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Cross, Exaltation of the

(359 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (also Triumph of the Cross). The liturgical observance of the Exaltation of the Cross, still celebrated in the Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church on Sep 14, goes back to the veneration of the relics (II, 3) of the cross after the “finding ¶ of the true cross” ( inventio verae crucis) at Calvary in the 4th century. The Itinerarium of the pilgrim Egeria (c. 384) describes an annual feast on Sep 14 in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Anastasis), commemorating the finding and exaltation of the cross at Golgotha. In the l…


(136 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (Gk ὑποδιάκοvος). In the liturgical hierarchy (II, 2) of the Orthodox Church, the subdeacon stands in fourth place: in first place stands the bishop (III, 2); then follow priest/presbyter (Priesthood: III, 2), deacon (VII), subdeacon ( Ipodiakon), reader, psalm singer, baptized laypersons, and, finally, catechumens. The subdeacon assists the bishop serving at the altar in a particular manner. He receives the Eucharist (Communion: III, 3), as do baptized laypersons, before the iconostasis (wall of images). In the worship service today, the subdeacon wears the stoi…

Clothing and Vestments

(3,745 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika | Köpf, Ulrich | Allen Jr., Horrace T. | Schneider, Johann | Miletto, Gianfranco
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. General Clothing fulfills the need for ornamentation and presentation, protection against the weather, and, in certain cases, magic. Appearance and materials follow climatic conditions, economic and technical capabilities (sewing, weaving, etc.), social or fashion conventions, and can be specified according to function (professional attire) or situation (festal attire). Clothing increases the complexity of the optical appearance of its ¶ wearer. It visualizes and makes m…


(387 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Walachia, region in southern Romania divided by the Olt into Greater Walachia (Muntenia) and Lesser Walachia (Oltenia). An extension of the Eurasian Steppe, until well into the modern era Walachia was settled by various steppe peoples. In the context of the Danube Bulgarian Empire (Bulgaria), historical sources also mention Orthodox Vlachs/Walachians (Romanians) in Walachia, canonically under Ochrid or Târnovo. In the 12th century, pagan Cumans ruled Walachia; they were evangelize…


(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…


(133 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] A hierodeacon (Gk ἱεροδιάκονος) is an Orthodox monk (Monasticism: III) who officiates as deacon (VII) during the liturgy of the hours (IV) and the regular liturgy (VI). The number of deacons consecrated as hierodeacons or as hieromonks is limited, because only as many receive ordination (II) as are absolutely necessary for the conduct of the religious service in the monastery church. Like the priest-monks, the deacon-monks hold no elevated rank in the monastery, except during worship…


(277 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] “Ektenia” is derived from Gk ἐκτενής/ ektenḗs, lit. “outstretched, unceasing, fervent” (cf. ¶ Acts 12:5). In Orthodox worship, it designates the intercessions that are sung in antiphonous alternation, in the form of a litany. The deacon (Diaconate: VII) stands in the nave of the church with his (right) hand outstretched, and recites the petitions, whereupon the worshipers or the chorus respond with Kyrie eleison or “Grant [this], O Lord.” The Orthodox liturgy, the hourly prayers as well as other…


(192 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Užgorod (Czech Užhorod, Hung. Ungvár), in western Ukraine, belonged politically to the kingdom of Hungary from the Middle Ages to 1918; it went to Czechoslovakia in 1919 but was returned to Hungary in 1940. It was in the Soviet Union after 1945 and has been in independent Ukraine since 1991. In the conflict between Habsburg pressure for Catholic union and the pressure of the Reformed local rulers of Transylvania for conversion, on Apr 23, 1646, 63 priests of the Orthodox diocese o…


(132 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] A hieromonk (Gk ἱερομόναχος/ hieromónachos) is an Orthodox monk (Monasticism: III) who also serves as a priest (Priesthood: III, 3). Since its beginnings in Late Antiquity, Eastern monasticism has remained fundamentally a separate group within the church, distinct from both clergy (Clergy and laity: I, 2) and laity (III, 2). Therefore the monks allow only as many of their number to be ordained as priests as are absolutely necessary for the liturgy of the hours (IV) and the eucharistic…

Sremski Karlovci

(196 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (Hung. Karlócza), a city on the Danube in Syrmia (Srem), Serbia, a Baroque ecclesiastical center of Orthodox Serbs within the Catholic Habsburg empire. From 1713 to 1920, it was a metropolitan (II) see, autocephalous (Autocephaly) after the abolition of the patriarchate of Peć in 1766. With the help of Russian theologians from Kiev, Sremski Karlovci became an intellectual and theological center (seminary opened in 1774, the first Serbian Gymnasium in 1791). The “national church co…


(222 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Iaşi, a city in eastern Romania. Together with Suceava (Polish: Suczawa), Iaşi was intermittently the seat of the dukes and metropolitans of Moldavia from the 15th century onward, and became their permanent seat at the end of the 16th century. In 1642 a synod met in Iaşi which passed the so-called Confessio Orthodoxa (Articles of Faith: II) of P. Mogila. Iaşi stood under Greek (Phanariot) and partly under Russian influence until the 19th century. The transition to the Romanian-national cultural language was effected in Iaşi around …


