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A.

(35 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the common Roman name Aulus. A. is of Etruscan origin (Aules?) and was also used as a cognomen in the imperial period. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography Salomies, 11, 24, 165.

P.

(73 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is used as an abbreviation of the Roman name Publius and very often appears on coins and in inscriptions to stand for functions and titles (e.g. PM = pontifex maximus; PP = pater patriae). For the numerous meanings of P in numismatics and epigraphics see [1. 310-319] and [2. XLIV-XLIX]. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, Epigrafia, 1974 2 H.Cohen, J.C. Egbert, R. Cagnat, Coin-Inscriptions and Epigraphical Abbreviations of Imperial Rome, 1978.

Triumph, Triumphal procession

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Ritual marking the end of a campaign of warfare. At the same time it constituted the army's rite of entry into the city and the highest attainable honour for the general. [German version] I. Name and origins The Latin triumphus is derived from the interjection io triump(h)e, which had formed from the Greek cry θριάμβε/ thriámbe in the cult of Dionysus (Varro, Ling. 6,68; Serv. Aen. 10,775) and was originally a plea for the manifestation of the god, comparable to the fivefold triumpe in the cult song of the Arvales fratres [8. 38-55; 7. 223]. The supposed origin …

Emmenids

(27 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Sicilian dynasty of tyrants from Acragas, who were closely related to the  Deinomenids in Syracuse (genealogical table with the Deinomenids). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Hellenism

(576 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ( hellēnismós). In antiquity from the time of Aristotle or his pupil  Theophrastus, this was the name for the correct use of the Greek language ( hellēnízein = ‘speaking Greek’), but it is not attested as a term until the 2nd cent. BC (2 Macc 4,13) and there designates the Greek way of life, disapproved of from a Jewish point of view. Based on the meaning of Hellenism, originating among Alexandrian scholars at almost the same time, as ‘Greek spiritual world’, Christian writers then use Hellenism in the sen…

Persian Wars

(1,830 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Struggles between Persians and Greeks Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] A. Terminology and sources The modern use of the term PW in a wider sense refers to the struggle between the ' Hellenes and Barbarians' (Hdt. prooemium) during the time between the Ionian Revolt (500-494 BC) and the middle of the 5th cent. BC; in a narrower sense the attacks on Greece by the Persians (Achaemenidae) under the kings Darius [1] I. and Xerxes I., which were repelled at Marathon in 490 and at Salamis and Plataeae in 480/479…

Tranquillitas

(246 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Until the 1st cent. BC, the usual meaning of tranquillitas is 'peace, stillness' (as late as in Caes. B Gall. 3,15,3); after that, under the influence of Stoicism and the philosophy of Epicurus (analogous with the Greek γαλήνη/ galḗnē, 'calm' = 'peace of mind'), the word becomes the Latin philosophical term for 'calmness of mind' ( maris t.: Cic. Tusc. 5,6,16; t. animi: Cic. Fin. 5,8,23; cf. Sen. Dial. 9: De tranquillitate animi). In combination with 'security' and 'peace' (cf. Cic. Leg. agr. 1,24; Cic. Off. 1,20,69; Cic. De orat.1,1,2) t. gained political significance…

Syrian Wars

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In modern scholarship, the term SW refers to a group of six wars fought between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids for possession of southern Syria (between the River Eleutherus, modern Nahr al-Kabīr, north of Byblus and the eastern frontier of Egypt at Rhaphia; cf. map 'The Hellenistic states in the 3rd Cent. BC'; Coele Syria) between 274 and 168 BC. The war between Antiochus [5] III and Rome (192-188, treated in App. Syr. 11), which is often referred to as a 'Syrian War', is not included in them. The precondition for the SW was the state of possessions following the p…

Parties (political)

(229 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The modern term cannot be applied to antiquity. However, even in ancient polities, there were groupings which formed temporarily for the achievement of political ends ( hetairía [2]; factiones ), though they developed no fixed membership or longer-term political programmes. It did also happen that citizenries divided into separate 'partisan affiliations' reinforcing differing conceptions of political content and methods in a quasi-programmatical way ( oligarchía / dēmokratía ; optimates / populares ), playing out differences concer…

