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Shtern oyfn dakh

(3,122 words)

Author(s): Gal-Ed, Efrat
Titel des ersten, 1929 in Bukarest erschienenen Bandes von Gedichten Itzik Mangers (1901–1969), die in einer modernistischen Synthese Aspekte der jiddischen und allgemeinen europäischen Kultur in der Inszenierung des Lokalen verbinden. Mangers Werk ist durch einen innovativen Umgang mit Stoffen der jüdischen Tradition gekennzeichnet, deren Inhalte er oft entnationalisierte und in universelle Symbolik überführte. Es entsprach damit der Vision einer jiddischen Moderne, wie sie für einen jiddisch-s…

Rustam b. Farruk̲h̲ Hurmuzd

(214 words)

Author(s): ed.
(thus in al-Ṭabarī; in al-Masʿūdī, b. Farruk̲h̲-zād), Persian general and commander of the Sāsanid army at the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.] fought against the Arabs in Muḥarram 15/February-March 536 or Muḥarram 16/February 637, the battle in which he was killed. His father is described as the ispabad̲h̲ [ q.v.] of K̲h̲urāsān, for which province Rustam was deputy. In the lengthy account by al-Ṭabarī of the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya, derived mainly from Sayf b. ʿUmar, there is much folkloric material, doubdess derived from materials used by the ḳuṣṣāṣ [see ḳāṣṣ ], …

Ibn Ḥamādu

(357 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Ibn Ḥammād ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥammād b. ʿĪsā b. ʿAbī Bakr al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī , a Berber ḳāḍī and historian related to the Banū Ḥammād [ q.v.] and a native of a village near their Ḳalʿa [ q.v.]. After studying at the Ḳalʿa and in Bougie, he was ḳāḍī of Algeciras and Salé (unless there is some confusion on the part of the writer of the Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar (65), who gives him the kunya of Abu ’l-Ḥasan, he was also ḳāḍī of Azammūr in 616/1219), and he died in 628/1231. His Kitāb al-Nubad̲h̲ al-muḥtād̲j̲a fī ak̲h̲bār mulūk Ṣanhād̲j̲a bi-Ifrīḳiya wa-Bid̲j̲āya , whi…

Mad̲j̲maʿ ʿIlmī

(12,288 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J. | Jazayery, M.A. | J. M. Landau | Ed.
(i) Arab countries. Mad̲j̲maʿ , pl. mad̲j̲āmiʿ , lit. “a place of collecting, a place in which people collect, assemble, congregate” (Lane i/2, 459), became in the second half of the 19th century, as mad̲j̲maʿ ʿilmī , a technical term for Academy of Science, mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a being an Academy of [Arabic] language. There is thus a close relationship between both kinds of mad̲j̲maʿ , since the striving for science takes place in an Arabic language made capable of it. Whereas mad̲j̲lis [ q.v.] had been the current term in earlier Arab civilisation for [the place of] an inform…

ʿİtḳnāme

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿi̊ti̊ḳnāme , also ʿi̊tāḳnāme , an Ottoman term for a certificate of manumission, given to a liberated slave [see ʿabd ]. The document normally gives the name and physical description, often also the religion and ethnie origin of the slave, together with the date and circumstances of his manumission, and is dated, signed, witnessed, and registered. The issue of such certificates goes back to early Islamic times (for examples see A. Grohmann, Arabic papyri in the Egyptian library, i, Cairo 1934, 61-4; idem, Arabische Papyri aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin , in Isl

ʿAsas

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Ed. | R. Le Tourneau
, the night patrol or watch in Muslim cities. According to Maḳrīzī the first to carry out this duty was ʿAbdallah b. Masʿūd, who was ordered by Abu Bakr to patrol the streets of Medina by night. ʿUmar is said to have gone on patrol in person, accompanied by his mawlā Aslam and by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf. ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ . ii, 223, cf. Ṭabarī, i, 5, 2742; R. Levy, (ed.) Maʿālim al-Ḳurba , 216; al-G̲h̲azzālī, Naṣīḥat al-Mulūk (ed. Humāʾī, 13, 58). Later the ʿasas was commanded by a police officer, known as the ṣāḥib al-ʿasas (Maḳrīzī, loc. cit.; Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, ii, 73; Nuw…

Mās̲h̲āʾ Allāh

(416 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a phrase occurring in the Ḳurʾān (VI, 128; VII, 188; X, 50; XVIII, 37; LXXXVII, 7; cf. XI, 109-10, LXXII, 8) and widely used in the Islamic lands of the Middle East with the general meaning of “what God does, is well done”. The formula denotes that things happen according to God’s will and should therefore be accepted with humility and resignation. In a cognate signification, the phrase is often used to indicate a vague, generally a great or considerable, but some times a small, number or quantity of time (Lane, Lexicon , s.v., who refers to S. de Sacy, Relation de l’Egypte, 246, 394). One …

Kanbō

(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Kambō , S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲amālī , Suhrawardī Ṣūfī saint of early 10th/16th century Muslim India, who died in 941/1534-5 during the reign of the Mug̲h̲al ruler Humāyūn [ q.v.] and was buried at Mihrawlī. His son Gadāʾī [see gadāʾī kambō, in Suppl.], whom D̲j̲amālī had in his lifetime made his k̲h̲alīfa or spiritual successor within the Suhrawardī order, achieved equal religious influence at the courts of Humāyūn and then Akbar. (Ed.) Bibliography See that to gadāʾī kambō.

Istiḳlāl

(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an Arabic verbal noun, from the tenth form of the root ḳ-l-l . In Classical and Middle Arabic this form is used with a variety of meanings (see Dozy and other dictionaries), and especially to convey the notion of separate, detached, unrestricted, not shared, or sometimes even arbitrary. It occurs occasionally in a political context— e.g., of a dynasty, a region, a people or a city quarter not effectively subject to some higher authority. Such occurrences are, however, rare, and the word was in no sense a political technical term. In Ottoman officia…

Ḥarb b. Umayya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams

(137 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the father of Abū Sufyān and father-in-law of Abū Lahb [ qq.v.], one of the leading figures of Mecca in his day. He is said to have been the first to use Arabic writing, and one of the first to renounce wine. A companion of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, he succeeded him ¶ as war-leader, and led the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams and, according to some traditions, all Ḳurays̲h̲ in the so-called sacrilegious war [see fid̲j̲ār ]. After his death the leadership is said to have passed to the Banū Hās̲h̲im. The story of his contest of merits and subsequent quarrel with ʿAb…

