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Hymnal

(2,604 words)

Author(s): Matthias, Markus | Fischer, Michael
1. DefinitionA hymnal is a printed collection of liturgical songs (Hymn [church anthem]), with or without notation of the melody and/or setting. The term dates back to the 16th century and came into widespread use in the 18th century.  The hymnal shared the full range of publication possibilities with the new technology of printing. This affected both its external (production, facilities, distribution, circulation, dissemination, serial publication) and internal (selections, commentaries, functional design) design, as well as its actual usage.Markus Matthias2. Protestant 2…
Date: 2019-10-14

Music, ecclesiastical

(7,037 words)

Author(s): Kremer, Joachim | Sparn, Walter | Fischer, Michael | Petzoldt, Martin | Totzke, Irenaeus
1. IntroductionThe term ecclesiastical or church music encompasses all music that is heard within Christian churches. This purely functional sense implies no musical genres or stylistic properties. The abundance of manifestations of music in the Catholic (see below, 5.2.), Protestant (see below, 5.3.), and Orthodox churches (see below, 5.4.) precludes an absolute definition valid across the whole of history. Using the term “spiritual music” makes matters no easier, for spiritual music need not be…
Date: 2020-04-06

Catechism

(2,277 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Michael | Albrecht, Christian | Hauptmann, Peter
1. General In Late Antiquity, the term “catechism” (Latin  catechismus from Greek  katéchesis, “oral instruction”) came into use for the instruction of adult catechumens; when infant baptism was introducted in the 2nd/3rd century, it was applied to the instruction of the faithful (Catechetics). In the early modern era, the term came to be applied to systematically organized works designed for elementary religious instruction. Other terms used included  ench( e) iridion (Greek, “small handbook”),  institutio (Latin, “instruction”), and  summa (Latin, “sum”). Catec…
Date: 2019-10-14