Council meetings

(160 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] of increasing complexity served in ancient society to reduce and regulate conflict for the purpose of enabling collective action. Independently of the respective constitutional form, council meetings (CM), whose members were usually drawn from economically powerful and socially respected circles, supported the  ruler in decision-making (cf.   basileús ,   gerousía ; the Roman senate under the monarchy), formulated a consensus of peers in the aristocracy (  Áreios págos ;   senatus ) and prepared the resolutions of the popular assemb…

Praefectus iure dicundo

(132 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] PID were officials of the urban Roman legal magistracy ( praetor ), who dispensed justice in Italy in the Republican period, among Roman citizens living far from Rome in communities where political organization was either lacking or rudimentary ( forum, conciliabulum , oppidum I.). PID neither had the right to scrutinize existing law courts, nor did they constitute an instance of appeal ( appellatio ). A praefectura was thus both the (temporary) seat of the official and the legal district for which he was responsible. With developing urban organization in Italy, (cf. mu…

R.

(70 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation for Romanus (SPQR), for Roma and in connection with publicus for res ( res publica ); rare abbreviation for the cognomen Rufus. On imperial coins R often stands for restitutor, the 'restorer' (of the empire, the unity of the empire etc.). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography A. Calderini, Epigrafia, 1974, 321-323  H. Cohen, J. C. Egbert, R. Cagnat, Coin-Inscriptions and Epigraphical Abbreviations of Imperial Rome, 1978, 71-74.

Illyrian Wars

(464 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The name Illyrian Wars (IW) is given to two wars conducted by Rome in  Illyricum in 229 to 228 and in 219 BC. The First Illyrian War of 229-228 was waged against  Teuta, widow of Agron [3], who after the latter's death (in 231?) continued his politics of expansion (230: annexation of Phoenice, and treaties with Epirus and Acarnania). In 229, when she had reached far south beyond the Straits of Ortranto, and laid siege to Corcyra, Epidamnos, and Apollonia [1], and also defeated a f…

Tamos

(95 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάμως /Támōs) from Memphis in Egypt, representative ( hýparchos) of Tissaphernes in Ionia (Thuc. 8,31,2; 8,87,1 and 3; for the year 411), took part in Cyrus [3]'s rebellion in 401 BC as a commissioner ( epimelētḗs) for Ionia/Aeolis (Diod. 14,19,6) and a naval leader (Xen. An. 1,2,21; 1,4,2) and after the death of Cyrus at Cunaxa fled to Egypt, where he and his sons were killed by Psammetichus [6] (according to Diod. Sic. 14,35,3-5; probably a royal name for Amyrtaeus [2]), who intended to take possession of T.'s fleet and wealth. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

D

(81 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is used in Lat. as an abbreviation of the Roman praenomen  Decimus. As a numeral the letter D stands for the value 500. Like the numeral  C (= 100) it is derived from a letter of the western Greek alphabet not used in the Latin alphabet: Φ (phi), which stands for the value 1,000; the letter form D, indicating half the value of 1,000, was derived by bisection of the Greek symbol (right half). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Aligern

(92 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Son of Fredigern, youngest brother of the last Ostrogoth king Teja. After his death (AD 552) A. held the fortress of Cumae with the royal insignia and treasure for over a year (Agath. 1,8,6; Procop. 8,34,19 f.), until he handed it over, probably at the end of 553 to  Narses (Agath. 1,20,1-7). In Narses' service he fought against the Franks (Agath. 1,20,9-11) and took part in his victory over the Alemannian  Butilinus at Casilinum in 554 (Agath. 2,9,13; PLRE 3A, 48). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 603 ff.

Triumvirate

(232 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Latin triumviratus, literally 'alliance of three men'). Non-titular appellation (e.g. in Suet. Aug. 27,1; Vell. Pat. 2,86,2) for the special power which Aemilius [I 12] Lepidus, Antonius [I 9] and Octavianus agreed to at Bononia for themselves and which was granted to them, initially for five years, in November 43 BC by plebiscite ( lex Titia; see tresviri [3]). Echoing this, modern scholarship also calls the informal 'group of three' of Caesar, Pompeius [I 3] and Licinius [I 11] Crassus (end of 60 BC) a triumvirate, though it lacked a…

Poroi

(181 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Patriarchy

(1,724 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(literally 'rule of the fathers'). [German version] A. General comments Patriarchy is a modern term referring to the position of authority of adult men in the family, in establishing relationships between the family and society and in fulfilling political responsibilities. The word patriarchy gained its significance in academic discourse through Bachofen [1], who saw the organization of ancient society according to a 'paternal principle' as following, in terms of development and institutional history, a p…

M.