Sonḳor

(112 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sunḳur (t.), one of the many words in Turkish denoting birds of prey. In the modern Turkic languages, and probably always, it means the gerfalcon, falco gyrfalco (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dict. of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 838a). Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī says that it was a raptor smaller than the ṭog̲h̲ri̊l ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, iii, 381). The term became frequently used as a personal name in mediaeval Islamic times, both alone and in such combinations as Aḳ/Ḳara Sonḳor “White/Black Gerfalcon”, cf. J. Sauvaget, Noms et surnoms de Mamelouk

Ayāz

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the Amīr, lord of Hamad̲h̲ān, played an important rôle in the struggles for the throne between the rival Sald̲j̲ūḳ princes Barkiyāruḳ and Muḥammad I. After having first taken the side of the latter, in 494/1100 he went over to the side of Barkiyāruḳ, ¶ and, after the latter’s death, became the Atabeg of his son Maliks̲h̲āh, who was a minor. He could not, however, hold his own against Muḥammad, and was treacherously murdered by him in 499/1105. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 199 ff. Houtsma, Receuil, ii, 90 see also barkiyāruḳ and muḥammad b. maliks̲h̲āh.

Rīf

(2,024 words)

Author(s): Vignet-Zunz, J. | Ed.
(a.), “countryside”. I. As a geographical and territorial term. One sense of this term early emerged from the Egyptian context, where an arid country is traversed by a river with food-producing fringes: the image is that of the fertile (and cultivated) banks of the Nile [see nīl ]. It includes two ideas, that of “fringe” (bank, littoral and, by extension, flank, limit) and that of “fertile countryside”, “abundance” (as opposed to the desert; and, by extension, “countryside” as opposed to the town) (see the lexicon of Lane and Kazimirski). In Morocco, where the natural environment is…

Ahl al-Ḥall wa’l-ʿAḳd

(213 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(this, though illogical, is the normal order of the words), “those who are qualified to unbind and to bind”, the representatives of the community of the Muslims who act on their behalf in appointing and deposing a caliph or ¶ another ruler [see bayʿa]. They must be Muslims, male, of age, free, ʿadl [ q.v.], and capable of judging who is best qualified to hold the office. No fixed number of “electors” is required; according to the prevailing opinion, even the appointment made by one “elector” in the presence of two qualified witnesses is valid. This…

D̲j̲isr

(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. d̲j̲usūr (Ar., cf. Fränkel, Aram. Fremdwörter im Arab historians asArabischen , 285), “bridge”, is more particularly, though by no means exclusively, a bridge of boats in opposition to ḳanṭara [ q.v.], an arched bridge of stone. An incident in the history of the conquest of Babylonia has become celebrated among the Arab historians as yawm al-d̲j̲isr “the day of [the fight at] the bridge”: in 13/634 Abū ʿUbayd al-T̲h̲aḳafī was defeated and slain in battle against the Persians at a bridge across the Euphrates near Ḥīra; cf. Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten ,…

Su

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the common Turkish word for “water”, originally suv (which explains the form suy before vowel-initial possessive suffixes, e.g. suyu “his water”), the form still found in South-West Turkmen, in Ottoman orthography ṣū . The word is found frequently in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions, often in the phrase yer suv = “territory”, i.e. an area containing both land and water in the form of rivers, lakes, etc. (see Sir Gerald Clauson, An etymological dictionary of prethirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 783-4). In Central Asia and in the Turkicised northern tier of the Midd…

Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad, Andalusian mathematician and astronomer (d. 447/1056) known by his surname of Ibn Burg̲h̲ūt̲h̲

(344 words)

Author(s): Ed.
He is cited among the “famous ¶ pupils” of Ibn al-Ṣaffār [ q.v.] by Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, who presents him moreover as very knowledgeable in grammar, Ḳurʾān, theoretical and practical law, and appreciates highly his character and conduct. He mentions as his principal pupils Ibn al-Layt̲h̲, Ibn al-D̲j̲allal and Ibn al-Ḥayy. The first, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was an expert in the field of arithmetic and geometry and devoted himself to astronomical observations, at the same time as performing the functions of ḳāḍī of S̲h̲urriyūn (Surio), in the region of Játiva. …

Wardar

(316 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, the Ottoman Turkish name for the Vardar , Grk. Axios, a river of the southern Balkans. It rises in the Šar Mountains near where Macedonia, Albania and the region of Kosovo meet, and flows northeastwards and then in a southeastern and south-south-eastern direction through the present (Slavic) Macedonian Republic [see maḳadūnyā ], past Skopje or Üsküb [ q.v.] and through Greek Macedonia to the Gulf of Salonica. Its length is 420 km/260 miles. The lower valley of the Vardar probably passed into Ottoman Turkish hands around the time of the first Turkish capture of Salonica in 1387 [see selānīk …

ʿĀriyya

(259 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) or ʿāriya , also iʿāra , the loan of non-fungible objects ( prêt à usage, commodatum ). It is distinguished as a separate contract from the ḳarḍ or loan of money or other fungible objects ( prêt de consommation, mutuum ). It is defined as putting some one temporarily and gratuitously in possession of the use of a thing, the substance of which is not consumed by its use. The intended use must be lawful. It is a charitable contract and therefore "recommended" ( mandūb ), and the beneficiary or borrower enjoys the privileged position of a trustee ( amīn ); he is not, in …

Gulbāng

(177 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Persian word meaning the song of the nightingale, and hence by extension fame, repute, and loud cries of various kinds. In Turkish usage it is applied more particularly to the call of the muezzin [see ad̲h̲ān ] and to the Muslim war-cry ( Allāhu Akbar and Allāh Allāh ). In the Ottoman Empire it was used of certain ceremonial and public prayers and acclamations, more specifically those of the corps of Janissaries [see yeñi Čeri ]. Such prayers were recited at pay parades and similar occasions, at the beginning of a campaign, when they were accomp…

Irāde

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally “will”, a term adopted in Ottoman official usage from 1832 to designate decrees and orders issued in the name of the Sultan. The formal procedure was for draft decrees prepared by ministers and officials to be addressed to the Sultan’s chief secretary ( Serkātib-i s̲h̲ahriyārī ), who read them to the Sultan and received and noted his comments. If he approved, the chief secretary then communicated the text to the Grand Vizier, as the Sultan’s will. Under the constitution, the Sultan’s function was limited to giving his assent to the decisions of the government. The term Irāde

