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Abū Fuṭrus

(156 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, the Arabic name for the ancient Antipatris, which is to be sought for in the Wādi ’l-ʿAwd̲j̲āʿ, perhaps in Ḳalʿat Raʾs al-ʿAin. The shorter form ,,Fuṭrus" is also met with for the town. Usually, however, Nahr Abī Fuṭrus (also Nahr Fuṭrus, by Abū Nuwās) is meant, which properly designates the Wādī (Nahr al-ʿAwd̲j̲āʾ) that flows by the town. Here Marwān II rested on his flight to Egypt from Damascus in the year 132 (750), and shortly afterwards the town was the scene of the butchering of 72 or 80 Umaiyads (comp. Theophanes, Chronographia, ed. de Boor, i. 427, who certainly has the same …

ʿAbd Allāh

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
b. al-ʿAbbās, surnamed Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, cousin of the Prophet. His birth is said to have taken place when the Has̲h̲imides were blocked in al-S̲h̲iʿb, a couple of years before Muḥammed’s emigration to Medina. According to al-Buk̲h̲ārī, he and his mother had already been converted before his father al-ʿAbbās [see al-ʿabbās b. ʿabd al-muṭṭalir] accepted the Islamic faith. But this is doubtlessly a pleasant fiction invented either by himself or by others. He began to come into prominence under ʿOt̲h̲mān. The caliph, to whom, according to his own state…

Alilat

(222 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, according to a much discussed but very doubtful passage in Herodotus, is the name of an Arabian goddess. As deities of Arabia in iii. ch. 8 he mentions Dionysos, called Opatal by the Arabs, and Urania (i. e. Aphrodite Urania), whom they name “Alilat”. On the other hand he says (i. ch. 131), that Aphrodite Urania is called Mylitta by the Assyrians, and “Alitta” by the Arabs. Hence the question arises, which form is the correct one. Blochet proposes to change Alilat to Alidat; but it is just as …

Koran

(15,904 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, the, ( al-Ḳurʾān), the sacred book of the Muḥammadans contains the collected revelations of Muḥammad in a form fixed by committal to writing. 1. Even among Muslims there is no unanimity regarding the pronunciation, derivation and meaning of the word. Some pronounced it Ḳurān without hamza and saw in it a proper noun not occurring elsewhere, like tawrāt and ind̲j̲īl or they derived it from ḳarana, to tie together. Others rightly began with ḳorʾān with hamza and explained it either as an infinitive in the sense of a past participle or as an adjective from ḳaraʾa, to collect. It is really v…

Abraha

(758 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
(Ethiopic form for Abraham) with the surname al-As̲h̲ram, an Ethiopian governor of Yemen about the middle of the 6th century C. E. According to Procopius, who makes him out to have originally been the slave of a Roman in ¶ Adulis, he put himself at the head of an uprising against the Ethiopian king (Ela Aṣbeḥa) and took prisoner the then governor of Yemen, Esimiphaeus, the Sumaifaʿ of the inscription of Ḥiṣn al-G̲h̲urāb. He repeatedly defeated the army sent out against him; but after the death of the king he submitted to the payment …

ʿAḳrabāʾ

(133 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
is the name of two localities: 1. A place on the frontier of Yamāma, famous for the bloody battle in which Musailima and the Banū Ḥanīfa were defeated by Ḵh̲ālid. In its neighbourhood was a grove ( ḥadīḳa), surrounded by a wall and, before this battle, known by the name of “Raḥmān’s garden”; later on it was called “garden of death”. Bibliography Ṭabarī i. 1937—1940 Belād̲h̲orī (ed. de Goeje) p. 88 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am ii. 226 iii. 694. 2. A place of residence of the G̲h̲assānide princes in Ḏj̲awlān; it is probably identical with the present ʿAḳrabāʾ in the province of Ḏj̲ēdūr. Bibliography Yāḳūt, Muʿ…

Abū Ḏj̲ahl

(385 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, properly Abu ’l-Ḥakam ʿAmr b. His̲h̲ām b. al-Mug̲h̲īra, also named Ibn al-Ḥanẓalīya after his mother, an influential Meccan of the illustrious ḳorais̲h̲ite family of Mak̲h̲zūm. According to one anecdote he was of about the same age as the Prophet. The traditions concerning him possess but little historical value; in any case it is evident from them that he was one of Muhammed’s most embittered opponents amongst the aristocrats of Mecca. He eagerly took part in all conferences against the Proph…