(69 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Latin personal name Marcus and (already in antiquity with an apostrophe: M') Manius. As a numerical sign, M stands for the number 1,000, but it was not derived from mille (Latin word for tho…

Porsenna

(347 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] P., Lars. Etruscan king of Clusium (present-day Chiusi) at the end of the 6th cent. BC ( Porsena in Hor. Epod. 16,4; Macrob. Sat 2,412; inscription. Porsina, CIL VI 32919; Greek Πορσίνας/ Porsínas: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,21,1); probably Etruscan proper name, possibly derived from zilath purthne , the term for the highest office in Etruscan towns. According to Roman tradition (Liv. 2,9,1-14,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,21,1-34,5) P. wanted to reinstate Tarquinius Superbus, who had taken refuge with him, as king of Rome. However he withdrew,…

Cniva

(116 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Gothic king who, together with other tribes, made forays over the Danube into Moesia and Thrace in AD 250, inflicted a severe defeat on the emperor Decius as he was advancing to relieve Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and, in breach of his agreement with the usurper Pris…

Amalafrida

(77 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Elder sister of Theoderic the Great, mother of  Amalaberga and  Theodahad, married in her second marriage around AD 500 the Vandal king Thrasamund in Carthage in order to support the alliance politics of her brother, which until the death of Thrasamund in 523 also succeeded. His successor Hilderic turned away from Theoderic, however, and at the latest in 525 disposed of A. and her followers.…

Curia

(309 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [2] Assembly place of the municipal council in Rome C. (pl. curiae) was the name of the assembly place of the municipal council in Rome (  senatus ; Fest. p. 42) and also in many   coloniae and municipiamunicipium ) of Italy and the Roman provinces (cf.   curiales ). As opposed to the comitiumcomitia ), the assembly place of the people in the open air, the curia is always a building on a piece of land belonging to the community or a god and mostly it is at the   forum of the town or close to it. Council chambers of non-Roman towns can also be called curiae (Liv. 24,24,5 and 9: Syrac…

Portorium

(105 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] General Roman term for toll. Originally imposed probably only in ports ( portus; [1. s. v.], however, derives portorium from porta, 'gate, door'), extended with the spread of Roman rule in Italy and the provinces to all land and sea tolls. The collection of

Citizenship

(235 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In Graeco-Roman antiquity terms comparable to the modern term citizenship,   politeía (πολιτεία) and   civitas , originally not only designated individual rights but also the totality of citizens, the political organization of citizens in the sense of a constitution and an autonomous community. Citizenship was usually attained by being born to parents with citizenship (  conubium ) or granted by resolution of the community or an authorized person, in Rome also through private manumission from slavery (  manumissio ). Admission to citizensh…

Flavian Dynasty

(738 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Philanthropa

(151 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (φιλάνθρωπα/ philánthrōpa, neuter? pl. 'philanthropic <decrees>'). Specific, publicly announced measures by the Ptolemaic kings on economic and/or politi…

Butilinus

(87 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Troezen inscription

(242 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] An inscription discovered in Troezen in 1959 ([1; 2]; translation in [3. 20 f.]) with the text of a decree of the Athenian People's Assembly proposed by Themistocles (the 'Decree of Themistocles'), which decreed the evacuation of the inhabitants of Attica to Salamis and the repatriation of exiles before the naval battle of Cape Artemisium (Persian Wars) in 480 BC; in its present form, it can be dated to the 3rd cent. BC [4. 2; 2. 48]. I…

Envoys

(181 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Greek ἄγγελοι/ ángeloi, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, ἀπόστολοι/ apóstoloi

Latin Wars

(582 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is the term for the military conflicts between Rome and the Latin League ( Latini D.) - of which Rome was not a member - and between Rome and individual Latin towns that sporadically occurred from the beginning of the Republic (about 510 BC) to the dissolution of the League by Rome in 338 BC. The first Latin War can be considered as an attempt of the Latins to end Rome's dominant position. Rome had become the dominant power among the Latins under its kings Servius Tullius [I 4] and Tarquinius [12] Superbus (cf. Liv. 1,52) and made it …