Parendā

(132 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town and fortress, formerly in the native state of Ḥaydarābād, now in the S̲h̲olapur District of Maharas̲h̲tra State of the Indian Union (lat. 18° 16′ N., long 75° 27′ E.) The fortress is attributed, like many of those in the Deccan, to the Bahmanī minister Maḥmūd Gāwān [ q.v.], i.e. to the third quarter of the 9th/15th century, but may well be earlier [see burd̲j̲. III. at vol. I, 1323b]. Parendā was for a short time the capital of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhīs [ q.v.] after the capture of Aḥmadnagar [ q.v.] by Akbar’s forces in 1014/1605, but was conquered by Awrangzīb when he was gove…

al-Lamaṭī

(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ethnic designation stemming from Lamaṭa, a quarter of the Moroccan town of Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, borne in particular by two mystics: 1. Aḥmad al-Ḥabīb b. Muḥammad al-G̲h̲umārī b. Ṣālīḥ al-Ṣiddīḳī (since he traced his genealogy back to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr) al-Ṣid̲j̲ilmāssī , who belonged to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order [ q.v.]; he had numerous pupils, including Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Hilālī [see al-Hilālī in Suppl.] and his cousin through his female relatives, Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak (see below). He died in the odour of sanctity at Sid̲j̲ilmāssa on 4 Muḥarram 1165/23 November 1751. Bibliograph…

al-ʿUdayd

(74 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, a small settlement on the Ḵh̲awr al-ʿUdayd, a creek on the southeastern coast of the Ḳaṭar [ q.v.] peninsula on the southern Gulf shores (iat 24° 33′ N., long. 51° 30′ E.). It lies in the area of the undefined frontier between Ḳaṭar and Abū Ẓaby [ q.v.], one of the constituent shaykhdoms of the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida , in Suppl.]. (Ed.) Bibliography See those to abū Ẓaby and Ḳaṭar.

Ṭorg̲h̲ud Eli

(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of three districts of Anatolia in early Ottoman times. 1. In 699/1299-1300, ʿOt̲h̲mān I b. Ertog̲h̲rul gave his commander Ṭorg̲h̲ud Alp [ q.v.] the district of Inegöl just to the east of Bursa. The name Ṭorg̲h̲ud Eli appears in the early historians ʿĀs̲h̲i̊k-pas̲h̲a-zāde and Nes̲h̲rī, but disappears by the 10th/16th century. 2. A place in the Tas̲h̲li̊ḳ Silifke area on the southern coast of Anatolia in Ḳaramānid times. 3. A place in the steppe lands of Aḳ S̲h̲ehir and Aḳ Sarāy in the hands of the Ṭorg̲h̲ud Bey family during the 9th-10th/15th-16th centuries. (Ed.) Bibliography İA, …

Paṭrīk

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, patriarch, the form found in Ottoman Turkish (see Redhouse, Turkish and English lexicon, s.v.) for the Patriarchs of the Greek Orthodox and Eastern Christian Churches in the empire, of whom by the 19th century there were seven. It stems from the Arabic form biṭrīḳ/baṭrīḳ [ q.v.] “patricius”, confused with baṭriyark/baṭraḳ “patriarch”, also not infrequently found in mediaeval Arabic usage as faṭrak . See G. Graf, Verzeichnis arabischer kirchliche Termini 2, Louvain 1954, 84; C.E. Bosworth, Christian and Jewish religious dignitaries in Mamlûk Egypt and Syria ..., in IJMES, iii (197…

Minangkabau

(239 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or menangkabau, the most numerous of the peoples of the island of Sumatra [ q.v.] in the Indonesian Republic (1980 population estimate, 6 million). They inhabit the Padang highlands of west-central Sumatra, but there are also appreciable numbers of Minangkabau emigrants, including to Negro Sembilan in the Malay peninsula [ q.v.]. Originally under Indonesian cultural and religious influence, as the centre of the Hindu-Malayan empire of Malayu, by the early 17th century much of their land had become Muslim through the influence of the Sultanate of Atjèh [ q.v.] at the northern tip of…

Nīsānids

(105 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Banū Nīsān, the name of a family of ruʾasāʾ (pl. of raʾīs [ q.v.]), of a fabulous richness, who held power at Āmid [see diyār bakr ] in the 6th/12th century under the nominal suzerainty of the Inālid [ q.v.] Turcomans. They even placed their name on coins. Their rule came to an end with the conquest of the town by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn [ q.v.], who accused them of having cultivated the friendship of, and even to have provided assistance for, the Assassins [see Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲iyya ]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, xi, 103, 297 Abū S̲h̲āma, ii, 39 Cl. Cahen, Mouvements populaires, in Arabica, v/3 (1958),…

D̲h̲abīḥa

(90 words)

Author(s): Ed.
means both the sacrifices of a victim and the victim itself. In addition to the religious sacrifices studied in the art. d̲h̲abīḥā , there exist a host of others, meant for special occasions ( dbīḥa in Mag̲h̲ribī Arabic; Berber taməg̲h̲rust ; etc.), which have been treated at length in the art. dam above. On the blood sacrifices practised before the advent of Islam, see in particular ʿatīra and nad̲h̲r , and also J. Chelhod, Le sacrifice chez les Arabes , Paris 1955, and the bibliography cited there. (Ed.)

Filasṭīn

(3,976 words)

Author(s): Ed. | D. Sourdel | P. Minganti
, colloquially also Falasṭīn, an Arabic adaptation of the classical Palestine (Greek Παλαιστίνη Latin Palaestina), the land of the Philistines. The name was used by Herodotus (i, 105; ii, 106; iii, 91; iv, 39) and other Greek and Latin authors to designate the Philistine coastlands and sometimes also the territory east of it as far as the Arabian desert. After the suppression of the Jewish revolts in 70 and 132-5 A.D. and the consequent reduction in the Jewish population the name Syria Palaestin…

S̲h̲uwa

(923 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Kaye, A.S.
(etymology of this name obscure), a group of Arabs, of nomadic origin, found by early modern times (the 19th century) in the central Sudan belt of Africa, now coming within the countries bordering on Lake Chad, sc. western Chad, northeastern Nigeria, northern Cameroons and the southeastern tip of Niger. 1. History. Their origin was in Dārfūr and Wādāy [ q.vv.], and they migrated westwards at an unknown date, perhaps as early as the 14th century; in the 17th century they were present in Bagirmi [ q.v.] to the southeast of Lake Chad as that nation took shape. The earliest arrivals…

