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Rhea Silvia

(341 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Rea Silvia). Poetically also Ilía (for identity of both: Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,76,3 i.a.). Mother of Romulus [1] and Remus. She is mentioned for the first time in Naevius (cf. Serv. Aen. 1,273; 6,777) and in Ennius (Ann. 29,34-50), apparently as the daughter of Aeneas [1]. Later sources, however, identify her as the daughter of Numitor and thereby move the founding of Rome several generations away from Aeneas and the ruin of Troy. The main version of the myth is essentially to be found in…

Munichus, Munitus

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούνυχος/ Moúnychos, Μούνιχος/ Moúnichos, also Μόνιχος/ Mónichos, Μούνιτος/ Moúnitos). [German version] [1] Hero of Attica Hero of Attica, son of Pantades, eponym of the harbour of Munichia in Piraeus (Eur. Hipp. 761-763). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I1] M. (Munitus): son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I 1], brought up by his grandmother Aethra; died of a snake bite after the fall of Troy (Euphorion fr. 58 Powell), perhaps identical with M. [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Molossians Later sour…

Ocyr(r)hoe

(141 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὠκυρ(ρ)όη; Ōkyr(r)hóē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus Daughter of Oceanus (Hes. Theog. 360). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Playmate of Persephone Playmate of  Persephone (Hom. H. 5,420). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Samian nymph Samian nymph, daughter of the river god Imbrasus and of Chesias; loved by Apollo, who pursues her and turns the ship onto which she escapes into a rock and its helmsman Pompilus into the fish of that name (Hellenistic erotic story, Apoll. Rhod. in Athen. 7,283d-e; (Ps.-)Ov. Halieutica 101). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Nanas, Nanus

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Νάνας/ Nánas, Νάνος/ Nános). [German version] [1] Mythical leader of the Pelasgians Mythical leader of the Pelasgians at the time of their emigration to Italia (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 4; Hdt. 1,57). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet of Odysseus There was a prophecy that Odysseus as N. would conclude a brotherhood in arms with Aeneas [1] in Italia (Lykophr. 1242ff.; cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. 1,72,2; 12,16). On Odysseus's Italian journey cf. Hom. Od. 11,119ff.; Hes. Theog. 1105 with comm. West. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Segobrigii Mythical king of the…

Menoetes

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μενοίτης; Menoítēs). The mythical herdsman of Hades, who watches his herds on the island Erythea near the entrance of the Underworld. He reports Hercules's theft of one of his cattle to the neighbouring herdsman Geryoneus, but is killed by Hercules in a wrestling match (Apollod. 2,108; 125). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polydectes

(110 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυδέκτης/ Polydéktēs). [German version] [1] Mythical colonist and king of Seriphus Son of Magnes [2], mythical colonist and king of Seriphus, brother of Dictys [1]. He wanted to force Danae, who had been stranded in a box with her son Perseus, into marriage, but Perseus turned him to stone with the head of Medusa (Gorgo [1]), which he had brought from the Hyperborei, and made Dictys king (Pind. P. 12; Apollod. 2,24-46). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet of Hades Poetic epithet of the god of the underworld (the 'receiver of many', the 'hospitable'; Hades, Pl…

Opora

(130 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀπώρα/ Opṓra). Goddess of rich harvests, especially of the wine harvest and its season. She, together with Theoria ('festive delegation'), accompanies Eirene [1] ('peace') in Aristoph. Pax 523, 706ff. The Attic comic writers Alexis (PCG II fr. 169f.) and Amphis (PCG II fr. 47) both wrote a work called O.: Sirius the star comes to earth and falls in love with O. When he is unable to win her, his amorous passion becomes so great that the people turn to the gods for help. The north wind Boreas orders his sons to obtain O. for Sir…

Plexippus

(57 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πλήξιππος/ Plḗxippos). Son of Thestius, brother of Althaea; participant in the Calydonian Hunt; P. is killed by his nephew  Meleager [1], because he intended to steal from  Atalante the pelt of the Calydonian boar, which Meleager had given her (Apollod. 1,62; Ov. Met. 8,305; 434; 440; Hyg. Fab. 173; 174; 244). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periphas

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περίφας; Períphas). [German version] [1] Hero at Troy, killed by Ares Mythical hero at Troy, from Aetolia, killed by Ares (Hom. Il. 5,842. 847). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus Mythical hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,476). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, herald of Anchises, in whose shape Apollo roused Aeneas [1] to battle (Hom. Il. 17,323). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Archaic Attic king before even Cecrops Mythical archaic king of Attica, before even Cecrops; venerate…

Oeonus

(75 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰωνός; Oiōnós). Son of Licymnius [1], from Midea in the Argolid, companion of Heracles [1], first winner of a race in the Olympic games (Pind. Ol. 10,64ff. with schol.); he was slain in Sparta by the sons of Hippocoon because he had killed their dog; a grave of O. was shown there (Apollod. 2,143f.; Paus. 3,15,3ff.). O.' death is considered the reason for Heracles' fight against the Hippocoontids. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Phoroneus

