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(652 words)

Author(s): Ed. | G. R. Tibbetts
(a.), also aṣbaʿ , “finger”, as a measurement of length the breadth of the middle joint of the middle finger, conventionally one twenty-fourth of the cubit, d̲h̲irāʿ . See d̲h̲irāʿ, penultimate paragraph and bibliography. (Ed.) In Arab navigational texts

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Anṣārī

(228 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿalī b. mūsā b. ʿalī b. arfaʿ (Rāfiʿ) rāsuh al-andalusī al-ḏj̲ayyānī (515-93/1121-97), a preacher of Fez, and member of a family of whom one person (Ibn Arfaʿ Rāsuh) is mentioned in the 5th/11th century at Toledo as a composer of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥāt (Ibn al-K̲h̲aṭīb has preserved ten examples in his D̲j̲ays̲h̲ al-taws̲h̲īḥ , Nos. 49-58; cf. S.M. Stern, Les chansons mozarabes, Palermo 1953, 43-4; E. García Gómez, Métrica de la moaxaja y métrica española , in al-And ., xxxix (1974), 25). ʿAlī b. Mūsā’s fame rests on a poem in 1,414 verses (rhyme -ṭā , metre ṭawīl ) on the…


(51 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), lit. “the one sitting on the [sheep’s] skin”, the title given to the baba or head of a dervish tekke in Persian and Ottoman Turkish Ṣūfī practice, e.g. amongst the Bektās̲h̲īs [see bektās̲h̲iyya ]. (Ed.) Bibliography J.K. Birge, The Bektas̲h̲i order of dervishes, London 1937, 57 n. 2, 269.…


(134 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of Ar. mufattis̲h̲ , lit. “one who searches out, enquires into something”. In the Ottoman legal system of the 12th/18th century, below the Great Mollās [see mollā ] there was a layer of five judges called müfettis̲h̲ , whose duties were to oversee and enquire into the conducting of the Imperial ewkāf or pious foundations [see waḳf ], three of them being resident in Istanbul and one each in Edirne and Bursa (see Gibb and Bowen, ii, 92). In the 19th century, and with the coming of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] reforms, müfettis̲h̲ was the designation for the overseers an…


(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a right-bank affluent of the Greater Zāb river [see Zāb ], which drains the kūra of Nak̲h̲la, to the east of Mawṣil; locally, it is called Barrīs̲h̲ū. It was on the banks of this river that there took place, on 10 Muḥarram 67/6 August 686, a decisive battle between Ibrāhīm b. Mālik al-As̲h̲tar [ q.v.] and ʿUbayd Allāh b. Ziyād [ q.v.]. After having suffered a defeat at ʿAyn Warda [ q.v.], ʿUbayd Allāh made for ʿIrāḳ with his army, but was intercepted by the forces of Ibn al-As̲h̲tar, who was fighting in the name of al-Mūk̲h̲tār [ q.v.]. According to tradition, ʿUmayr b. al-Ḥu…

Muʾnis Dede Derwīs̲h̲

(125 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Ottoman Ṣūfī poet of Edirne in the early 12th/18th century. His birth date is unknown, but he was a Mewlewī murīd at that order’s Murādiyya convent in Edirne, where he received his instruction from the famous s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Enīs Red̲j̲eb Dede (d. 1147/1734-5). He himself died of plague in Edirne in 1145/1732-3 and was buried in the convent. His dīwān of poetry was praised by early authorities as being good, but has not survived. (Ed.) Bibliography Fatīn, Ted…

