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Rafsand̲j̲ān

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town of Kirmān province, central Persia (lat. 30° 25ʹ N., long. 56° 00ʹ E., altitude 1,572 m/5,156 ft.), situated on the Yazd road 120 km/74 miles to the west of Kirmān city. It is the cheflieu of a s̲h̲ahrastān or district of the same name. Known also as Bahrāmābād, in 1991 it had an estimated population of 87,798 ( Preliminary results of September 1991 census, Statistical Centre of Iran, Population Division). Its chief claim to fame is as the home of the present (1993) head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran “President and Prime Minister” ʿAlī Akbar Hās̲h̲imī Rafsand̲j̲ānī. (Ed.) Bibli…

Berberi

(46 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name given to the eastern Hazāra inhabiting the mountainous region of central Afg̲h̲ānistān between Kābul and Harāt; in Irān, the region of Mas̲h̲had, Balūčistān (near Quetta), and in the S.S.R. of Turkmenistān, the oasis of Kus̲h̲ka (district of Maki) [see hazāra ]. (Ed.)

Ibn

(943 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(A.), son. The Arab grammarians and lexicographers, who tend to trace all words to three root elements, generally attribute ibn to a root *b.n.w. ¶ and consider that it derives from a hypothetical *banaw un by loss of the 3rd sonant radical. Others state that the root is b.n.y. and that the word ibn comes from the verb banā / yabnī ʿalā “set up [a tent] on”, and, by extension, “marry”. In reality, we have an ancient Semitic biliteral, which is nevertheless triliteralized in the relative adjective banawī and in the abstract noun bunuwwa . The fern, bint , formed with the fem. indicator -t, has a ri…

Rāʾiḳa

(74 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a slave singing-girl ( ḳayna [ q.v.]) in the earliest days of Islam. She is mentioned as being in the poetry and music-making circles of Medina in ʿUt̲h̲mān’s caliphate, i.e. the middle years of the 7th century A.D., and as being the teacher ( ustād̲h̲a ) of the celebrated singer ʿAzza al-Maylāʾ [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ag̲h̲ānī 1, xvi, 13=3xvi, 162 H. G. Farmer, A history of Arabian music, London 1929, 46, 54, 147.

Sulaymāniyya

(1,807 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Ed.
, a town and district in southern Kurdistān, since the Ottoman reconquest of ʿIrāḳ from the Ṣafawids in the 11th/17th ¶ century under nominal Ottoman suzerainty, and since the aftermath of the First World War in the kingdom and then republic of ʿIrāḳ. The town lies in lat. 35° 32′ E. and long. 45° 27′ N. at an altitude of 838 m/2,750 feet, and is 90 km/54 miles east of Kirkūk [ q.v.], to which it is connected by road. The historical region of Sulaymāniyya lies between what is now the ʿIrāḳ-Persia frontier, the Diyāla [ q.v.] and its upper affluents the Tand̲j̲aru and Sīrwān, the region of …

Ism

(2,578 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), name. In Arabic-Islamic usage the full name of a person is usually made up of the following elements: 1) kunya; 2) ism; 3) nasab ) ; 4) nisba . A certain number of persons are also known by a nickname ( laḳab ) or a pejorative sobriquet ( nabaz ) which, when the name is stated in full, cornes after the nisba. From the end of the 3rd/9th century, the use of an honorific before or after the kunya became more and more frequent with persons of some importance. 1) The kunya [ q.v.], usually a name compound with Abū (“father of”) or Umm (“mother of”): Abu ’l-Faḍl, Umm al-Ḥasan. ¶ 2) The ism , also cailed ʿalam

Wisām

(218 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. awsima ), in modern Arabic usage a decoration, order, medal or badge of honour. The roots w-s-m and w-s̲h̲-m mean basically “to mark, brand [an animal]”, an important feature of nomadic life when ownership of beasts like horses and camels had to be determinable. For this idea of branding, marking, in Arabic desert life, see wasm. In the old Turkish nomadic society, tamg̲h̲a had a similar sense of “tribal mark or emblem”. In the modern Turkish pronunciation damga it is used for government revenue stamps, ministerial seals for validating govern…

K̲h̲aṭṭ

(17,690 words)