ʿĀd

(524 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, an ancient tribe frequently mentioned in the Ḳorʾān. Its history may be learned only from sporadic indications; it was a mighty nation that lived immediately after the time of Noah, and which became haughty on account of its great prosperity (Ḳorʾān, vii. 67; xli. 14). The large edifices of the ʿĀdites are spoken of in Ḳorʾān, xxvi. 128 et seq.; comp. lxxxix. 5-6 the expression „ʿĀd, Iram of the pillars“, where Iram may designate either a tribe or a place. According to Korʾān, xlvi. 20, the ʿĀdites inhabited al-Aḥḳāf (the sand downs). The prophet sent to them, their „brother“ Hūd,…

Abū Sufyān

(1,018 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
(or Abū Ḥanẓala) Ṣak̲h̲r b. Ḥarb b. Umaiya, of the Ḳorais̲h̲ite family of ʿAbd Manāf, a leader of the aristocratic party in Mecca hostile to Muḥammed. According to the usual statement regarding his death (see below), he was a few years older than Muḥammed, according to others, however, he was ten years older. Abū Sufyān was a rich and respected merchant, who repeatedly led the great Meccan caravan. Like most of the great merchants he took up a hostile attitude to the movement brought about by Muḥammed,…

Afāmiya

(107 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
or Fāmiya, the ancient Apamea, situated near great swamps in the Orontes valley. The city, important in the time of the Seleucides, was conquered and devastated in 540 by the Persian king Ḵh̲osraw. After the capture of Ḥimṣ (Emesa) Afāmiya surrendered to Abū ʿUbaida and since then played no special part. A terrible earthquake in 1152 changed it in a heap of ruins, which show still now the site of the former city and above which towers only the old Ḳalʿat al-Muḍīḳ. (F. Buhl) Bibliography Belād̲h̲orī (ed. de Goeje), p. 131 Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 322-323 iii. 846-847 E. Sachau, Reise in Syrien und…

Ad̲j̲nādain

(275 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
(or Ad̲j̲nādīn), a town in Palestine between Ramla and Bait Ḏj̲ibrīn (comp. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 137, according to Abū Ḥud̲h̲aifa: „in the region of Ramla, in the territory of Bait Ḏj̲ibrīn“; al-Bakrī, ed. Wüstenf., i. 72: „in the province of Urdunn, but according to others in that of Filasṭīn, between Ramla and Ḏj̲ibrīn“; Ṭabarī, i. 2125: „a balad between Ramla and Bait Ḏj̲ibrīn“; Nawawī, ed. Wüstenf., p. 430). From Ṭabarī’s mode of expression (i. 2408) Ad̲j̲nādain seems to have been a fortress. In Ḏj̲umādā I 13 (July 634) according to others, in Ḏj̲…

Ad̲h̲riʿāt

(236 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, the Biblical Edrei, now Derāʿā in the East-Jordanic country. The town, mentioned by Imruʾ al-Ḳais (lii. 19), was in 613 or 614 so thoroughly destroyed by the Persians — who vanquished the Byzantines in the vicinity — that it was never afterwards perfectly reëstablished. The Jewish tribe Naḍīr, driven by Muḥammed from Medina, moved to this town. The statement (Belād̲h̲orī, p. 68) that the inhabitants of Ad̲h̲riʿāt submitted to Muḥammed when he stayed in Tabūk, is apparently based upon a mistake…

ʿAḳīl

(271 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
b. Abī Ṭālib was a brother of ʿAlī; for a long time he refused to believe in the message of Muḥammed. In the battle of Bedr he fought on the Mecca side (according to accounts of later date he did so in spite of himself, cp. Nawawī, ed. Wüstenf., p. 427); he was taken prisoner, but was soon ransomed by al-ʿAbbās (cp. the account in Ṭabarī i. 1344 et seq., which was omitted by Ibn His̲h̲ām, Yaʿḳūbī, ed. Houtsma p. 46). Later on, after the conquest of Mecca, — according to others already after the agreement of al-Ḥudaibiya (cp. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba ii. 1175) — he embraced Islām and went to Medīna. …