Ibn Muḥriz

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb muslim (or Salm, or ʿAbd Allāh) b. Muḥriz , famous musician and singer of Mecca, who lived in the 1st-2nd/7th-8th centuries. A mawlā of Persian origin of the ʿAbd al-Dār b. Kusayy and the son of a sādin of the Kaʿba, he was first the pupil of Ibn Misd̲j̲aḥ [ q.v.], and then of ʿAzzat al-Maylāʾ [ q.v.], going to Medina to receive lessons from her; he then completed his musical education in Persia and Syria, where he studied Greek music. He is said to have later chosen what seemed best to him from these different musical traditions and i…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a. pl. ruʾūs / arʾus ), “head”, in geography the common word for “cape” (cf. Latin caput → cape), but it is also used with the meaning of “headland, promontory”. The Musandam Peninsula in ʿUmān is sometimes called Raʾs Musandam, while the small territory occupying the northern tip of the Peninsula is called Ruʾūs al-D̲j̲ibāl “the Mountain tops”. Raʾs Tannūra [ q.v.], the terminal of pipelines in eastern Saudi Arabia, derives its name from the tip of a small peninsula, at which the modern port is situated. In the name Raʾs al-K̲h̲ayma [ q.v…

(al-)Murtaḍā b. al-ʿAfīf

(242 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( = ʿAfīf al-Dīn?) b. Ḥātim b. Muslim al-Maḳdisī al-S̲h̲āfīʿī. the author of a work in Arabic on ancient Egypt of which the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris once possessed a ms. of the 10th/16th century, now lost, but of which there exists a French translation by the translator of al-Makīn [ q.v.], Pierre Vattier (d. 1667), and published at Paris in 1666 under the title L’Égypte de Murtadifils du Gaphiphe , il est traité des Pyramides , du débordement du Nil et des autres merveilles de cette Province , selon les opinions et traditions des Arabes . This version, in its…


(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in the northeastern part of the mediaeval Indian province of Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.], lying to the east of modern Pat́an. It is mentioned in the history of the Muslim sultans of Gud̲j̲arāt as a pilgrimage centre much revered by the local Hindus but sacked in ca. 816/1414 by Sultan ¶ Aḥmad I b. Tātār K̲h̲ān, who destroyed the temples there and imposed the d̲j̲izya or poll-tax on the inhabitants. (Ed.) Bibliography M. Habib and K.A. Nizami (eds.), A comprehensive history of India. V. The Delhi Sultanate ( A.D. 1206-1526), Delhi etc. 1970, 853-4.

Ibrāhīm b. al-As̲h̲tar

(399 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, son of the famous Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Nak̲h̲aʿī [see al-as̲h̲tar ] and himself a soldier attached to the ʿAlid party. It is said that he had already fought at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] in the ranks of ʿAlī, but his historical importance is based on his action in support of al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.]. In fact he seems to have hesitated before joining the agitator, and the chroniclers themselves consider that it was necessary for the latter to forge a letter which purported to be written by Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyya to Ibrāhīm before the latter agr…


(300 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Sid̲j̲ilmāssī , Moroccan scholar who owned his nisba to Ibrāhīm b. Hilāl (d. 903/1497; see Brockelmann, S II, 348), the ancestor of a family of intellectuals in Sid̲j̲ilmāssa. He was born in that town in 1113/1701, and began his studies there, going on to Fās for them, and then returning to the Tāfilālt, where he gathered round himself numerous pupils. He also obtained id̲j̲āzas from various eastem scholars on the occasions of two pilgrimages. He died at Madag̲h̲ra (Tāfilālt) on 21 Rabīʿ I 1175/20 October 1761. Al-Hilālī owed his fame …


(46,769 words)

Author(s): Rabin, C. | Khalafallah, M. | Fück, J.W. | Wehr, H. | Ed. | Et al.
arabic language and literature. Al-ʿarabiyya , sc. lug̲h̲a , also lisān al-ʿarab , is: The Arabic language in all its forms. This use is pre-Islamic, as is shown by the appearance of lās̲h̲ōn ʿărāb̲h̲ī in third-century Hebrew sources, arabica lingua in St. Jerome’s Praefatio in Danielem this probably is also the sense of lisān ʿarabī ( mubīn ) in Ḳurʾān, xvi, 103 (105); xxvi, 195; xlvi, 12 (11). (2) Technically, the Classical Arabic language (Cl. Ar.) of early poetry, Ḳurʾān, etc., and the Literary Arabic of Islamic literature. This may be distinguished from ʿarabiyya in the wider sense as al…