(109 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φορωνεύς; Phorōneús). Son of Alpheius [2], ancestor of the Pelasgian race (in contrast to the more recent Hellenic race, whose ancestor is Deucalion) and hence the 'first man' (Akusilaos FGrH 2 F 23a; Hes. fr. 122 M.-W.; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 1; Hyg. Fab. 143 and 274) [1. 84]. Like Prometheus he was the inventor of fire (Paus. 2,19,5), bringer of culture, and judge in the dispute over Argos between Poseidon and Athena (Paus. 2,15,5). He is the subject of the epic Phorōnís ( c. 600 BC) [2; 3; 4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Preller/Robert 2 PEG I, 118-121 3 EpGF, 153-155 4…

Phalantus

(123 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλανθος/ Phálanthos; Lat. Phalant[h]us). Mythological founder of Taranto (Taras; Antiochus of Syracuse FGrH 555 F 13; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 216; Paus. 10,10,6-8 and elsewhere). According to Antiochus l.c., P. founded Taranto as a result of the instruction by the oracle of Delphi after an uprising by the Parthenians, led by him, against Sparta during the first Messenian War had failed; according to Ephorus l.c., the Spartans persuaded the Parthenians to emigrate. However, according to Paus. l.c., Taranto already existed. Apart from that, Paus. 10,13,3 report…

Oebalus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἴβαλος/ Oíbalos, Latin Oebalus). [German version] [1] Spartan king Mythical king of Sparta, son of Cynortas or his son Perieres, husband of Perseus's daughter Gorgophone; she, or the Naiad Batea, is the mother of their children Tyndareos,  Hippocoon and Icarius [1] (various versions in Apollod. 3,116f.; Paus. 3,1,3ff.; schol. Eur. Or. 457 et al.) [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Italic hero Italic hero, son of king Telon of the Teleboae and the nymph Sebethis; mythical ruler of Capreae; ally of Turnus against Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 7,733ff. w…

Pierus

(146 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πίερος; Píeros). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria (Pierides), son of Macedon [1] (Schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). His association with the Muses is evident from alternative genealogies: son of Linus (Suda s.v. Ὅμηρος; Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 47), father of Oeagrus and Calliope [1] (l.c.; Paus. 9,30,4; Suda l.c.). The first to write poetry to the Muses (Plut. De musica 3), he introduced the cult of the nine Muses to Thespiae (Thespia) (Paus. 9,2…

Phthonos

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (φθόνος/ phthónos, Latin invidia). 'Envy, jealousy', particularly what was known as phthónos theôn, the 'jealousy of the gods', which is directed against humans who aspire to transgress the boundaries with the divine (Hybris); (cf. Hdt. 1,32; 3,40 etc.); as a personification P. appears in Eur. Tro. 768 etc. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Navius Attus

(117 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (also Atius Navius). Legendary Roman augur ( augures ) from the period of the monarchy (Cic. Att. 10,8,6), at the time of Tarquinius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 30,70,1). He opposed an attempt to amend the centuriate system (Cic. Rep. 2,36). So as to discredit NA, Tarquinius is said to have tasked him with predicting from the flight of birds whether his plan was feasible. When NA confirmed that it was, Tarquinius ordered him to cut through a stone with a knife, and NA succeeded in doing so (Liv. 1,36,4; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom 3,71,2ff.; cf. also Cic. Div. 1,32). Käppel, Lutz (Kie…

Polytechnos

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολύτεχνος; Polýtechnos). In Antoninus Liberalis 11 (after Boeus, Ornithogonia) the husband of Aedon and father of Itys. In revenge for the violation of her sister Chelidonis by P., Aedon kills their son Itys and serves him for P. to eat. In the end all participants are turned into birds, P. into a woodpecker [1. 87-89]. This is probably the purest form of ancient bird tale, which ultimately found its canonical form with  Tereus, Procne and Philomele (Ov. Met. 6,412-674) [2. 115-119]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. Papathemopoulos (ed.), Antoninus Liberal…

Mulius

(63 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούλιος; Moúlios). [German version] [1] Son-in-law of Augeias of Elis, son-in-law of Augeias, to whose daughter Agamede he is married; he is killed by Nestor (Hom. Il. 11,738ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Herald of Penelope's suitor Amphinomus Herald of Penelope's suitor Amphinomus of Dulichium; he serves the suitors in the house of Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,423). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ploutos

(339 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πλοῦτος/ Ploûtos). Personification of wealth, esp. the wealth of the harvest (cf. also Abundantia, Consus, Copia, Ops [3]). Son of Demeter and Iasion (Hes. Theog. 969-974), conceived in Crete (Hom. Od. 5,125-128). P. assures those who meet him of prosperity. The reference to him in H. Hom. ad Cererem 483-489 is evidence of his prominent role in the Mysteria of Eleusis [1]: after handing over the mysteries to humans, Demeter and her daughter Kore retire to Olympus, sending P. to those they love, to whom he brings blessings and affluence ( ibid. 488f.), apparently in rew…
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