dem späten 4.Jt. (Susa, Uruk) auch walzenförmig als sog. Roll- oder Zylindersiegel (Guter Hirte: I., s. dort Abb.). Letztere hielten sich bis zur Zeitenwende, sind aber auch in Ägypten und im östlichen Mittelmeerraum belegt. In Kulturen mit Papyrus oder Leder als gebräuchlichsten Schriftträgern bevorzug…

Ireland

(2,091 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Richter, Michael
[German Version] I. General Facts – II. Christianity I. General Facts Lying west of Great Britain in the North Atlantic, Ireland belongs to the British Isles and covers an area of 84,421 km2. Its (esp. in the west) strongly cleft coastline has a total length of 3,173 km. Numerous small offshore islands and reefs played an important role in the history of Ireland as places of refuge, bridgeheads, and the like. The island's interior is relatively flat with a general altitude of approx. 60–120 m above sea level. Mountains, whic…

Physis/Natura

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Hornauer, Holger | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The Greek Φύσις/ Phýsis is an abstract personification and an effective divine power. It is not restricted to any particular area of responsibility, and has no cult of its own or special iconography, with two exceptions: the votive relief of Archelaus of Priene (so-called “Apotheosis of Homer,” c. 120–130 bce), and the mosaic of Merida (2nd cent. ce; natura is between heaven, the sea, the Euphrates, the Nile, Tellus etc.). 2. In pre-Socratic natural philosophy (see also Nature), Physis may be personified and thought of as divine power (…

Seal/Stamp

(1,059 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, Christoph | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Archaeology Seals are attested in the ancient Near East since the pre-pottery Neolithic (c. 7000 bce), initially in the form of simple round or oval disks or theriomorphic stamps. Beginning in the late 4th millennium (Susa, Uruk), we also find cylinder seals (Good Shepherd: I, fig.). The latter were in use until the end of the first millennium bce, but they are also found in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean region. In cultures where papyrus or leather was the commonest writing material, smaller stamp seals were preferred. In Egypt c. 2300 bce, carved stamp seals ca…

Ebeling, Gerhard

(1,181 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Life – II. Church Historian – III. Systematic Theologian Jul 6, 1912, Berlin-Steglitz – Sep 30, 2001, Zollikerberg/Zürich), Protestant German theologian. I. Life Ebeling began his theological studies in 1930; after studying at Marburg, Berlin, and Zürich, he passed his first theological examination for the examination office of the Confessing Church in Berlin. He prepared for pastoral ministry under …
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