(342 words)

Author(s): Ed.
was in the middle ages the name of the village now called La-Garde-Freinet, lying in a gap in the Mt. des Maures (département of Var, France). This locality only finds a place in this Encyclopaedia because it was occupied for 80 years by Muslim pirates who had come from Spain between 278-81/891-4. Having gained a footing in the gulf of Saint-Tropez, they occupied a natural fortress (Fraxinet, Freinet) near the modern village of La-Garde-Freinet; “soon reinforced by new groups from the Iberian peninsula, the invaders visited the county of Fréjus with fire and the sword, ¶ and sacked the ch…


(1,154 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic orthography of the Turkish word il, more correctly él , which has undergone a wide semantic development (see Radloff, Versuch ..., i, 803-5, 1471). (1) It is defined by V. Thomsen as signifying, in its numerous occurrences in the Orkhon inscriptions: “un peuple ou une réunion de peuples considerés comme formant un tout indépendant et organisé et ayant à sa tête un kagan” ( Inscriptions de l ’Orkhon déchiffrées , Helsingfors 1896, 135), and thus approximately “empire”. In this sense it often appears in conjunction with the word budun (? read boδ un), “confederation of tribes”, or…


(572 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh , a Muʿtazilī of the Bag̲h̲dād branch and a native of Samarḳand. The date of his birth is unknown, but he is known to have reached a great age and to have died in 240/854. He began life as a tailor, and his parents prevented him from continuing his studies, but Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Ḥarb [ q.v.] took him under his care and initiated him in the Iʿtizāl . Possessing a lively intelligence, knowledge of many subjects, and a lofty moral sense, he enjoyed the esteem and respect of al-Muʿtaṣim, who seems to have used him as …


(52 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a plain in eastern Anatolia through which the Murad Su, sc. the more southerly of the two upper arms of the Euphrates, flows in one part of its course between Malazgird and Muş, hence now in the modern Turkish il or province of Muş; see further, al-furāt . (Ed.)

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Battī

(333 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, aḥmad b. ʿalī , poet and littérateur, originally from al-Batt in ʿIrāḳ (Yāḳūt, i, 488), who was a member of the staff of al-Ḳādir’s chancery (reigned 381-422/992-1031). When the future caliph had in 381/991 to flee from al-Ṭāʾiʿ, al-Battī had already been in his service, since it was with him that al-Ḳādir sought refuge. Hence as soon as he succeeded to the caliphate, he appointed al-Battī to his dīwān , where he was in charge of the postal service and of intelligence. A Muʿtazilī in theology and a Ḥanafī in fiḳh , he had previously specialised in study of the Ḳurʾān and ḥadīt̲h̲


(545 words)

Author(s): Ed.
is one of the Turkish forms of the name Muḥammad which, having been borne by the Prophet of Islam, is by far the commonest used name in the Islamic world. Independent of the modifications which it may undergo from the influence of the speech habits of allophonic groups and the phonetic structure of languages other than Arabic, this name has undergone, in spite of—and perhaps because of—the veneration which it inspires, various deliberate modifications on the part of sincere Muslims who hold fast to what exactly respects the …


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, “the rearwards region”, conventionally Dhahirah, the name given to the interior, landwards part of ʿUmān, that lying behind the D̲j̲abal Ak̲h̲ḍar range and merging into the desert fringes of the Empty Quarter [see al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī ]. The term al-Ẓāhira contrasts with that of al-Bāṭina, the coastlands of ʿUmān. The religious and political history of this “inner ʿUmān”, and its social and cultural development, with local Ibāḍī elements mingled with Sunnīs, have frequently diverged from that of the Sultanate…
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