Snake Column

(142 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Votive gift of the Greek states that were taking part in the Persian Wars against Xerxes to Apollo of Delphi in the form of a bronze column of three snake bodies intertwined like a rope, with their heads bearing a gold tripod-type cauldron. On their coils are inscribed in the Doric dialect the names of 31 Greek states, beginning with the Spartans ( Laked[ aimónioi]). The gold cauldron was stolen in the third of the Sacred Wars (356-346 BC) by the Phocians (Paus. 10,13-19), the column was taken by the emperor Constantinus [1] to Constantinople, where it still…

Hellenistic states

(1,445 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] A. Historical development Hellenistic states (HS) evolved from the collapse of  Alexander [4] the Great's empire in the eastern Mediterranean and Near Asia, and from the imitation by individual rulers in Sicily and southern Italy ( Agathocles [2],  Hieron [2] II) of Hellenistic government and administrative institutions. After the death of the 32-year old Alexander, who left behind no heirs competent to govern nor any solid imperial administration, the empire…

Merismos

(80 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (μερισμός; merismós from μερίζειν; merízein = ‘to divide, distribute’) in Athens the name for the ‘distribution’ of funds from tax incomes by the apodéktai to the appropriate officials ( archaí ). The sums allocated were determined by the council of the polis ( boulḗ ) and had to be struck off immediately after distribution ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 48,1-2). Merismos is not attested before the 4th century BC ( Taxes III. B.). Eder, Walter (Berlin) …

Bessas

(101 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Goth of Thracian origin (born around AD 480), whose family did not accompany Theoderic to Italy in AD 488. He served as an officer in Justinian's army against the Persians, under  Belisarius in the reconquest of Italy, as also against the Goths and in his old age in Syrian territory. He achieved high rank ( dux Mesopotamiae 531; mag. mil. vacans in Italy 535-546; mag. mil. per Armeniam 550-554)…

Spartocids

(83 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Ruling dynasty in the Regnum Bosporanum, named after its founder Spartocus [1] I, who took over the power from the Archaeanactids of Panticapaeum in 438/7 BC. The dynasty, which distinguished itself in the Classical and early Hellenistic periods with a brisk trade in corn in the Aegaean (primarily with Athens), came to an end in 109 BC with the handing over of power by its last ruler, Paerisades [6] V, to Mithridates [6] VI of Pontus. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Prothytes

(69 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Προθύτης; Prothýtēs). Theban, leading anti-Macedonian politician who, relying on Athenian help, in 335 BC advocated the secession of Thebes from Macedonia. Swiftly advancing on Thebes, Alexander [4]  the Great (Diod. 17,8,2) demanded in vain his surrender (Plut. Alexandros 11,7). He was probably killed in the defence of the city, which involved heavy losses (Arr. Anab. 1,8,1-8; Diod.  Sic. 17,14,1; Plut. Alexandros 11,12). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Areobindus

(290 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius A. Cos. 434 AD Father of Dagalaifus, grandfather of A. [2], in AD 434 consul together with Aspar Ardabur. As magister militum ( comes foederatorum?) he defeated a Persian officer in single combat in 422, in 441 Theodosius II sent him as magister militum against the Vandals to Africa but he missed his opportunity because he stayed too long in Sicily. He was defeated by Attila in 443 (as was Aspar). In 447 patricius; died in 449 (PLRE 2, 145 f., A. 2). Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius Areobindus Dagalaifus Areobindus Cos. 506 AD Son of Dagalaifus, grandson of no. 1, great-grandson of Aspar  Ardabur [2], husband of Anicia Juliana and, therefore, son-in-law of …

Year of four emperors

(516 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the year AD 69, in which four emperors – some at the same time, some in swift succession – ruled the Roman Empire (Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian), and in the broader sense for the period between Iulius [II 150] Vindex's revolt against Nero (beginning of AD 68) in Gaul and the elevation to emperor of  Vespasian (1 July 69 in Egypt, 3 July 69 in Syria) or its recognition by the Senate in Rome (21/22 December 69). Galba [2], from an ancient patrician family, sided with Iulius Vindex's rebellion, was proclaimed empe…