Ḏj̲azīra

(146 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), pl. d̲j̲azāʾir , a term which signifies essentially an island and secondarily a peninsula (for example D̲j̲azīrat al-Andalus , Spain; Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab [see al-ʿarab , d̲j̲azīrat-]). By extension, This same word is applied also to territories situated between great rivers (see following article) or separated from the rest of a continent by an expanse of desert; it also designates a maritime country (see Asín Palacios, Abenházam de Cordoba , Madrid 1927-32, i, 291 n. 347) and, with or without a following al-nak̲h̲l , an oasis (see Dozy, Suppl ., s.v.). Finally, with the Ismāʿīlīs d…

al-Muṭahhar b. Ṭāhir (or al-Muṭahhar) al-Maḳdisī

(504 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Naṣr, the otherwise unknown author of an “historical” encyclopaedia called Kitāb al-Badʾ wa ’l-taʾrīk̲h̲ composed at Bust [ q.v.] around 355/966 at the prompting of an anonymous Sāmānid minister. Cl. Huart had the merit of bringing out of oblivion an eloquent piece of work which witnesses to the interest shown in the history of humanity, probably less in regard to actual events than in regard to culture, by mediaeval Muslims. Huart published, on the basis of an Istanbul ms., the Arabic text of this and a Fren…

Bahrām S̲h̲āh

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. tug̲h̲rul s̲h̲āh , the Sald̲j̲ūḳid, was raised to the throne of Kirmān by the Atabeg Muʾayyad al-Dīn Rayḥān in succession to his father on the latter’s death in 565/1170 but soon afterwards had to make way for his elder brother Arslān S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. The two brothers there upon fought with one another with varying success till the death of Bahrām S̲h̲āh in 570/1174-5. (Ed.) Bibliography Afḍal al-Dīn Kirmānī, Badāʾiʿ al-Azmān fī waḳāʾiʿ Kirmān, ed. Muḥammad Mahdī Balzānī, Tehran 1947, 50 ff. Houtsma, Receuil, i, 35 ff. ZDMG, xxxix, 378 ff.

al-K̲h̲arāʾiṭī

(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad b. Sahl al-Sāmarrī , traditionist and man of letters, originally from Surra man raʾā (Sāmarrā; Ziriklī, Aʿlām , vi, 297, makes him a native of Samaria/Sāmira), who was, in particular, the pupil of ʿUmar b. S̲h̲abba [ q.v.]. In 325/937 he went to Damascus and taught there ḥadīt̲h̲ , dying at ʿAsḳalān (at Jaffa, according to Ziriklī) in 327/939 aged ca. 90 years. He left behind several works on ethics and on belles-lettres, one of which has been printed at Cairo in 1350/1931-2, the Kitāb Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāḳ wa-maʿālihā . Othe…

Ḥas̲h̲wiyya

(270 words)

Author(s): Ed.

Nard̲j̲is

(701 words)

Author(s): M. Glünz | Ed.
, the narcissus, in Turkish nergis , in Persian nargis and also ʿabhar (cf. F. Meier, Die schöne Mahsatī , Wiesbaden 1963, i, 251). In classical Arabic, Persian and Turkish poetry the narcissus appears both in descriptions of nature and in erotic poetry. Instances of the narcissus as one of the items of the garden can be found in the exordia of panegyric ḳaṣīdas , in wine and love poetry ( k̲h̲amriyyāt , g̲h̲azaliyyāt ) and, of course, in the specialised genres of garden, flower and spring poetry ( rawḍiyyāt , zahriyyāt , rabīʿiyyāt ). A number of Arab poets, e.g. Ibn al-Muʿtazz and Ibn al-Rūmī [ q.v…

Raʾs al-ʿĀm

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) means New Year’s Day, lit. “beginning of the year”, i.e. 1 al-Ṃuharram. For the difference with Raʾs al-sana, see Lane, Lexicon , s.v. ʿām . Sunnī Muslim law does not prescr…

Ustuwā

(62 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, said to mean “uplands”, a district of mediaeval northern K̲h̲urāsān, comprising the fertile plain, famed for its grain production, through whose western part the Atrek river [ q.v.] flows. The plain lies between the modern Kūh-i Hazār Masd̲j̲id and Kūh-i Bmālūd/…

Saʿīda

(199 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(French form, saїda ), a town of Algeria, the chef-lieu of the department ( wilāya ) of the same name, situated 175 km/108 miles from Oran (Wahrān [ q.v.]) and 95 km/59 miles from Mascara (al-Muʿaskar [ q.v.]), at an altitude of 900 m/2,950 feet. It is on the wādī Saʿīda, in touch with the Causse of Oran (hills of Saïda) and the High Plains, limestone plateaux which form part of the Atlas of the Tells, to ¶ the east of the hills of Ouarsenis (Wans̲h̲arīs). The town had about 30,000 inhabitants and the department about 200,000 in 1987. The region is suitable for raising c…

Liwāṭ

(3,946 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), sodomy. There does exist in Arabic a verb lāṭa meaning “to attach oneself, to join oneself to”, but liwāṭ appears to be rather a maṣdar of lāṭa or lāwaṭa , denominative of Lūṭ [ q.v.], i.e. Lot; in modern Arabic there are also the terms liwāṭa , mulāwaṭa , talawwuṭ , etc., as well as a large number of euphemisms and of dialectical and slang terms. The homosexual is called lūṭī or lāʾiṭ (pl. lāṭa), or mulāwiṭ , when he is the active partner, although the distinction is often difficult to establish; the passive is maʾbūn , and his perversion, ubna ; among the synonyms, the most common is muk̲h̲annat…

al-Muddat̲h̲t̲h̲ir and al-Muzzammil

(204 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the titles respectively of the 74th and 73rd sūras of the Ḳurʾān, derived from the first verse of each one of them which may be translated “O you covered in a cloak!” The first term is the active participle of a form V,

al-Muḳannaʿ

(694 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the nickname given to a person who rebelled in Transoxania during the caliphate of al-Mahdī (158-69/775-85 [ q.v.]) and who hid his face beneath a ḳināʿ

