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Ibn (al)-Zabīr

(326 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Kat̲h̲īr ʿAbd Allāh b. (al-) Zabīr b. al-As̲h̲yam al-Asadī , Arabic poet of the 1st/7th century. He became a writer of panegyrics of the local Umayyads and wrote particularly, in an entirely classical manner, in praise of Asmāʾ b. K̲h̲ārid̲j̲a: but he did not hesitate to address praises to the Zubayrids after Muṣʿa b. al-Zubayr, who had seized Kūfa, had treated him leniently when his supporters had arrested him; it was, so to speak, as a private person that he wrote a hid̲j̲āʾ against ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, who had treated badly his own brother ʿAmr, a friend of the poet. According to the Ag…

al-Mug̲h̲ayyabāt al-K̲h̲ams

(165 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “the five mysteries, things concealed in the unseen”, a technical term of Islamic theology. These are regarded as known to God alone as part of His prescience ¶ and foreknowledge of all aspects of nature and human acitivity (cf. H. Ringgren, Studies in Arabian fatalism, Uppsala 1955, 86 ff.; and al-ḳaḍāʾ wa ’l-ḳadar ). These are usually identified with the five things known to God as expounded in the Ḳurʾān, XXXI, 34: the hour of the Last Judgment [see al-sāʿa ]; when rain will be sent down; what is in the womb (i.e. the sex and number of children); what a man will gain…

Demi̇rbas̲h̲

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally iron-head, a Turkish term for the movable stock and equipment, belonging to an office, shop, farm, etc. In Ottoman usage it was commonly applied to articles belonging to the state and, more especially, to the furniture, equipment, and fittings in government offices, forming part of their permanent establishment. The word Demirbas̲h̲ also means stubborn or persistent, and it is usually assumed that this was the sense in which it was ¶ applied by the Turks to King Charles XII of Sweden. It is, however, also possible that the nickname is an ironic comment o…

Müstet̲h̲na Eyāletler

(125 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), literally, “excepted, separated”, denoting those provinces of the Ottoman empire separated from the “normallyadministered” ones of the Anatolian and Rumelian heartland. In the heyday of the empire (10th-12th/16th-18th centuries) these usually comprised such provinces as Ṣaydā, Aleppo, Bag̲h̲dād. Baṣra, Mawṣil, Ṭarābulus al-G̲h̲arb, Beng̲h̲azi, Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen, i.e., essentially those of the more recentlyconquered Arab lands. Since the feudal system of tīmārs and ziʿāmets hardly existed there, taxation from these regions was collected by a local office, müfred ül…

Mungīr

(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventional form Monghyr, a town of Bihar in the Indian Union, situated on the south bank of the Ganges in lat. 25° 25’ N. and 86° 27’ E, and at an important communications point between Bengal and the middle Ganges valley. It is also the administrative centre of a District in the province of Bihar of the same name. Said to have been founded in Gupta times, Muḥammad Bak̲h̲tiyār K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī [ q.v.] was its first Muslim conqueror when he raided into Bihar in 589/1193. It subsequently became a place of military and administrative importance, with a fortress built in…

Sumatra

(175 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, after Borneo [ q.v.] the second largest island of the Malay Archipelago and the westernmost island (area 473,606 km2/182,859 sq. miles). In pre-Islamic times, the kingdoms in Sumatra were strongly Hinduised in culture and religion (Buddhism and Śivaist Brahmanism). Islam had appeared in Sumatra by the end of the 14th century, since Marco Polo in 1292 mentions the northern Sumatran ports of Perlak (as Ferlec), Samudra (from which the name Sumatra probably derives; Marco calls the island “Java the Lesser”) and Lambri…

Big̲hʾ̲āʾ

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the Ḳurʾānic term (XXIV, 33) for prostitution. “Prostitute” is rendered by bag̲h̲iyy (pl. bag̲h̲āyā ), mūmis (pl. -āt , mayāmis/mayāmīs , mawāmis/ mawāmīs ), ʿāhira (pl. ʿawāhir ), zāniya (pl. zawānīs ). etc.; a more vulgar term, although we have here a euphemism, is ḳaḥba (pl. ḳiḥāb ), which the lexicographers attach to the verb ḳaḥaba “to cough”, explaining that professional prostitutes used to cough in order to attract clients. Although M. Gaudefroy-Demombynes ( Mahomet 2, Paris 1969, 48) saw in the legend of Isāf and Nāʾila [ q.v.] the “reminiscence of sacred prostitution”, no…