Author(s): Sourdel-Thomine, J. | Alparslan, Ali | M. Abdullah Chaghatai | Ed.
(a.), writing. i.—In the Arab world. The Arabic writing used, according to tradition, as early as the lifetime of Muḥammad, for setting down the sacred text of the Ḳurʾān, subsequently underwent a diffusion corresponding to the expansion of the Islamic faith and to the development of the Islamic civilisation in which it came to full fruition. A script of alphabetic and phonological type, belonging to the vast family of Semitic scripts, it shows in this capacity the characteristics of a consonantal script, with vocalisation signs added in the form of …

Istind̲j̲āʾ

(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, purification incumbent upon the Believer after the fulfilment of his natural needs. This practice, which is described in detail, is obligatory (recommended only according to Abū Ḥanīfa) and must be carried out either immediately, or before performing the ṣalāt or any other act which requires a state of ritual purity. (Ed.) Bibliography All the works of fiḳh, ik̲h̲tilāf, etc. deal with this subject in the chapter on ṭahāra similarly G̲h̲azālī, Iḥyāʾ, in the same chapter (iii = 22 of Bousquet’s analysis).

Ṭabaristān

(132 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, in northern Persia, the name for the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, comprising both the narrow coastal plain region and the steeply-rising mountainous interior of the Elburz chain. It was bounded in mediaeval Islamic times by Gīlān and Daylam on the west and by Gurgān on the east. The name Ṭabaristān enshrines a memory of the ancient people of the Τάπυροι, but received a popular etymology as “land of the axe ( ṭabar )” because woodcutting was an activity in this heavily-wooded region. Ṭabaristān ( nisba , al-Ṭabarī) was the designation for the region up …

Ulu Dāg̲h̲

(110 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, modern Turkish Ulu Dağ, a small but imposing mountain range in northwestern Anatolia, to the south-east of Bursa [ q.v.] and now in the il or province of Bursa. It is some 32 km/20 miles by 13 km/8 miles in extent, and its forest-clad slopes rise to a peak of 2,493 m/8,170 feet (lat. 40° 05′ N., long. 28° 58′ E.), the highest point of western Anatolia. It is the classical Mysian Olympus, but its more modern fame is as a winter ski resort. (Ed.) Bibliography Sir Wm. Ramsay, The historical geography of Asia Minor, London 1890, 146 Naval Intelligence Division, Admiralty Handbooks, Turkey, London 19…

Čāwdors

(95 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(or Ḏj̲āvuldur ), a Turcoman tribe, the first settlers of which came to Ḵh̲wārizm in the 16th and 17th centuries, the bulk following in the 18th century. After the wars against the Ḵh̲ānate of Ḵh̲īwa, a proportion of them was driven off to the Mangi̊s̲h̲laḳ peninsula, whence some clans emigrated to the steppes of Stavropol’. Part of the tribe submitted to Ḵh̲īwa and settled permanently in Ḵh̲wārizm. It is now a sedentary tribe with a population of ¶ some 25,000, in the Nuk̲h̲us area (Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Ḳara-Ḳalpaḳistān). [See: Türkmen ]. (Ed.)

Pend̲j̲ik

(124 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t., from Persian pand̲j̲ yak “fifth”), a term of Ottoman Turkish financial and administrative usage. It denoted the fifth which the sultan drew as the ruler’s right (equivalent to the Arabic k̲h̲ums [ q.v.in Suppl.]) from booty captured in the Dār al-Ḥarb . This involved, in particular, the collection of young boys from the Christian Balkans and Greece by the process of the dews̲h̲irme [see devs̲h̲irme ], and these were then trained for either palace or military service as the ḳapi̊ ḳullari̊ ; the official in charge of the process of thus extracting the sultan’s fifth was termed the pend̲j̲i…

Ibn Zūlāḳ

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, (or zawlāk ), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. Ibrāhīm … al-Layt̲h̲ī , born 306/919, died 386/996, Egyptian historian, the author of a number of biographical, historical and topographical works on Egypt in the time of the Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īdids and early Fāṭimids. These works, though almost entirely lost, underlie a good deal of subsequent historiography relating to this period. He is said to have written continuations to the works of al-Kindī [ q.v.] on the governors and judges of Egypt, a book on the Mād̲h̲arāʾī [ q.v.] family of officials, and others on the reigns of the Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd, Kāfū…