Kitāb Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar

(599 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the title of an anonymous work written to the greater glory of the Berbers of Morocco and al-Andalus, existing in a ms. of the Bibliothèque Générale of Rabat (cote 1020 D). E. Lévi-Provençal published from this, as Fragments historiques sur les Berbères au moyen âgeNubad̲h̲ taʾrīk̲h̲iyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-Barbar fi ’l-ḳurūn al-wusṭā (Collection de textes arabes publiée par l’Institut des Hautes Études Marocaines, i, Rabat 1934), the following extracts: a chapter from Ibn Ḥayyān’s Muḳtabis on the relations of al-Manṣūr Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [ q.v.] with the Berbers of the Mag̲h̲rib (pp. …

Nisba

(3,134 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Sublet, Jacqueline
1. In Arabic morphology In general, the formation of these adjectives is a simple matter, the suffixation taking place directly without modification of the vocalisation or consonantal structure of the nouns to which it is applied: s̲h̲ams “sun”, s̲h̲amsī “solar”; ḳamar “moon”, ḳamarī…

Mawlāy

(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), “my lord”, an honorific title borne by the Moroccan sultans of the S̲h̲arīfian dynasties (Saʿdids and ʿAlawids) who were descended from al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī [see …

ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊

(47,838 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Kramers, J.H. | Zachariadou, E.A. | Faroqhi, Suraiya | Alpay Tekin, Gönül | Et al.
, the name of a Turkish dynasty, ultimately of Og̲h̲uz origin [see g̲h̲uzz ], whose name appears in European sources as ottomans (Eng.), ottomanes (Fr.), osmanen (Ger.), etc. I. political and dynastic history 1. General survey and chronology of the dynasty The Ottoman empire was the territorially most extensive and most enduring Islamic state since the break-up of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate and the greatest one to be founded by Turkish-speaking peoples. It arose in the Islamic world after the devastations over much of the eastern and central lands of the Dār al-Islām

Posta

(106 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ital. posta ), borrowed into Ottoman Turkish and Arabic in the 19th century in the forms p/ bōsta , p/ bōsṭa to designate the new conception of European-style postal services in the Near East. In more recent times, it has been replaced at the formal level by barīd [ q.v.], a revival of the mediaeval Arabic term for the state courier and intelligence services, but būsta / busṭa and

K̲h̲iḍāb

(79 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a term denoting the dyeing of certain parts of the body (and especially, in regard to men, the beard and hair) by means of henna [see ḥinnāʾ ] or some similar substance. It is still used in this sense today, but is used moreover for the items of make-up and cosmetics employed by modern women; the reader may find under marʾa information about those items of cosmetics used by women attached to the traditional usages. (Ed.)

Aytāk̲h̲ al-Turkī

(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(d. 235/849), a K̲h̲azar military slave or g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.] who had been bought in 199/815 by the future caliph al-Muʿtaṣim, and who played an important role in the reigns of his master, of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ and of al-Mutawakkil. At the opening of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s caliphate, he was, with As̲h̲nās, the “mainstay of die caliphate”. After being commander of die guard in Sāmarrā, in 233/847 he was made governor of Egypt, but delegated his powers there to Hart̲h̲ama b. Naṣr (Ibn Tag̲h̲rībardī, Nud̲j̲ūm , ii, 265; al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. Wiet, v, 136). I…

Mawlawī

(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mullā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Tayd̲j̲awzī , a Kurdish poet who composed an ʿAḳīda-nāma and a celebrated dīwān in the Hawrāmī dialect of Gūrānī. He was born ca. 1222/1807 at Tāwagōz in D̲j̲awānrūd and died at Sars̲h̲āta, on the river Sīrwān near Ḥalabd̲j̲a, ca. 1300/1883. (Ed.) Bibliography…

Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊

(127 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), lit. “writer, secretary” < Tkis̲h̲. yaz- “write”, hence the Turkish equivalent of kātib , dabīr and muns̲h̲ī . The term was used in Ottoman times for the clerks in the various government departments, such as the ¶ treasury, with a bas̲h̲ yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ at their head. It could also be used for the secretaries of high court and military officials, e.g. of the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲asi̊ “Chief Eunuch of the Women”, who was also, in the 10th/16th century, in charge of the ewḳāf for the Ḥaramayn, Mecca and Medina, and other great mosques of the empire [see Ḥaramayn , at Vol. III, 175b]. (Ed.) Bibliography Gi…

Dubdū

(845 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(modern spelling Debdou; usual pron.: Dǝbdu, ethn. dəbdūbī , pl. dbādba ), a small town in eastern Morocco, at an altitude of 1,100 m., “at the foot of the right flank of the valley” of the Oued Dubdū “which rises in a perpendicular cliff to a height of 80 m. above the valley”; on a plateau nearby stands the fortress ( ḳaṣba [ ḳaṣaba ]) protected by a fosse on the side facing the mountain; on the left side of the valley lies a suburb named Mṣəllā. A dependency of the ʿamāla (under the administration of the French Protectorate in the region) of Oujda, it is the ce…

al-Kaff

(75 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), verbal noun of the verb kaffa in the sense of “to abstain, desist [from s.th.],” and “to repel [s.o. from s.th.]” (see WbKAS , i, Letter Kāf , 236-9), in a religio-political context refers to the quiescent attitude of some K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite [ q.v.] groups in early Islam, called ḳaʿada “those who sit down”, i.e. stay at home, …

Ṭop

(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the term used in Ottoman Turkish military terminology for cannon, with ṭopd̲j̲u denoting a member of the corps of artillerymen and Ṭopk̲h̲āne being the name for the central arsenal in Istanbul. The Ṭopk̲h̲āne Gate there has given its name, in popular parlance, to the adjacent imperial palace; see ṭopḳapi̊ sarāyi̊ . The word tob

Yūsuf K̲h̲ān Riḍwī

(131 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Mīrzā, Mug̲h̲al commander and governor, d. 1010/1601-2. The son of Mīrzā Aḥmad Riḍwī, he was appointed by the Emperor Akbar ṣūbadār or governor of Kas̲h̲mīr in 995/1586-7. He imposed Mug̲h̲al authority in the Kas̲h̲mīr valley and secured the submission of the Čak [ q.v. in Suppl.] chiefs. Yūsuf K̲h̲ān himself rebelled against the Mug̲h̲als in 1001/1592-3, but came back into favour and in 1003/1594-5 was