Miskawayh

(1,667 words)

Author(s): Ed. | M. Arkoun | ed.
, philosopher and historian who wrote in Arabic, born in Rayy around 320/932. His full name was Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb, which seems to refute Yāḳūt, who describes him as “Mazdaean converted to Islam”, whereas it was probably one of his ancestors who was converted. Miskawayh (Miskōye/Mus̲h̲kōye), and not Ibn Miskawayh as he is commonly designated, performed the tasks of secretary and librarian under the viziers al-Muhallabī (340-52/950-63) [ q.v.], Abu ’l-Faḍl (353-60/951-70) and Abu ’l-Fatḥ (360-6/970-6) [see ibn al-ʿamīd ] and finally under the Būyid …

Taḳdīr

(2,637 words)

Author(s): Levin, A. | Ed,
(a.), verbal noun of the form II verb ḳaddara , used variously as a technical term. 1. Grammatical usages. (a) The predominant meaning of taḳdīr is “the imaginary utterance which the speaker intends as if he were saying it, when expressing a given literal utterance”. This definition needs some elucidation. In this meaning, taḳdīr is a grammatical technical term belonging to the terminology of one of the main theories of Arabic grammar, which we may call here “the theory of taḳdīr”. Since Arabic texts on grammar do not include any systematic discussion of this theory, its pr…

K̲h̲alīfa b. ʿAskar

(317 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Libyan nationalist who, after having sought refuge in Tunisia, hastened from November 1914 onwards to assume leadership of the revolt fomented by the Sanūsīs [ q.v.] against Italian domination. The rebels soon achieved some spectacular successes against the Italians [see lībiyā ], and K̲h̲alīfa speedily attempted to raise the Tunisians against France. On 16 August 1915, in a letter to the head of the postal service in Dehibat (southern Tunisia), he called upon the latter to send back to him his family, which had …

Tōlā

(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a weight used in India (Skr. tulā , Hindi tōlā “balance, scales”) for both gold and silver. In earlier times, 1 tōlā = 96 rattīs , the rattī being the old Indian unit of weight, according to E. Thomas = 1.75 ¶ grains. In British India, by a regulation of 1833, the tōlā of 180 grains, being also the weight of the rupee [see rūpiyya ], was established as the unit of the system of weights, with 3,200 tōlās = 1 man or maund. (Ed.) Bibliography Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 2London 1903, 928. See also makāyil. 2. and its Bibl.

Kāwah

(535 words)

Author(s): Ed.
transliteration according to the EI rules of the name of a person who is supposed to have played an important rôle in the Iranian epic, in Persian Kāveh< Kāvag̲h̲, in Arabic Kāwah, Kāwī, Kābī. This person was a blacksmith who, after having had his son put to death by the tyrant Zohak (in Arabic, al-Ḍaḥḥāk; see zuhāk ), raised the population of Iṣfahān against the usurper, taking as a banner his leather apron, which as the drafs̲h̲-i Kāwiyān became the Iranian national flag. Having thus brought about the fall of Zohak, he set up Farīdūn [ q.v.] on the throne and was himself nominated comman…

Niẓām

(128 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the honorific title which became characteristic of the rulers of the Indo-Muslim state of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], derived in the first place from the fuller title Niẓām al-Mulk borne by the Mug̲h̲al noble Ḳamar al-Dīn Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān [see niẓām al-mulk ], who became governor of the Deccan in 1132/1720 and ¶ who also bore the title of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh. The process of the identification of the title Niẓām with the rulership of Ḥaydarābād was strengthened by the long reign there (1175-1217/1762-1802) of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh’s fourth son Niẓām ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, and …

al-T̲h̲aʿālibī

(147 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Mak̲h̲lūf al-D̲j̲azāʾirī, Abū Zayd, Mālikī theologian and Ḳurʾānic scholar of North Africa (786-873/1384-1468). Born in Algiers, he studied in the eastern Mag̲h̲rib and Cairo, and made the Pilgrimage, before returning to teach in Tunis, where he died. His main work is a Ḳurʾānic commentary, al-Ḏj̲awāhir al-ḥisān fī tafsīr al-Ḳurʾān (printed Algiers 1323-8/1905-10), but he wrote several other works on aspects of the Ḳurʾān, on the Prophet’s dreams, on eschatology, etc., most of them still in manuscript. (Ed.) Bibliography Aḥmad Bābā al-Tinbuktī, Nayl…