Rōhtāsgaŕh

(128 words)

Author(s): ed.
, a hill fortress and settlement in the S̲h̲āhābād District in the northeast of the state of Bihar in the Indian Union (lat. 24° 37′ N., long. 83° 55′ E.), some 50 km/30 miles south of the town of Sahsārām [ q.v.]. There must have been a Hindu fort or settlement there previously, but the present fortifications date from its capture by S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh Sūr [ q.v.] in 946/1539. They were added to by Akbar’s general Mān Singh [ q.v.] when he was appointed governor of Bihār and Bengal. It was surrendered to the British army in Bengal soon after the battle of Baksar (Buxar [ q.v.]) in 1764 through the effor…

ʿAmr b. Kirkira

(151 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, abū mālik al-aʿrābī , mawlā of the Banū Saʿd, had learnt the ʿarabiyya in the desert and had settled at Baṣra. Since his mother had married Abu ’l-Baydāʾ [ q.v.], he acted as rāwiya to this last, but he owed his fame to his incomparable knowledge of the Arabic language, since, according to an oft-mentioned tradition, he knew it in its entirety, whereas al-Aṣmaʿī had only one-third of it, Abū ʿUbayda (or al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad) half of it and Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (or Muʾarrid̲j̲) two-thirds of it. His speciality was rare words. Abū Mālik was allegedly the author of at least two works, a K. K̲h̲alḳ al-…

Zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(t.), the title of one of the three commanders who formed the dīwān or administrative focus of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman army (the other two being the S̲h̲amsund̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ and the Turnad̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊). Since zag̲h̲ar means “hound” and zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊ “keeper of the hounds”, the orta or company of the zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊s (no. 64 in the Janissary corps) was probably in origin part of the hunting force of the early Ottoman sultans (cf. also the Segbāns [ q.v. in Suppl.]). (Ed.) Bibliography İ.H. Uzunçarşili, Osmanli devleti teşkilâtindan kapi kulu ocaklar, Ankara 1943-4, i, 19…

Rukn

(1,111 words)

Author(s): ed. | Haq, S. Nomanul
(a.), pl. arkān , literally “corner (as in al-rukn al-yamānī = the southeastern corner of the Kaʿba), support, pillar”. The singular rukn occurs twice in the Ḳurʾān, in XI, 82/80, when Lot seeks for support in a strong rukn, pillar, or, figuratively, a leader or chief; and in LI, 39, where Pharaoh and his support, rukn, i.e. retinue, reject Moses. 1. In religious and legal usage. Here, it is commonly found in the expression arkān al-dīn or arkān al-ʿibāda , denoting the basic “pillars” of religion and religious observance. These so-called “pillars of …

Ḍamān

(481 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), in Islamic law, the civil liability in the widest meaning of the term, whether it arises from the non-performance of a contract or from tort or negligence ( taʿaddī , literally “transgression”). Prominent particular cases are the liability for the loss of an object sold before the buyer has taken possession ( ḍamān al-mabīʿ ), for eviction ( ḍamān al-darak ), for the loss of a pledge in the possession of the pledgee ( ḍamān al-rahn), for the loss of an object that has been taken by usurpation ( ḍamān al-g̲h̲aṣb ), and for loss or damage caused by artisans ( ḍamān al-ad̲j̲īr , . al-ṣunnāʿ

Is̲h̲āra

(1,661 words)

Author(s): Ed. | P. Nwyia
(a.), “gesture, sign, indication”, has acquired in rhetoric [see badīʿ ] the technical meaning of “allusion” but, in its early connotation, a gesture of the hand, a sign of the head, of the elbow, the eyes, the eyebrows etc., is considered by al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ ( Bayān , i, 80; Ḥayawān , i, 33), together with speech, writing, nuṣba and computation on the fingers [see ḥisāb al-ʿaḳd where other gestures to indicate numbers are also dealt with], as one of the five methods by which a man may express his thoughts [see bayān ]. Whether combined with words or not, a gesture ( is̲h̲āra and also īmaʾ
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