Mufaṣṣal

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., lit. “separated”, “hived off”), in Indo-Muslim pronunciation mufaṣṣil , whence the British Indian conventional form Mofussil , an informal term of British Indian administrative usage, attested in British usage from the later 18th century but probably going back t…

Tekālīf

(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of the pl. of the Arabic verbal noun taklīf “the act of imposing something [on someone]”, in this case, taxation. In Ottoman Turkish usage, tekālīf was used in the general sense of taxes, more or less synonymously with other terms like

D̲j̲awānrūd

(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(local Kurdish d̲j̲wānrō ), a district of Persian Kurdistān lying to the west of Mt. S̲h̲āhō, between Avroman (Hawermān [ q.v.]) in the north, S̲h̲ahrizūr in the west, and Zuhāb and Rawānsar in the south and east. The country is generally mountainous and thickly wooded. The valleys are well watered and very fertile, being in effect the granary of the Avroman area.…

Naw Bahār

(129 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a pre-Islamic sacred site and monastery at Balk̲h̲ [ q.v.] in what is now northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, destroyed by the Arab invaders, but famed in early Islamic history as the place of origin of the Barmakī family of officials and viziers in early ʿAbbāsid times, the eponym Barmak having been the head or abbot ( pramuk̲h̲a ) of Naw Bahār. See on the shrine, almost certainly a Buddhist one, …

Fallūd̲j̲a

(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of two districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, Upper and Lower Fallūd̲j̲a, which occupied the angle formed by the two arms of the lower Euphrates which flow finally into the Baṭīḥa [ q.v.], the Euphrates proper to the west (this arm is given various names by the geographers and is now called S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Hindiyya) and the nahr Sūrā (now S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥilla) to the east. (Ed.) Bibliography Suhrāb, K. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-aḳālīm al-sabʿa, ed. H. von Mžik, Leipzig 1930, 124-5 Ṭabarī, index Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 245, 254, 265, 457 Bakrī, index Yāḳūt, s.v. Yaʿḳūbī-Wiet, 140 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, v, 337 A. Musil, T…

Ibn al-Ṣayrafī

(224 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Anṣārī , Andalusian poet, historian and traditionist, born at Granada in 467/1074. He had a profound knowledge of Arabic language and literature, and was a prolific poet, particularly of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥāt . He was kātib of the amīr Abu Muḥammad Tās̲h̲fīn at Granada; but his fame rests on a history of the Almoravid dynasty entitled

Körfüz, Körfüs

(305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(the first spelling in e.g. Pīrī Reʾīs and Rās̲h̲id, the second in Pečewī), the Turkish name for the island of Corfu off the coast of Epirus. Pīrī Reʾīs gives a full account of the island, together with a map, in his Baḥriyye (ed. Kahle, Berlin and Leipzig 1926-7, i, 113-16, No. 54). The Ottomans never succeeded in dislodging from Corfu the Venetians, who controlled it from the opening of the 15th century until 1797, but there were two major Turkish attempts to occupy the island. The first took place in Rabīʿ I 944/August 1537 in the reign of Süleymān the Magnificent. The fleet …

Ḳaml

(997 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lice (the individual louse being ḳamla ; some authorities believe that ḳaml applies only to females and that for males the term is ṣuʾāb , pl. ṣiʾbān , although the latter designates rather the nits). The family to which This hemipterous insect belongs has numerous species, but Arabic does not seem to have distinguished between them, for not even the head-louse ( pediculus capitis) and the body-louse ( p. vestimenti) are treated separately. Although the existence of nits which clung to the skin was known of, the louse was thought to be engendered spontaneously i…

D̲j̲arīma

(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), also d̲j̲urm , a sin, fault, offence. In Ottoman usage, in the forms d̲j̲erīme and d̲j̲ereme , it denoted fines and penalties (see d̲j̲urm). In the modern laws enacted in Muslim countries it has become a technical term for crime ( d̲j̲urm in Pakistan). For the corresponding Islamic concepts, see ḥadd , and for penal law in general, ʿuḳūba . (Ed.)

Tawrīḳ

(81 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the verbal noun from the form II verb warraḳa , literally, “the act of putting forth leaves, branches”, used as a term of art and architecture in the sense of arabesque, pattern of vegetal adornment and decoration. Al-tawrīḳ was taken into mediaeval Spanish usage as ataurique , whence Pedro de Alcala’s definition pintura de lazos morisca, tavrîq (Dozy and Engelmann, Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais dérivés de l’Arabe 2 , Leiden 1869, 214). See further, arabesque. (Ed.)

ʿAmal

(2,071 words)

Author(s): Boer, Tj. de | Gardet, L. | Berque, J. | Ed.
(a.). 1. ʿAmal , performance, action, is usually discussed by the speculative theologians and philosophers only in connection with belief [see ʿilm, īmān] or with ʿilm and naẓar . From Hellenistic tradition was known the definition of philosophy as the "knowledge of the nature of things and the doing of good" (cf. Mafātīḥ , ed. van Vloten, 131 f.). Many Muslim thinkers have emphasised the necessity or at least the desirability of this combination (cf. Goldziher, Kitāb Maʿānī al-Nafs , 54*-60*). But it is the intellectualism of the Greek philosophy, in ethics also, that explains how nine tenths of the philosophers and mystics influenced by it represented action if not of less importance than at least as dependent on knowledge. Plato placed wisdom (σοφία) as first of his cardinal virtues, the Stoics and Neo-Platonists followed him. Aristotle also esteemed theoretical (dianoetic) virtue higher than ethical. This is the do…

Pas̲h̲a Ḳapusu, Wezīr Ḳapusu

(85 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term of ¶ Ottoman administration denoting the building presented by Sultan Meḥemmed IV in 1064/1654 to the Grand Vizier Derwīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a and intended to serve both as an official residence and as an office; after the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] period it became known as the Bāb-i̊ ʿĀlī [ q.v.] or Sublime Porte, and soon came to house most of the administrative departments of the Dīwān-i̊ Hümāyūn [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography M.Z. Pakalin, Osmanli tarih deyimleri ve terimleri sözlügü, Istanbul 1946-54, ii, 757.

al-Aʿs̲h̲ā

(243 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “the night-blind”, is the surname of a number of early Arab poets (17 in all; see al-Āmidī, al-Muʾtalif , 12 ff.; Ag̲h̲āni , index; L.A., s.v.); each of them is connected with a tribe (Aʿs̲h̲ā Banī Fulān) and, apart from the most celebrated of their number, al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bakr (or the Ḳays) [ q.v.] and al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Hamdān [ q.v.], the following are worthy of note: al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Bāhila (ʿĀmir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Riyāḥ) who is included among the aṣḥāb al-marāt̲h̲ī by Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt

Unayf

(91 words)

Author(s): Ed,
b. Dald̲j̲ab. Ḳunāfa al-Kalbī (full genealogy in al-Tabarī, ii, 204, 428, and see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, i, Table 286, ii, 572), tribal chief of the Kalb in Syria [see kalb b. wabara ], fl. in the early part of the 7th century. His son Baḥdal was the father of Maysūn [ q.v.], wife of the Umayyad caliph Muʿāwiya I and mother of Yazīd I, and a strenuous supporter of the Sufyānid cause. (Ed.) Bibliography See also H. Lammens, Etudes sur le règne du calife Moʿâwia Ier , in MFOB, iii (1908), 150.