Ḥumayd b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(148 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-Ṭūsī , ʿAbbāsid general who was chiefly responsible for the victory of al-Maʾmūn over Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī; he died, poisoned, in 210/825. His generosity and his magnificence were celebrated by several poets, in particular by ʿAlī b. D̲j̲abala [see al-ʿakawwak ]. His sons, themselves poets though producing little (see Fihrist , Cairo ed. 235), became in their turn patrons, eulogized in particular by Abū Tammām and al-Buḥturī. Muḥammad b. Ḥumayd, sent against Bābak [ q.v.] and killed in 214/829, was lamented by Abū Tammām, over whose tomb his brother Abū Nahs̲h̲al er…

Ibn Ẓāfir

(307 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī Manṣūr Ẓāfir b. al-Ḥusayn al-Azdī , Egyptian chancery secretary and man of letters, born in Cairo in 567/1171. He was the pupil of his father, who was a teacher at the Mālikī madrasa al-Ḳumḥiyya, and eventually succeeded him. He was next employed in the chancery of al-ʿAzīz (589-95/1193-8), then in that of al-ʿĀdil (596-615/1200-18), and finally in that of the latter’s son, al-As̲h̲raf (d. 635/1237), at Damascus. In 612/1215, he gave up his office a…

Maslama b. Muk̲h̲allad

(407 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. al-Ṣāmit al-Anṣārī , Abū Maʿn or Saʿīd or ʿUmar ), Companion of the Prophet who took part in the conquest of Egypt and remained in the country with the Muslim occupying forces. Subsequently, loyal to the memory of ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān and hostile to ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, whose accession to the caliphate he had not recognised (see al-Ṭabarī, i, 3070), he opposed, with Muʿāwiya b. Ḥudayd̲j̲ [ q.v.], the arrival of Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr [ q.v.] who, having had a hand in the murder of the third caliph, had been appointed governor of Egypt, and it is probable that he was involve…

Umm al-Samīm

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, an extensive, low-lying area of quicksands and salt-flats ( sabk̲h̲a [ q.v.]) in the interior of ʿUmān and on the fringes of the "Empty Quarter" [see al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī ], centred on lat. 21° 50′ N. and long. 56° E. It spans the undefined border beween the Sultanate of Oman and the easternmost part of Saudi Arabia. To the north and east of Umm al-Samīm lie the territories of the mainly Ibāḍī G̲h̲āfirī tribe of al-Durūʿ or al-Dirʿī and the Sunnī tribe of ʿIfār [ q.vv.]. (Ed.) Bibliography See those to al-durūʿ, al-ʿifār and al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī.

Tunisia

(25,019 words)

Author(s): Brunschwig, R. | Hafedh Sethom | Ammar, Mahjoubi | Chapoutot-Remadi, Mounira | Daghfous, Radhi | Et al.
, a region of the northeastern part of the Mag̲h̲rib. In mediaeval Islamic times it comprised essentially the province of Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.]. Under the Ottomans, the Regency of Tunis was formed in the late 10th/16th century, continuing under local Beys with substantial independence from Istanbul until the establishment of the French Protectorate in 1881, which in turn gave way in 1957 to the present fully independent Tunisian Republic. I. Geography, Demography and Economy . (a) Geography. Tunisia, situated between 6° and 9° degrees of longitude east, and between 32° and 37…

Bā Ḥmād

(363 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Moroccan grand vizier whose real name was Aḥmad b. Mūsā b. Aḥmad al-Buk̲h̲ārī. His grandfather was a black slave belonging to the sultan Mawlāy Sulaymān (1206-38/1792-1823), whose ḥād̲j̲ib he had become [see Ḥād̲j̲ib in Suppl.]. His father likewise became Ḥād̲j̲ib to Sayyidī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (1276-90/1859-73), and then became grand vizier during the reign of Mawlāy al-Ḥasan (1290-1311/1873-94); he enjoyed a miserable reputation, but his immense fortune allowed him to connect his name with the Bāhiya palace in Marrākus̲h̲, …
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