A. A.

(52 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the blanket name A(ulus) A(gerius), which, in Roman juristic writing, serves as the designation for the plaintiff (  actio ). N(umerius) N(egidius) stands for the defendant. In addition, the names Titius, Gaius or Sempronius are used for the designation of a third party. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Toparches

(29 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τοπάρχης; topárchēs). 'Leader (ἄρχειν/ árchein = rule) of a district ( tópos)'; in the Hellenistic period the highest civil administrative official in a tópos (q.v.). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Amalaberga

(96 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Daughter of  Amalafrida and niece of Theoderic the Great, married to the king of the Thuringians Herminafridus (Iord. Get. 299; Procop. 5,12,22; 8,25,11; Cassiod. Var. 4,1) c. AD 510 in order to cement an alliance against the Franks. After the conquest of the Thuringian kingdom and the death of her husband in 534 she fled to her brother Theodahad in Ravenna. Her son Amalafridus and a daughter went to Constantinople after the taking of Ravenna by  Belisarius, where Justinian married the daughter to the Langobard Audoin (PLRE 2, 63). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Eparchos

(160 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (ἔπαρχος; éparchos). Head of an   eparchía , a territorial administrative unit in Hellenistic states, especially in the  Seleucid kingdom. It is disputed whether eparchos ever was an official title for the holder of civil and military power in a subdivision of the satrapy ( Satrap) because in this context it is not attested epigraphically. The first appearance of the term eparchos for a governor in Seleucid territory in Polybius [2] (5,46,7) suggests that eparchos was formed as an analogy to the term eparchía (the Greek term for a Roman province) and describes …

Amorges

(150 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Severan dynasty

(979 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The SD, also referred to as 'The Severans', 'Severan era', or, owing to the origins of the family in Africa and Syria, the 'African/Syrian emperors', lasted c. 40 years from the accession of their founder, Septimius [II 7] Severus (AD 193-211), via his sons by Iulia [12] Domna, Caracalla (198-217) and Geta [2] (209-211), to Iulia Domna's great nephews Elagabalus [2] (218-222) and Severus [2] Alexander (222-235). The sequence of Severan emperors was interrupted for about a…

Telonai

(317 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (τελῶναι/ telônai, Sg. τελώνης/ telṓnēs; 'tax leaseholders', from τέλη/ télē = 'taxes' and ὠνή/ ōnḗ = 'buying, lease'); private entrepreneurs or businesses in the Greek domain, comparable with the Roman publicani (see Cic. Ad Q. fr. 1,1,33). They either purchased fo…

Hellenic League

(343 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for the league of c. 30 Greek states (31 in Plut. Themistocles 20,3; cf. Snake column) which swore an oath to unite against the Persians in the autumn of 481 BC, immediately prior to the attack of Xerxes [1] I and whose representatives ( próbouloi: Hdt. 7,172,1) met regularly in the sanctuary of Poseidon on the Isthmus of Corinth, beginning no later than the spring of 480. The first meeting took place in 481 in Sparta (Paus. 3,12,6), the leading Greek power of the time (cf. Thuc. 1,18,2), or on …

Provincial administration

(612 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East State territory during the history of the ancient Near East was structured and administered variously in keeping with the form of state organization (centralized state, small territorial state, etc.). In Egypt, state territory was divided into so-called 'districts' (in the Ptolemaic Period called nomoí (Nomos [2])) administered by 'district rulers' (Nomarches). External territories, especially in Syria-Palestine during the New Kingdom, were subject to the Pharaoh as vassal states. In Mesopotamia, the empire of the 3rd dynasty of U…

Epilycus [2]

(212 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ἐπίλυκος; Epílykos). [German version] Epilycus Writer of comedies Comedy writer, whose surviving work consists of the title of one play (Κωραλίσκος; Kōralískos, The little lad from Crete? cf. Phot. p. 198,15) and of nine fragments; fr. 3 (remnants of catalectic anapaestic tetrameters) and fr. 4 (catalectic anapaestic dimeter in Doric dialect) show that he belonged to the Old Comedy (late 5th, early 4th cent. BC). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 170-173. [German version] …
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