(919 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Orthodox Canon Law I. Early Church The metropolitanate is an outgrowth of the emergence of synods, which in the late 2nd century slowly began to develop into the most important regional ecclesiastical authorities (see also Church polity: I, 3.a). As soon as synods began to assemble regularly on a provincial level (Ecclesiastical province), the bishop of the provincial capital acquired new authority, which increasingly became legally codified. At the beginning of the 4…


(168 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Peć, city on the Bistrica in Kosovo. It appears in documents from the early 13th century, when the archbishop of Žiča moved his see to Peć. Tsar Stefan Dushan (1331–1355) of Serbia named Archbishop Janićije I patriarch of the Serbs and Greeks, thus creating the first Serbian patriarchate of Peć, not recognized by Constantinople. The so-called Patriaršija, with the churches of the Holy Apostles (c. 1230), the Theotokos (before 1337), and St. Demetrius (before 1324), still bears witness to the golden age of Serbo-Byzantine art. After 138…


(124 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] from the Greek ἀρχιδιάκονος, is the leader of the deacons in an episcopal see. The archdeacon is attested in East and West from the 4th and 5th centuries on. He is appointed by the bishop and serves as his assistant in the liturgy, in the administration of the diocese, in questions of church discipline, and in care for the poor. The archdeacon re…


(163 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[English Version] Pec´, Stadt am Fluß Bistrica in der serbischen Provinz Kosovo, die urkundlich Anfang des 13.Jh. erwähnt wird, als der Erzbischof von Zˇicˇa seinen Sitz nach P. verlegte. Zar Stefan Dusˇan (1331–1355) erhob Erzbf. Janic´ije I. 1346 zum »Patriarchen der Serben und Griechen« und schaffte damit das von Konstantinopel nicht anerkannte erste serbische Patriarchat P.; die sog. »Patriarsˇija« in P., mit den Kirchen der hl. Apostel (um 1230), der Gottesmutter (vor 1337) und des hl. Demetr…


(165 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[English Version] . Das im Westen der Ukraine gelegene Užgorod (tschechisch Užhorod, ungar. Ungvár) zählte vom MA bis 1918 polit. zum Königreich Ungarn, ab 1919 zur Tschechoslowakei, ab 1940 zu Ungarn, ab 1945 zur Sowjetunion und seit 1991 zur selbständigen Ukraine. Im Konflikt zw. kath. Unionsdruck der Habsburger und dem Konversionsdruck ref. Landesfürsten von Siebenbürgen besiegelten am 23.4.1646 in der Schloßkapelle von U. 63 Priester der orth. Diözese Mukačevo (ukrainisch Mukačivo, ungar.…


(1,444 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[English Version] I. Allgemein 1.Staat. Die Staatsbez. R. (România) leitet sich vom (Dako-)Rumänischen her, das aufgrund seines lat. Ursprungs zur romanischen Sprachfamilie, der Romania, gehört. Der moderne Staat R. mit der Hauptstadt Bukarest (Bucureşti) entstand nach 1859 nördlich der Donau durch die sukzessive Vereinigung und Sezession von sechs relativ selbständigen Provinzen, die mehrheitlich von Rumänen und von anderen Ethnien bewohnt waren. Die seit 1862 vereinigten Fürstentümer der Moldau u…


(143 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[English Version] . In den orth. Kirchen ist der V. (z.T. auch Hilfsbf. genannt) dem Bischof (: II.,2.) einer Eparchie zugeordnet und vollkommen von ihm abhängig. Er erfüllt einzelne, spezifische episkopale Dienste im exklusiven Auftrag und mit der Vollmacht des Ortsbischofs. Seine Weihe entspricht der liturgisch-kanonischen Praxis der orth. Bischofsweihe (: II.) und widerspricht andererseits grundlegend sowohl in kirchenrechtlicher als auch dogmatischer Perspektive dem Wesen und Verständnis des B…

Pfarrer-/Pfarrerinnenaus- und -weiterbildung

(4,859 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Karl-Adolf | Rau, Stefan | Schneider, Johann | Pobee, John
[English Version] I. Altertum und Mittelalter Das NT enthält zwar einzelne auf die Person bezogene Angaben über die Voraussetzung zur Übernahme eines kirchl. Amtes (vgl.1Tim 3,2–13 oder Tit 1,6–9), aber keine Hinweise zur Ausbildung. Da das Evangelium Verstehen impliziert und die Person betrifft, mußte sich die Frage nach der theologischen Ausbildung und spirituellen Prägung derer, die zu seiner öfftl. Weitergabe berufen werden, früher oder später stellen. Darin deuten sich die beiden Pole Bildung und Frömmigkeit an, die spannungsvoll aufeinander bezogen sein wollen. Angehe…


(162 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[English Version] Şaguna, Andrei (Taufname Anastasiu; 1.1.1809 Miskolc – 28.06.1873 Sibiu/Hermannstadt), stammte aus einer aromunischen Kaufmannsfamilie, studierte Jura und Philos. in Pest und besuchte das serbisch-orth. Seminar in Vršac. Seit 1833 Mönch, wurde er 1837 zum Priester, 1848 in Karlowitz zum Bf. der orth. Rumänen in Siebenbürgen geweiht. 1864 wurde er der erste Erzbf. der autonomen rumänisch-orth. Metropolie in Ungarn. Er schuf eine eigenständige Publizistik und erreichte durch die Grü…
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