ʿAbd Allāh

(271 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, Muḥammed’s father. Tradition has handed down but little concerning him, and this little consists of worthless legends. Al-Kalbī gives the 24th year of Anūshirwān’s reign as the year of his birth. That he was the finest of Ḳorais̲h̲ites is self evident. The well-known story of his father’s vow to sacrifice one son if he had ten, and of the rescue of ʿAbd Allāh on whon the lot had fallen, makes ʿAbd Allāh the youngest son notwithstanding the fact that his brother ʿ Abbās was but little older than Mu…

ʿAkkā

(548 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
is the present name of the ancient ʿAkko, called Ptolemais by the Greeks, a port on the west coast of Palestine. ʿAkkā was captured by the Arabs under S̲h̲uraḥbīl b. Ḥasana. Muʿāwiya had the town rebuilt, as it had suffered a great deal in the wars with the Byzantines. He also caused dockyards to be built in ʿAkkā, which afterwards were removed to Tyre by Caliph His̲h̲ām. At a later period Ibn Ṭūlūn had the harbour surrounded by large stone embankments; Muḳaddasī, whose grandfather was the arch…

Milla

(319 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
(a.), religion, rite. However obvious it may be to connect this word with the Hebrew and Jewish-and Christian-Aramaic milla, mella, “utterance, word”, it has not been satisfactorily proved how and where it received the meaning which is taken for granted in the Ḳurʾān: religion or rite. Nor is it known whether it is a purely Arabic word or a loanword adopted by Muḥammad or others before him (Nöldeke, Z. D. M. G., lvii. 413 seems to hold that it is Arabic for he refers to the 4th form amalla or amlā “to dictate”). In the Ḳurʾān it always means (even in ¶ the somewhat obscure passage, Sūra xxxviii…

Abū Bekr

(1,825 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
ʿAbd Allāh, with the surname of ʿAtīḳ, variously interpreted by tradition, the first caliph. It is not related why he was given the surname of Abū Bekr (i. e. „father of the camel’s foal“), which his enemies mockingly twisted into Abū Faṣīl („father of the weaned young of a camel“). His father ʿOt̲h̲mān, also called Abū Ḳuḥāfa, and his mother Umm al-Ḵh̲air Salmā bint Ṣak̲h̲r both belonged to the Meccan family of Kaʿb b. Saʿd b. Taim b. Murra. According to the current account, Abū Bekr was three years …

ʿĀd

(637 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, an ancient tribe, frequently mentioned in the Ḳurʾān. Its history is related only in sporadic allusions. It was a mighty nation that lived immediately after the time of Noah, and became haughty on account of its great prosperity (vii, 69; xli, 15). The edifices of the ʿĀdites are spoken of in xxvi, 128 f.; cf. in lxxxix, 6-7 the expression: "ʿĀd, Iram of the pillars" [see iram d̲h̲āt al-ʿimād ]. According to xlvi, 21, the ʿĀdites inhabited al-Aḥḳāf [ q.v.], the sand dunes. The prophet sent to them, their "brother" Hūd [ q.v.], was treated by them just as Muḥammad was later treated by …

ʿAkkā

(524 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, the Acco (ʿAkkō) of the Old Testament, the Ptolemais of the Greeks, the Acre of the French, town on the Palestinian seaboard. ʿAkkā was captured by the Arabs under the command of S̲h̲uraḥbīl b. Ḥasana. As the town had suffered in the wars with the Byzantines, Muʿāwiya rebuilt it, and constructed there naval yards which the Caliph His̲h̲ām later transferred to Tyre. Ibn Ṭūlūn constructed great stone embankments round the port; al-Maḳdisī, whose grandfather executed the work, gives an interestin…

Māriya

(784 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F.
, a Copt maiden, according to one statement, daughter of a man named S̲h̲amʿūn, who was sent with her sister Sīrīn by the Muḳawḳis [ q.v.]in the year 6 or 7/627-9 to Muḥammad as a gift of honour (according to another authority there were four of them). The Prophet made her his concubine, while he gave Sīrīn to Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit [ q.v.]. He was very devoted to her and gave her a house in the upper town of Medina, where he is said to have visited her by day and night; this house was called after her the mas̲h̲raba of the mother of Ibrāhīm. To the great joy of the Prophet,…
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