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Thespis

(238 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θέσπις; Théspis) from Icarium [1] in the Attic deme of Icaria [1. 49], according to one tradition attested on the  Marmor Parium (43) the ‘inventor’ ( prôtos heuretḗs ) of tragedy (TrGF I 1 T 2), according to another (Suda θ 282 = T 1) the sixteenth or second tragedian after Epigenes [0] of Sicyon. Between 535/4 and 532/1, he is supposed to have presented the first tragedy at the great Dionysia in Athens (but cf. [3]) and is considered to be the inventor of theatrical masks (made of linen, T 1). By adding a prologue ( prólogos) and a  rhêsis , he transf…

Antiphellus

(182 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀντίφελλος; Antíphellos). Lycian harbour town, modern Kas̨; it may have originally been named Habesos (Plin. HN 5,100). In the 5th/4th cents. BC, A. belonged to  Phellus, was listed in Ps.-Scyl. 100 as πόλις καὶ λιμήν ( pólis kai limḗn, town and port), and, in the 2nd cent. BC, minted its own coins as an independent polis within the Lycian Confederacy [1; 2]. Municipal offices and institutions reveal Rhodian influence, originating from the Rhod…

Amoibaion

(495 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Generally antiphonal singing (Theoc. 8,31), also dialogue in tragedy (Pl. Resp. 394b), today terminologically established as antiphonal singing in the drama. In the listing of the components of the tragedy in ‘Poetics’ (12,1452b 22) Aristotle differentiates songs for the stage (τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς σκηνῆς) and kommoi as special cases. Whereas in the first instance only the actors are involved (monodies, duets), with the kommoi the collaboration of actors and chorus is decisive. As, however, not all antiphonal singing between choir and actor(s) can be d…

Actus

(559 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Legal action An action, especially a legal action (Dig. 49,1,12) i. a. defining characteristic of   alienatio : omnis a., per quem dominium transfertur, Cod. Iust. 5,23,1. Formal legal actions in accordance with the old   ius civile , e.g. the   mancipatio , are described as acti legitimi. Any added condition renders them ineffective. Additionally, actus can mean a utility (  servitus ), for example the right to drive draught animals and beasts of burden over a plot of land, including the right of way ( iter, Dig. 8,3,1pr.). This actus is a res mancipi, and is obtained i…

Epiparodos

(60 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] The return of the chorus after it had left the orchestra during the performance of a play (μετάστασις χοροῦ; metástasis choroû, cf. Poll. 4,108), as in: Aesch. Eum. 231, 244; Soph. Aj. 814, 866 ; Eur. Alc. 746, 861, Hel. 385, 515, Rhes. 564, 674 ; Aristoph. Eccl. 310, 478.  Parodos Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography O. Taplin, The Stagecraft of Aeschylus, 1977, 377-381.

Epeisodion

(118 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (τὸ ἐπεισόδιον; tó epeisódion, from the adjective ἐπεισόδιος; epeisódios, ‘inserted’). According to Aristot. Poet. 12,1452b 20f. part of a tragedy between two entire chorus parts (that is between the  parodos and the first   stasimon or between two stasima). The term epeisodion is found as a technical term only in the Poetica, other authors speak of a méros or mórion. Aristotle also uses the terminus epeisodion in the Poetica in a more general sense for ‘section’, ‘episode’ (e.g. 17,1455b 13 Aristot. Poet. 17,1455b 2.15.18.27.). In the Old Comedy,…

Pratinas

(743 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Πρατίνας/ Pratínas) of Phlius (in the Peloponnese), according to the Suda π 2230 (TrGF I 4 T 1) the inventor of the satyr play; son of a Pyrrhonides or Encomius (descriptive names: son of a 'red-head' or of 'a member of a - Dionysian - komos'; on the red hair and beards of satyrs cf. Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 7,707,3 and  Soph. Ichn. 358). Two dates are attested for his life: between 499 and 496 he entered a tragedic agon against Aeschylus [1] and Choerilus [2] (T 1); and 467 is a  terminus ante quem for his death: that year his son Aristias [2] entered with plays by P. ('…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Pyrrha

(494 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Πύρρα/ Pýrrha). [German version] [1] Daughter of Epimetheus In Greek mythology daughter of Epimetheus (brother of Prometheus) and Pandora and wife of  Deucalion. She and her husband we…

Meletus

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος; Mélētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, c. 415 B.C. Athenian. In the year 415 BC he was denounced for having participated in the profanation of the mysteries and the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the). He fled from Attica and was condemned to death in absentia (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Possib…

Nothippus

(30 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Νόθιππος; Nóthippos). Athenian tragedian (TrGF I 26), mentioned by the comic poet Hermippus in his Moîrai (prob. performed 430 BC) (Fr. 46 PCG). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Pereus

(37 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Περεύς; Pereús). Son of the Arcadian king Elatus [3] and Laodice; father of Neaera [3] who was the wife of Aleu…

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had …

Theudotus

(32 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Θεύδοτος; Theúdotos). Greek tragedian (TrGF I 157), victorious with the satyr play Palamedes presumably in Magnesia [2] in the 1st cent. BC (DID A 13,5). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Pharadas

(29 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
[German version] (Φαράδας; Pharádas) from Athens; was successful with a satyr play after 85 BC at the Museia in Thespiae (Boeotia) (TrGF I 173). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)

Mamercus

(147 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC (Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos). Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC mentioned in Plut. Timoleon 31,1 (TrGF I 87). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Praenomen Praenomen exclusively used by the Patrician gens of the Aemilii (also used there as a cognomen, but never for freedmen); shortened to Mam.; Greek Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos. First attested for the father of Aemilius [I 25], traced back to M., son of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 8,18f.). The name also occurs in Oscan (Μαμερεκς/ Mamereks) and in Etruscan ( Mamarce, Mamerce, Mamurke, 7th-5th cent. BC) as a praenomen and is derived from the Italian name of the god that is attested in Oscan (dat. Μαμερτει/…
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