Ḳardā and Bāzabdā

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ancient districts of Upper Mesopotamia (al-D̲j̲azīra), often mentioned together. The first place derives its name from Bēth Ḳardū, the land of the Carduci, which became Bāḳardā; according to Yāḳūt, s.v., this form is found “in the books”, but the local people say Ḳardā. The district comprised ca. 200 villages, the most notable being al-D̲j̲ūdī and T̲h…

ʿAlawīs

(3,133 words)

Author(s): Terrasse, H. | Ed.
( ʿalawiyya ), the reigning dynasty in Morocco. Morocco at the advent of the ʿAlawid dynasty. When the ʿAlawid S̲h̲urafāʾ [see s̲h̲arīf ] succeeded in asserting their sovereignty over Morocco, the country was rent by a serious political, social and religious crisis. The great movement of maraboutism and xenophobia for which the growth of Ṣūfism and S̲h̲arīfism and the development of the religious brotherhoods had for long paved the ¶ way, and which had manifested itself as early as the 15th century, the period of incursions by Portuguese and Spanish Christians on…

Čobān-Og̲h̲ullari̊

(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a family of derebey s [ q.v.] in Ottoman Anatolia, who controlled the districts ( nāḥiyes ) of Tiyek, Ekbez and Hacılar in the eastern parts of the Amanus Mountains or Gâvur Daği (in the hinterland of Iskenderun [see iskandarūn ] in modern Turkey). They claimed hereditary power in the area from the time of Sultan M…

Ibn al-Wardī

(207 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar , S̲h̲āfiʿī scholar, d. in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 861/September-October ¶ 1457. He is said to be the author of the K̲h̲arīdat al-ʿad̲j̲āʾib wa-farīdat al-g̲h̲arāʾib , a sort of geography and natural history without any scientific value. In spite of the authorities mentioned in the introduction (al-Masʿūdī, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, al-Marrākus̲h̲ī), the K̲h̲arīda is merely a plagiarism of the Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-funūn wa-salwat al-maḥzūn of Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān b. S̲h̲abīb al-Ḥarrānī al-Ḥanbalī, who lived in Egypt circa 732/1332. The work has neverth…

D̲j̲imat

(22 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Malay), an amulet, more particularly a written amulet. The word is of Arabic origin = ʿazīma [see Ḥamāʾil ]. (Ed.)

al-Mug̲h̲ammas

(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a valley near to Mecca, a short distance from the road to al-Ṭāʾif, cited, especially in old poetry, because the tomb of Abū Rig̲h̲āl [ q.v.] was traditionally located there. The correct reading of the toponym is not however certain, with variation between al-Mag̲…

Medḥī

(608 words)

Author(s): Ambros, E.G. | Ed.
, the pen name ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) used by a number of Ottoman poets whose poetry is known to date mainly through the samples found in med̲j̲mūʿa s and ted̲h̲kire s. Judging by these, they are all poets of secondary importance at best. Two should be singled out. 1. Maḥmūd Efendi of Gelibolu (Gallipoli), known as Ḳara Maḥmūd (or Ḳara Ḳāḍī-zāde according to Beyānī). A mülāzim of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Abu ’l-Suʿūd Efendi [ q.v.], he first became a müderris . After being dismissed from a position with a daily salary of forty aḳče s, he was appointed in 984/1576 to the S̲h̲āh Ḵh̲ūbān medrese

Wayhind

(103 words)

Author(s): Ed,

Iskandar Ḵh̲ān b. D̲j̲ānī Beg

(137 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ruler in Transoxania, from his capital Buk̲h̲ārā, of the Turco-Mongol S̲h̲ībānid [ q.v.] or Abu ’l-Ḵh̲ayrid dynasty, ruled 968-91/1561-83. Iskandar was in fact a weak and ineffective ruler. Real power was in the hands of his son ʿAbd Allāh, who had shown his ability against rival families in Transoxania as early as 958/1551 and who became the greatest of the S̲h̲ībānids; after his father’s death he was to reign unchallenged for a further sixteen years [see ʿabd allāh b. iskandar…

Ṣawm

(2,273 words)

Author(s): C.C. Berg-[Ed.]
(a.), with Ṣiyām , maṣdar from the root s-w-m; the two terms are used indiscriminately. The original meaning of the word in Arabic is “to be at rest” (Th. Nöldeke, Neue Beiträge zur sem. Sprachw ., Strassburg 1910, 36, n. 3; see previously, S. Fränkel,

Mutaḳārib

(73 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the name of the fifteenth metre in Arabic prosody [see ʿarūd ]. It comprises, in each hemistich, four feet made up of one short and two longs ( faʿūlun ). A certain number of licences are possible, in particular, the omission of the fourth foot, the shortening or even the cutting out of the third syllable of a foot, etc. (Ed.) Bibliogr…

Sarāparda

(88 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p., lit. “palace-curtain”), the term applied in the sources for the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳs to the great tent carried round by the sultans, regarded, with the čatr or miẓalla [ q.v.], as one of the emblems of sovereignty. It is described in such sources as Rāwandī, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn and Ibn Bībī as being red, the royal colour, and as having internal curtained compartments forming rooms. (Ed.) …

Ḳubbe Wezīri

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.) “vizier of the dome” was the name given, under the Ottomans, to the members of the imperial Dīwān ( dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.]) who came together on several mornings each week around the Grand Vizier in the chamber of the Topkapi Palace called Ḳubbe alti̊ because it was crowned by a dome. The

D̲j̲āndār

(266 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or D̲j̲andār, the name given to certain guards regiments serving the great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and subsequent dynasties. Attached to the royal household, they provided the sovereign’s bodyguard, and carried out his orders of execution. Their commander, ¶ the amīr d̲j̲āndār , was a high-ranking officer; some of them are reported as becoming atābaks [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Rūm, they formed an élite cavalry guard, and wore their swords on a gold-embroidered baldric. At the accession of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn K…

al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ

(469 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic term for a man whose foot-joints can be heard cracking when he walks, but often found as a proper name in the first days of Islam and particularly among the Tamīmīs; the last to bear this name seems to have been al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. Ḍirār al-Tamīmī, chief of police for ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], governor of Kūfa from 132/750 to 147/764 (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, ii, 465; al-Ṭabarī, iii, 131, 347). Among those who bore this name, apart from al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr [see the fo…

Idrīs b. al-Ḥusayn

(185 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Abī Numayy , Abū ʿAwn , S̲h̲arīf of Mecca in the early 11th/17th century. He was born in 974/1566, and became S̲h̲arīf and governor of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in 1011/1602-3 after his brother Abū Ṭālib and in conjunction with his nephew Muḥsin. This division of power ended, however, in a fierce internal family dispute, apparently over Idrīs’s retinue and followers (

al-ʿAbbās b. Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn

(452 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, eldest son of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn [ q.v.]. When the latter set off for the conquest of Syria, he entrusted the government of Egypt to al-ʿAbbās, his designated heir, but al-ʿAbbās was very soon persuaded to take advantage of his father’s absence to supplant him. Warned by the vizier al-Wāsiṭī, Ibn Ṭūlūn got ready to return to Egypt, and his son, after having emptied the treasury and got together considerable sums of money, went off with his partisans to Alexandria, and then to Barḳa. As soon as he got back…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v…

Rayda

(311 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Rīda, Rēda) is the name of a number of places in ʿAsīr, in the Yemen and in Ḥaḍramawt. The word rayd (pl. aryād/ruyūd ) means a ledge of a mountain, resembling a wall, or a resting upon ledges of mountains (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). At least in Ḥaḍramawt, it is the term for the centre of the territory of a Bedouin tribe, which is generally a depression in the rocky plateau (D. van der Meulen and H. von Wissmann, Hadramaut , some of its mysteries unveiled, Leiden 1932, 22, n. 1). There are several places of this name ( Rēda) in Hadramawt: Raydat al-Ṣayʿar, Raydat Arḍayn, Raydat al-ʿIbād, Raydat …

Ḥarīm

(623 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also ḥaramgāh , zanāna , etc.), a term applied to those parts of a house to which access is forbidden, and hence more particularly to the women’s quarters. In ancient Arabia women seem to have enjoyed some measure of personal freedom, though the use of the veil was not unknown, especially in towns. It became commoner after the advent of Islam, with the adoption, on the one hand of a stricter code of sexual morality, on the other of a more urban way of life. The provisions of t…

al-T̲h̲ag̲h̲rī

(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Abū Saʿīd Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Ṭāʾī, ʿAbbāsid commander of the middle decades of the 3rd/9th century, who presumably derived his professional nisba from service along the Byzantine frontiers ( t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr

Sīdī Ballā

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh Ibn ʿAzzūz al-ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī …

al-Musabbiḥāt

(70 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “those which give praise”, the name given to the group of Ḳurʾānic sūras from the middle Medinan peirod, LVII, LIX, LXI, LXII, LXIV, so-called because they begin with the phrase sabbaḥa or yusabbiḥu li ’llāh . The designation seems to be old; cf. Muslim, Zakāt , trad. 119. See further, Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 186, 245, ii, 45; and ḳurʾān , 7, towards the end. (Ed.)

K̲h̲afḍ

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or k̲h̲ifāḍ (a.), female excision, corresponding to the circumcision of boys ( k̲h̲atn or k̲h̲itān [ q.v.], terms which may be applied equally to both sexes). There is no mention of it in the Ḳurʾān, but more or less authentic ḥadīt̲h̲ s attest to the practice in pre-Islamic Arabia and in a certain measure justify it. Tradition attributes to the Prophet the expression muḳaṭṭiʿat al-buẓūr “cutter of clitorises”, and the following words addressed to Umm ʿAṭiyya, id̲h̲ā k̲h̲afaḍti ( k̲h̲afatti

al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī

(430 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥamd (> Aḥmad ) b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb Abū Sulaymān al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī al-Bustī , traditionist of S̲h̲āfiʿī tendencies and poet, who is said to have been a descendant of Zayd b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb, brother of ʿUmar, but this genealogy has been questioned. Born at Bust in 319/931, he travelled throughout the Muslim world, from K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania to ʿIrāḳ and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, “in search of learning” and also engaged in trade; he studied, particularly in Bag̲h̲dād, with famous teach…

Göksun

(78 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, also Göksün , a small town in south-eastern Turkey, the ancient Kokussos, W. Armenian Gogi̊son, now the chef-lieu of an ilçe of the vilâyet of Maraş, pop. (1960) 3697. It is the ‘Cocson’, ‘Coxon’, where the army of the First Crusade rested for three days in the autumn of 1097 (see A

Malang

(280 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(etymology uncertain: not Pand̲j̲ābī, possibly Persian; in Urdu, malangi , masc. = “salt worker”, fem. = “loose, wanton woman”), a term used in Muslim India, including in the Pand̲j̲āb but also in the Deccan, to denote wandering dervishes of the Ḳalandarī, bī-s̲h̲arʿ or antinomian type [see ḳalandar , ḳalandariyya ]. D̲j̲aʿfar S̲h̲arīf [ q.v.] at one place of his Ḳānūn-i Islām puzzlingly names their founder as D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Buk̲h̲ārī, Mak̲h̲dūm-i D̲j̲ahāniyān-i D̲j̲ahāngas̲h̲t [ q.v.], and at another, as D̲j̲amand̲j̲atī, a disciple of Zinda S̲h̲āh Madār ( Islam in India, ed. W. C…

Fad̲h̲laka

(101 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, sum, total, from the Arabic fad̲h̲ālika , “and that [is]”, placed at the bottom of an addition to introduce the result. Besides its arithmetical use, the term was also employed for the summing up of a petition, report, or other document, as for example for the summarized statements of complaints presented at the Dīwān-i humāyūn [ q.v.]. By extension it acquired the …

Marḥala

(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
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